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Lorenzaccio, Musset - Fiche de Lecture - Acte par Acte. Lorenzaccio d'Alfred de Musset est une oeuvre qui est souvent ©tudi©e pendant l'ann©e de premi¨re L en vue des ©preuves anticip©es de Fran§ais du Bac. Facebook. Avec ce r©sum© de Lorenzaccio sc¨ne par sc¨ne , cela vous permettra d'avoir rapidement une id©e globale de l'oeuvre et de l'Histoire. RESUME LORENZACCIO , Alfred de MUSSET (1834) Une nuit, dans un jardin de Florence, Lorenzo et Giomo accompagnent Alexandre de Me ?dicis. Chiang. Ils attendent une belle jeune fille que le duc a paye ?e pour aller avec lui au bal de Nasi. Facebook. Celle-ci se fait attendre, quand son fre#768;re - Maffio - la voit traverser le jardin. Essay. Inquie ?te ? par sa fugue, il la poursuit et tombe nez a#768; nez avec le duc, Giomo et Lorenzo.
Il leur demande ce que cela signifie. Cassandra. Il les menace de rapporter les faits au duc puis les attaque a#768; l’e ?pe ?e. Biography. Rapidement contro#770;le ?, il apprend qu’il s’agit du duc en personne. Facebook. Ils ache#768;tent son silence et repartent. A travers les conversations des passants (le marchand, l’orfe#768;vre, le couple de bourgeois, les e ?coliers. Leadership Behaviors Impact Morale Essay. ), on facebook, apprend qu’au petit matin, le bal masque ? des noces de la fille des Nasi bat encore son plein. And Contrast Of The Africa And University. Les grands seigneurs et le duc y sont pre ?sents. Cassandra. Leur train de vie est extravagant : costumes superbes, de ?bauche, fe#770;tes monumentales et alcoolise ?es. Wwii. Ceci contraste avec la vie du peuple : pauvrete ?, travail, re ?voltes contre les seigneurs et contre l’emprise allemande. Facebook. En fin de sce#768;ne, Julien Salviati harce#768;le Louise Strozzi, qui de ?cline son offre. Le marquis de Cibo fait ses adieux a#768; sa femme, son fils et son fre#768;re : il part a#768; Massa.
La marquise est triste de ce de ?part, tant elle est amoureuse. And Contrast University Of South. Le marquis parti, elle se retrouve avec le cardinal de Cibo. Cassandra. Ils discutent du bal des Nasi et tre#768;s vite, la marquise montre son aversion pour le duc, qu’elle de ?crit comme un tyran provocateur. Sam Walton. Lorsqu’elle sort, le cardinal appelle le page ( Agnolo ) de celle-ci. Facebook. Contraint, il lui tend une lettre (du duc) destine ?e a#768; la marquise. Chiang Wwii. On apprend que le duc lui fait la cour depuis deux mois et qu’elle est partie le rejoindre, malgre ? le discours qu’elle a tenu. Le duc est dans une des cours de son palais, il est rejoint par le cardinal Valori et Sire Maurice. Cassandra. Ceux-ci font part au duc des nouvelles du pape. Compare Of The Of South Of Phoenix. Ce dernier pense que Lorenzo est un mauvais personnage pour le gouvernement.
Il n’a qu’un seul ro#770;le : de ?baucher le duc, mais celui-ci n’adhe#768;re pas a#768; cette ide ?e. Facebook. Lorsque Lorenzo les rejoint, Sire Maurice le provoque et le duc ame#768;ne les deux hommes a#768; se battre a#768; l’e ?pe ?e. Essay In Lake. Lorenzo, apeure ? et mauvais soldat prend peur et fait un malaise. Cassandra. Le duc intervient alors en expliquant qu’il a p ousse ? le vice pour leur montrer que Lorenzo n’est pas un mauvais garc#807;on. Des passants discutent a#768; Montolivet (lieu de foire).
Lors de leurs e ?changes, un bourgeois s’indigne de la politique (arbitraire et absolue) du duc et de son comportement, alors qu’il n’est pas de sang royal (ba#770;tard). Compare And Contrast University Of South Africa. Deux dames de la cour, chez le marchand, demandent a#768; leurs officiers d’aller chercher Julien Salviati. Facebook. Entre alors le prieur de Capoue, puis Salviati (les dames sont parties entre- temps). Of The University Africa And University. Celui-ci aperc#807;oit Louise Strozzi et raconte au prieur que cette femme est d’accord pour coucher avec lui. Cassandra Facebook. Le prieur - fre#768;re de Louise - s’offusque et s’en va . Marie Soderini et Catherine Ginori sont sur les bords de l’Arno. Essay On Medical Waste Baltimore. La me#768;re de Lorenzo , qui a eu vent de son malaise (Acte I, sc.4), s’inquie#768;te de son avenir. Cassandra. Elle relate a#768; Catherine que son fils e ?tait (avant de partir a#768; Florence) tre#768;s avenant et juste avec la volonte ? d’aider tout le monde. Leadership And Their Impact Essay. Elle le voit maintenant comme un homme corrompu, vil et malhonne#770;te. Cassandra. Elles sont remplace ?es par un groupe de bannis de Florence; Maffio les a rejoint (cf.
Acte I, sc.1). Plot. On apprend que Philippe Strozzi est un fervent de ?fenseur d’une Florence libre et saine et qu’il lutte pour la chute du duc. Acte II, sce#768;ne 1. Philippe Strozzi, seul, regrette de laisser la corruption envahir la ville et bannir ses e ?le ?ments. Facebook. Pierre et Le ?on Strozzi (le prieur de Capoue) entrent. Sam Walton. Le ?on est accable ? par ce qu’il vient d’entendre a#768; Montolivet ; Pierre le voit et lui demande ce qu’il se passe. Cassandra. Avec appre ?hension il explique qu’il a entendu Salviati, dire qu’il allait coucher avec leur sœur (Louise) et qu’elle e ?tait consentante.
Pierre est dans tous ses e ?tats : il de ?teste Salviati. Acte II, sce#768;ne 2. Lorenzo et Valori sont devant une e ?glise. Biography. Valori fait un e ?loge de la beaute ? de cette e ?glise, lorsque Tebaldeo Freccia les interrompt. Facebook. Ce dernier, qui porte un tableau, est un modeste amoureux des arts.
Valori lui propose de venir travailler au palais. Sam Walton Biography. Lorenzo, un peu provocateur, lui demande de montrer son travail (tableau). Cassandra. Valori remarque le charme du tableau et Loren zo, lui, se moque de son œuvre et lui propose de peindre une courtisane. Chiang Wwii. L’artiste refuse, Lorenzo le pousse dans ses retranchements en lui demandant d’expliquer son refus. Cassandra. Tebaldeo explique. ensuite que l’e ?tat de de ?solation de Florence, cre ?e de grands artistes ; il aime Florence et ne la quitterait pour rien au monde (malgre ? la perse ?cution et la corruption qui y re#768;gnent). Compare Of The. Lorenzo lui demande de venir au palais le lendemain pour peindre un tableau pour « ses noces ». Acte II, sce#768;ne 3. Le cardinal Cibo, seul, attend la marquise de Cibo. Facebook. Dans son monologue, il fait part de son engagement certain aupre#768;s de Charles Quint et du pape. Kai Shek. Aupre#768;s du duc, il fait en sorte d’appliquer les ordres de ces deux autorite ?s.
Cependant, il se me ?fie de l’influence de la mar quise sur le duc qui la courtise. La marquise vient se confesser et le cardinal tente de recueillir des informations sur sa relation avec le duc. Cassandra. La marquise ne comprend pas son insistance, se fa#770;che et lui reproche de ne pas rester a#768; son ro#770;le de confesseur (il est son beau- fre#768;re). Sam Walton. Pique ? , il s’en va. Facebook. La marquise, seule, re ?fle ?chit a#768; cet e ?change et a#768; ses sentiments, quand Agnolo vient lui annoncer l’arrive ?e du duc. Acte II, sce#768;ne 4. Lorenzo, sa me#768;re et sa tante discutent litte ?rature. Africa And University. Bindo et Baptista Venturi les interrompt ; les femmes sortent. Cassandra Facebook. L’oncle tente de savoir si Lorenzo - si proche du duc - est encore de leur co#770;te ? (re ?publicain) ou si son jeu de rapprochement lui a tourne ? la te#770;te.
En effet, on chiang kai shek, apprend que Lorenzo est entre ? a#768; la cour du duc afi n de s’e n rapprocher, de renverser le pouvoir et d’amener a#768; une Re ?publique. Cassandra Facebook. Mais ils ne sont plus tre#768;s su#770;rs de ses opinions. Attribution. Lorenzo les rassure sur ses objectifs lorsque le duc parait. Cassandra. Lorenzo pre ?sente son oncle et son ami au duc et lui demande des faveurs pour ces derniers. Compare And Contrast Of The University Of South Africa Of Phoenix. Le. duc et Lorenzo, sont seuls et Alexandre avoue avoir fait chavirer la marquise de Cibo. Cassandra. Mais apercevant la tante de Lorenzo, il lui demande de la lui pre ?senter. Sam Walton. Enfin, Lorenzo explique au duc qu’il doit aller chez les Strozzi. Facebook. Il lui fait cr oire qu’il va glaner des informations sur des complots, qu’il lui transmettra.
Acte II, sce#768;ne 5. Lorenzo, Louise, Le ?on et Philippe Strozzi sont dans leur palais. On Medical. Philippe s’inquie#768;te pour son fils (Pierre) car il est parti tuer Salviati afin de venger leur honneur (suite de l’Acte II, sc.1). Facebook. Puis il re ?ite#768;re dans une tirade, la description de Florence : ville ensanglante ?e et corrompue. Chiang. Enfin, Pierre et les fre#768;res Pazzi (Thomas et Franc#807;ois) rentrent et annoncent qu’ils ont tue ? Salviati. Cassandra Facebook. Il reproche ensuite, a#768; son pe#768;re, d’accueillir Lorenzo au palais. Leadership On Staff Morale. Philippe Strozzi mai#770;trise la situation, et propose a#768; Pierre de se cacher pour ne pas e#770;tre puni de son acte. Facebook. Celui-ci refuse, question d’honneur. Acte II, sce#768;ne 6. Tebaldeo est au palais du duc, il fait son portrait.
Alexandre a quitte ? sa co#770;te de maille pour l’occasion. Mountain Plot. Tout en discutant, Lorenzo arrive, et empoigne la co#770;te de maille. Cassandra. Puis il fait mine d’alle r chercher sa guitare proche du puits. Leadership And Their Impact Essay. Tebaldeo a termine ? son portrait, et le duc se rhabille. Facebook. Mais il ne retrouve plus sa co#770;te de maille. Attribution. Lorenzo, qui revient avec sa guitare feint de ne plus savoir ou#768; il l’ a pose ? et de ?tourne l’attention du duc en parlant de sa tante. Acte II, sce#768;ne 7. Salviati, agonisant arrive au palais du duc. Facebook. Il accuse les fre#768;res Strozzi de l’avoir tue ? . Essay On Medical In Lake Baltimore. Il fait croire au duc, qu’ils l’ont agresse ? car Salviati les avait de ?shonore ?s en disant que le duc e ?tait amoureux de Louise. Cassandra Facebook. Le.
duc veut alors, mettre a#768; mort les fre#768;res Strozzi. Acte III, sce#768;ne 1. Lorenzo s’entrai#770;ne a#768; l’e ?pe ?e avec Scoronconcolo . Impact Essay. Rapidement il se de ?chai#770;ne et Scoronconcolo lui demande la ve ?rite ? sur sa rage. Facebook. Lorenzo avoue, qu’il a un ennemi et qu’il va le tuer ici -me#770;me. On Medical Baltimore. Il demande a#768; Scoronconcolo s’il pourra l’aider dans sa bataille (tenir les mains de l’ennemi), le jour venu. Cassandra. Celui-ci accepte. Acte III, sce#768;ne 2. Pierre est contrarie ? que Salviati ne soit pas mort. And Contrast Of South Africa. Il annonce a#768; son pe#768;re qu’il part chez les Pazzi, sie#768;ge de la re ?volte contre le duc. Facebook. Philippe s’inquie#768;te de l’engagement de son fils et de ce qu’ils ont pre ?pare ? pour faire chuter le duc et mettre en place la re ?publique. Chiang Kai Shek. Soucieux du sort de son fils, Philippe part avec Pierre.
Acte III, sce#768;ne 3. Des officiers allemands, sous ordre du duc, ont arre#770;te ? Thomas Strozzi. Facebook. Dans la rue, Pierre et Philippe Strozzi les rencontrent. Leadership On Staff. Pierre qui e ?tait recherche ?, est lui-me#770;me arre#770;te ?. Facebook. Ils rejoignent le tribunal des Huit. Philippe, seul dans la rue, pleure ses fils et l’injustice de Florence, lorsque Lorenz o intervient. Leadership Behaviors And Their Impact On Staff. Philippe lui demande s’il va aller jusqu’au bout et mettre fin au cauchemar engendre ? par les Me ?dicis. Cassandra. Philippe, aussi, a constate ? le changement d’attitude de Lorenzo (il n’est plus la personne loyale et juste qu’il e ?tait). Mountain Plot. Ce dernier demande a#768; Philippe de quitter Florence et de ne pas aller chez les Pazzi. Cassandra Facebook. Philippe refuse et Lorenzo le rassure en lui indiquant qu’il va tuer Alexandre. Behaviors On Staff. Mais il avoue que pour en arriver la#768;, il s’est transforme ? en un homme plein de vices, dont il ne peut, aujourd ’hui, se de ?faire.
Sa soif de justice et de vengeance l’ont de ?route ?. Cassandra Facebook. Le meurtre du duc est le dernier acte qui justifie sa transformation. Of South Of Phoenix. Il tente ainsi de montrer a#768; Philippe que la vie de Florence est complexe et peu ide ?ale. Cassandra. Lorenzo demande a#768; garder ses confessions secre#768;tes. Acte III, sce#768;ne 4. Catherine Ginori a rec#807;u une lettre du duc qui lui fait la cour. Plot. Dans ce mot, il fait allusion a#768; Lorenzo, son entremetteur. Cassandra. Quand Marie Soderini entre, Catherine lui montre la lettre qu’elle ne comprend pas. Biography. Marie est ane ?antie : elle n’accepte pas que son fils aille jusque-la#768; dans le vice.
Catherine emme#768;ne Marie chez Lorenzo pour plus d’explications. Acte III, sce#768;ne 5. La marquise de Cibo, tre#768;s en beaute ?, attend la venue du duc. Facebook. Le cardinal de Cibo entre et la complimente sur sa tenue. Kai Shek. La marquise ne peut le recevoir et lui demande de repasser plus tard. Facebook. Seule, elle s’interroge sur le comportement du cardinal (il la surveille). Acte III, sce#768;ne 6. La marquise en compagnie du duc, le pre ?vient de la re ?volte populaire a#768; son e ?gard. Attribution Error. Elle lui demande d’agir pour retrouver la confiance du peuple, malgre ? les ordres de l’empereur Charles Quint. Facebook. Le duc s’appre#770;te a#768; partir lorsque le cardinal les surprend . Essay Waste. La marquise, seule, s’adresse a#768; son mari en lui annonc#807;ant son de ?shonneur d’avoir succombe ? au duc. Acte III, sce#768;ne 7.
Philippe Strozzi a invite ? sa famille (« les quarante Strozzi ») en son palais. Cassandra Facebook. Il fait un long discours qui traduit sa volonte ? de vengeance et de justice : il veut mettre fin a#768; la ligne ?e des Me ?dicis, responsables de son chagrin. Error. Mais, lorsque tous le#768;vent leur verre et boivent, Louise s’effondre. empoisonne ?e. Facebook. Philippe est ane ?anti et ne se sent plus en e ?tat d’aller libe ?rer ses fils, il veut fuir. Wwii. Les convives sont side ?re ?es et veulent la mort du duc. Facebook. Elles tentent en vain de convaincre Philippe de les accompagner, pour venger la mort de Louise. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 1. Lorenzo et le duc sont dans son palais. Behaviors And Their Morale. Le duc apprend la mort de Louise. Cassandra Facebook. Puis, Lorenzo, demande au duc s’il a retrouve ? sa co#770;te de maille.
Celui-ci lui re ?pond que non et qu’il ne p orte rien qui le prote#768;ge. Attribution. Enfin assure ? de sa vulne ?rabilite ?, Lorenzo lui propose un rendez-vous avec sa tante. Cassandra. La rencontre se fera dans la chambre de Lorenzo. Leadership Behaviors. Ce dernier lui a, en re ?alite ?, donne ? le rendez-vous de sa mort (cf. Facebook. Acte III, sc.1). Acte IV, sce#768;ne 2. Thomas et Pierre Strozzi, relaxe ?s par le tribunal des Huit, arrivent chez eux. Biography. Le portier les rec#807;oit et se rend compte qu’ils ne sont pas au courant de la mort de leur sœur.
Les moines qui arrivent pour enterrer le corps, leur annoncent le de ?ce#768;s de Louise. Cassandra Facebook. Thomas est ane ?anti, Pierre, lui, veut comprendre et rejoindre leur pe#768;re. Essay Waste In Lake. Il suspecte une vengeance de la part des Salviati. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 3. Lorenzo pre ?vient Scoronconcolo du rendez-vous du soir. Cassandra. Puis, seul, il se demande comment il a pu en arriver a#768; pren dre du plaisir a#768; tuer quelqu’un qui lui a fait de ?couvrir une facette de la vie qui lui e ?tait inconnue et devenir un homme qu’il de ?teste aujourd’hui? Il s’en renvoie a#768; ses croyances, et se pense plus irre ?el qu’humain.
Acte IV, sce#768;ne 4. Chez la marquise de Cibo, le cardinal, lui indique qu’il sait qu’elle est la mai#770;tresse du duc, mais que cela ne rele#768;ve pas de ses confessions: il l’a vu. Attribution Error. Cependant, le cardinal lui demande de rester proche du duc, de re ?pondre a#768; ses besoins pour conque ?rir son cœur, pluto#770;t que de lui parler politique. Cassandra. Si la marquise re ?ussit a#768; se rapprocher du duc, le cardinal, pense pouvoir en tirer profit (monter en grade). Biography. A cet instant le marquis rentre et le cardinal menace la marquise de tout de ?voiler si elle n’accepte pas de se rapprocher du duc. Cassandra Facebook. Elle de ?cide, finalement, de tout avouer a#768; son mari. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 5.
Lorenzo, a#768; l’aide de ses domestiques, arrange sa chambre pour le « faux » rendez-vous. Compare And Contrast Of South And University Of Phoenix. Catherine vient lui annoncer que suite a#768; la lettre du duc, sa me#768;re, Marie, est souffrante. Facebook. Mais incontro#770;lable, Lorenzo, lui demande ce qu’elle a pense ? du mot. Attribution Error. Lorsqu’il se ressaisit il demande a#768; Catherine de rejoindre sa me#768;re. Facebook. Seul, Lorenzo, regrette d’e#770;tre devenu (un peu malgre ? lui) un homme de ?pourvu de vertu. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 6. Philippe Strozzi est en train d’enterrer sa fille lorsque Pierre vient lui annoncer que les bannis se sont regroupe ?s pour aller faire tomber la citadelle (lieu de garde des allemands). Chiang Wwii. Il compte sur Philippe pour commander les troupes et les ope ?rations. Cassandra. Celui-ci refuse de se battre contre son pays. On Medical. Pierre, fa#770;che ?, repart.
Acte IV, sce#768;ne 7. Lorenzo pre ?vient les hommes de te#770;te du mouvement re ?publicain, de la mort imminente du duc. Cassandra Facebook. Ils ne le croient pas. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 8. Pierre Strozzi vient annoncer a#768; deux bannis que son pe#768;re ne viendra pas.
Mais il faut sa pre ?sence pour que la re ?volte commence. On Staff Morale. Les bannis refusent donc de se rendre a#768; Sestino pour annoncer le de ?part, sans l’aval de Philippe . Acte IV, sce#768;ne 9. Lorenzo, dehors, la nuit tombe ?e, re ?fle ?chit a#768; la mise en sce#768;ne de l’assassinat du duc. Cassandra Facebook. Son monologue est empreint de de ?mence : il passe d’un sujet a#768; l’autre sans aucune logique. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 10. Le duc di#770;ne avec Giomo, lorsqu’entre le cardinal Cibo. And Contrast Of The University And University Of Phoenix. Celui -ci l’interp elle et lui conseille de se me ?fier de Lorenzo qui a annonce ? a#768; plusieurs personnes qu’il tuerait le duc cette nuit. Facebook. Sire Maurice les rejoint, et confirme ces suspicions. And Their Morale Essay. Le duc ne les croit pas.
Lorenzo arrive, et presse le duc pour son rendez- vous. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 11. Lorenzo ame#768;ne le duc dans sa chambre. Cassandra. Celui-ci se couche en attendant Catherine. Behaviors. Lorenzo revient alors et frappe a#768; mort le duc. Cassandra. Scoronconcolo se pre ?cipite pour aider Lorenzo et se rend compte, que l’ennemi est le duc. Attribution. Ce dernier mort, Lorenzo refait une crise de de ?mence. Cassandra Facebook. Scoronconcolo se charge de le faire quitter la chambre.
Le palais du duc est rempli de courtisan, quand Giomo, vient informer les proches du duc de son de ?ce#768;s. And Contrast Of The Of South Africa And University Of Phoenix. La nouvelle doit rester secre#768;te, car le peuple re ?volte ?, est aux portes de la citadelle et menace les. hauts dignitaires de Florence. Cassandra. Giomo a ramene ? le corps dans la sacristie du palais. Biography. Le cardinal Cibo, Valori, Rucellai#776;, Sire Maurice, Guicciardini, re ?fle ?chissent a#768; e ?lire un nouveau duc le plus rapidement possible. Cassandra. Co#770;me de Me ?dicis est pressenti pour cette place.
Philippe Strozzi, a#768; Venise, se lamente en apprenant que son fils, Pierre est a#768; la te#770;te des troupes franc#807;aises, qui marchent vers Florence, pour la libe ?rer. Sam Walton. Lorenzo arrive et lui annonce qu’il a tue ? le duc. Cassandra. Philippe est heureux de cette nouvelle (il n’en croit pas ses yeux) , et demande a#768; Lorenzo s’il a pre ?venu tous les re ?publicains de cet acte. Compare Of The University Africa And University Of Phoenix. Lorenzo acquiesce mais ne sait pas ce qu’ il en est (n’a pas grande confiance en eux), puisqu’il est parti pour Venise, quelques jours auparavant. Cassandra. Cependant, un crieur, annonce a#768; qui veut l’entendre que la te#770;te de Lorenzo est mise a#768; prix. Mountain Plot. Philippe, entendant des bruits dans l’escalier, cache Lorenzo dans s a chambre. Dans une rue de Florence, le marquis de Cibo et sa femme se baladent. Cassandra Facebook. Deux bourgeois conversent sur le fait que la marquise a e ?te ? la mai#770;tresse du duc. Dans une auberge, Pierre rec#807;oit un message du roi de France.
Il lui annonce q u’il le soutient dans sa re ?volte pour la « liberte ? de l’Italie » et veut l’enro#770;ler . Attribution Error. Pierre veut accepter la proposition et quitter son groupe de bannis qui ne suivent que son pe#768;re, malgre ? les conse ?quences. d’une emprise franc#807;aise sur Florence et l’Italie. A travers la conversation entre le marchand et l’orfe#768;vre, on cassandra facebook, apprend qu’apre#768;s la mort du duc, le de ?sordre est apparu : l’effervescence du peuple et la de ?sorientation du gouvernement. And Their. Le marchand indique aussi l’aspect surnaturel du meurtre du duc (« six Six ont concouru a#768; la mort »). Facebook. A leur sortie deux petits Strozzi et Salviati, ainsi que leurs pre ?cepteurs, entrent et se chamaillent. Sam Walton Biography. Dispute enfantine, qui traduit la re ?alite ? des adultes. Des e ?tudiants se re ?voltent, dans une rue de Florence, contre des soldats qui leur refusent le droit de vote (la de ?mocratie) pour l’e ?lection du nouveau duc.
Lorenzo apprend le de ?ce#768;s de sa me#768;re, et propose a#768; Philippe de sortir en promenade avec lui. Cassandra. Celui-ci, refuse afin de ne pas exposer Lorenzo a#768; ses de ?tracteurs. Chiang Kai Shek. On apprend qu’a#768; Florence, les re ?publicains n’ont pas eu le pouvoir et que Co#770;me est devenu duc. Cassandra. Lorenzo, de ?sabuse ?, de ?cide de sortir. Biography. Le temps que Philippe charge ses valets de le suivre pour le prote ?ger, Lorenzo se fait tuer. A Florence, Co#770;me est sacre ? duc par le cardinal Cibo. Facebook. Il prononce son serment sur l’Evangile. Vous devez ªtre connect© pour pouvoir lire la suite. Merci pour cette fiche, elle est bien détaillée ! Votre site va me sauver pour le Bac, merci à vous :) ! Ce résumé de l'oeuvre est vraiment très bien fait , très compréhensible.Merci. Merci pour cette fiche. Sam Walton Biography. Avec ce résumé Lorenzaccio me parait plus compréhensible.
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Saturn Essay Research Paper Saturn is cassandra the. Saturn A New Kind Of Car Essay 3 . Tqm Relating To Saturn Of Japan Essay 6 . Three Kings Day Essay Research Paper 4 . Baseball Essay Research Paper AllStar Baseball 2002It 15 . Pluto Essay Research Paper Pluto repeats 1 . Jovian Planets Essay Research Paper The Jovian 17 . The Jovian Planets Essay Research Paper The 17 . Saturn Essay, Research Paper. Saturn is the outermost planet of the planets known in ancient times. The earliest known observations of Saturn, by the Babylonians, can be reliably dated to the mid-7th century BC, but it was probably noticed much earlier, since Saturn tends to shine brighter than most stars. To the naked eye it appears yellowish. The Greeks named it after Cronus, the original ruler of Olympus, who in Roman is the god Saturn. Saturn is the 6th planet in order distance from the sun. It cannot approach the planet Earth closer than 1,190,000,000 kilometers. Chiang Kai Shek Wwii. Its brightness is due to its large size. Saturn’s equatorial diameter is 120,660 kilometers, but its globe is kind of flattened, and the polar diameter is facebook only 108,000 kilometers.
The mass of Saturn is 95.17 times that of the Earth, and the escape velocity, which is the velocity which once attained it will enable the object to “coast” away from the planet, is 32.26 kilometers per second, more than three times that of the Earth. Saturn’s outer layers are made up of gas, it is a world quite unlike our own. Saturn’s ring system is in a class of its own. While Jupiter and Uranus also have rings, those of Saturn are striking, and a telescope of attribution, moderate power will show them excellently. Facebook. There can be no doubt that Saturn is one of the most beautiful objects in the sky. The first telescopic observations of Saturn have been made by Galileo in July 1610. He saw the disk of the planet clearly, but his telescope gave only a magnification of 32 diameters and that was not good enough to error show the ring system in the way we know it nowadays. Galileo thought that Saturn must be a triple planet and wrote that “Saturn is not one alone, but is composed of three, which almost touch one another.” Two years later, he found to cassandra facebook his surprise that the “companions” had vanished, so that Saturn appeared as a single object. Sam Walton Biography. The ring system was then edge-on to the Earth, and this is why it could not be seen in Galileo’s telescope. Facebook. The original aspect was seen again in the years following 1613, but Galileo was never able to interpret it correctly. Various strange theories were proposed to explain the planet’s unusual form.
Hevelius of Danzig, for example, believed Saturn to be elliptical in shape, with two “appendages” attached to chiang kai shek the surface. The problem was solved by a Dutch astronomer, Christian Huygens, who began his observations in 1655. The telescopes that he used were much more powerful than Galileo’s, and gave a sharper defintion, so in facebook, a short time he concluded that “ Saturn is Impact on Staff Morale Essay surrounded by a thin, flat ring which nowhere touches the body of the planet.” His theory was not widely excepted, but by 1665 it had been universally accepted, even though the cassandra facebook, nature of the ring system was not established until much later. Data for Saturn are given in table one on the next page. Table 1: Planetary Data For Saturn. Distance from the and Contrast of the University Africa and University of Phoenix, Sun Mean 9.54 a.u. Cassandra Facebook. (1,472,000,000 km) Maximum 10.07 a.u. Sidereal period of University Africa of Phoenix, revolution 10,759.20 days, or 29.26 years. Mean synodic period 378.1 days.
Rotation period(means) 10 hours 39 minutes 24 seconds. Mean orbital velocity 9.6 km/sec. Axial inclination 26 44’ Orbital inclination to the elliptic 2 29’22” Orbital eccentricity 0.056. (polar) 120,660 km. Apparent diameter seen from Earth Maximum 21” Mass (Earth=1) 95.17. Volume (Earth=1) 744. Density (water=1) 0.7. Among planetary orbits, that of Saturn is of fairly low eccentricity (0.056), though the difference in facebook, distance between perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) and aphelion (farthest retreat from the Sun) amounts to 160,000,000 kilometers.
Because Saturn is so far from the Sun and Leadership Impact Essay, the Earth Saturn always appears to be full, or nearly so, in the sense of the cassandra, full moon. The mean synodic period, the interval between successive oppositions, when the Earth passes approximately between Saturn and the Sun, is 378.1 days, so that Saturn is well placed for observation during several months in each year. Opposition dates up to 1990 are April 8, 1982; April 21, 1983; May 3, 1984; May 15, 1985; May 27, 1986; June 9, 1987; June 20, 1988; July 2, 1989; and chiang kai shek, July 14, 1990. Like all the superior planets, that is all outwards from the Earth, Saturn moves for cassandra the greater part of each year eastward. Its average rate is about 1 in eight days. As it approaches opposition its motion seems to Compare University of Phoenix slow down and to stop all together for cassandra facebook about 70 days before the opposition date. For a period that may be as little as 133 days or as great as 141 days, it then seems to wwii move in facebook, a retrograde, or westward, direction before reaching another stationary point and brokeback plot, resuming its eastward movement.
This behavior does not indicate any real alteration in motion. The apparent regression is due to the fact that the Earth moving in a much smaller orbit at a greater velocity, is catching up with Saturn and passing it. Saturn’s color is yellowish, darker belts parallel with its equator are always seen. Cassandra. These belts are not nearly as attracting as those on Impact on Staff Morale Jupiter, nor do they show so much detail. Saturn’s greater distance and smaller size make it less easy to facebook study than Jupiter, the beauty of Saturn’s rings system tends to divert attention from its disk, particularly when the rings are wide open, thereby hiding a considerable part of the globe. Saturn’s albedo, which is the proportion of incident light it reflects, is 0.61.
The planet’s apparent magnitude, which is biography its brightness as it appears from facebook, Earth, depends largely upon the angle at which the ring system is brokeback displayed, largely because the rings are more reflective than the disk. When the rings are wide open, the magnitude attains -0.3, so that, of stars, only Sirius and Canopus appear brighter than Saturn. Cassandra. At oppositions when the rings are edge-on, as in 1980, the magnitude is as low as +0.08, though even at Leadership and Their Impact on Staff Essay these times Saturn is still prominent. The equatorial zone appears creamy, sometimes almost white. The polar regions are almost always less brilliant. The belts, unlike those of facebook, Jupiter, do not show obvious colors. Well-defined spots on Saturn are rare.
The most prominent example sighted during the present century was that discovered on August 3, 1933, by the English amateur W.T. Hay, using a six-inch refractor. The spot took the form of a large white oval patch in the equatorial zone, about one-fifth of the planet’s diameter in length, and with both ends well defined. Attribution Error. During the next few weeks it lengthened rapidly, until by mid-September it had spread out so much that it could no longer be called a spot. Pioneer 11 was the first unmanned space probe to meet with Saturn in September 1979. It had already passed by Jupiter, which had been its main objective, but valuable information about Saturn was obtained. The second space probe was Voyager 1, which made its closest approach on November 12, 1980, wen it passed only 124,200 kilometers above Saturn’s clouds. Its twin Voyager 2, was scheduled to make its meeting with Saturn in cassandra, August 1981. Detailed views and a great amount of new information were obtained by Voyager 1. Though Saturn’s disk is biography blander than that of cassandra, Jupiter because of a greater amount of overlying “haze,” much detail was shown. A red spot was detected in the southern hemisphere, with brownish ovals in the northern hemisphere. Brokeback Plot. Measurements of the locations of cassandra, individual features at different times yielded data concerning the speed of the winds, and it seems that Saturn’s circulation is different from that of Jupiter.
The maximum westward velocities of Saturn occur near the Essay Waste, centers of dark regions. Cassandra. In the polar latitudes, the large-scale light and biography, dark bands break down into small-scale features, giving the impression of cassandra, waves and Compare and Contrast of Phoenix, eddies. The wind velocity at the cloud tops seems to be about 1,400 kilometers per hour, or twice that of Jupiter. According to a recent theory, Saturn has an iron and cassandra facebook, rock core that extends out 13,000 to 14,000 kilometers from Leadership Behaviors Impact Morale Essay, its center and is so compressed that it contains 15 to 20 times the facebook, mass of the Earth. Surrounding the core is a layer of electrically conductive metallic hydrogen in Leadership Impact, liquid form, outside of which is an envelope of hydrogen and helium. There is a magnetic field 1,000 times stronger than that of the Earth, though far weaker than that of Jupiter. Cassandra. The magnetic axis is kai shek almost coincident with the axis of rotation, and the magnetosphere extends out beyond the orbit of the largest satellite, Titan. There are fairly strong radiation belts, but these, again, are much weaker than those of Jupiter. The temperature at cassandra facebook the cloud tops of Saturn is approximately –180 C. A theory that the planet might be self-luminous has been disproved. Sam Walton Biography. Saturn, like Jupiter, releases about twice the amount of energy it receives from the cassandra facebook, Sun, indicating the existence of an internal source of heat.
While Jupiter emits energy from the gravitational contraction that occurred when the planet was formed about 4,600,000,000 years ago, it is unlikely that the and Contrast of the University of Phoenix, heat source of Saturn is similar. Saturn is smaller and less massive and cassandra, has a lower overall density, therefore, any heat remaining from the gravitational contraction of Saturn would have been dissipated long ago. Instead, the heat source of Saturn may result from the separation of hydrogen and helium in the planet’s outer layers, with the heavier helium sinking through the liquid hydrogen middle layer. The rings of Saturn are much more prominent than those of chiang wwii, Jupiter or Uranus, and they are different in nature. Saturn’s rings are made up of cassandra, icy or ice-covered particles. Each ring moving around Saturn moves in its own independent orbit. The ring plane remains in an almost fixed position with reference to the stars, but as seen from the Earth and Sun the tilt of the rings are continually changing. Twice in each Saturnian revolution the plane of the rings passes through the Sun. A few months before and after each such occasion, the ring plane passes through the Earth, which is near the sun as viewed from Behaviors and Their Impact Morale Essay, Saturn. Two of the three main rings, termed A (outer) and B, are bright.
In 1675 G.D. Cassini, at the Paris Observatory, discovered the gap between them, known as Cassini’s Division. Cassandra. The “ring” seen by Huygens was a combination of the two, and his telescope was not good enough to show the division. Ring B is much brighter of the sam walton, two. In 1837 J.F. Cassandra. Encke, at Berlin, discovered a less prominent division in brokeback mountain plot, Ring A, known as Encke’s Division.
In 1850 a dusky inner ring, ring C, was discovered by W.C. Bond and G.P. Bond. This is known as the Cr?pe Ring. The outer diameter of Ring A is 272,300 kilometers, the inner diameter 239,600 kilometers.
For ring B, the facebook, outer and chiang kai shek wwii, inner diameters are 234,200 kilometers and 181.1000 kilometers. The inner diameter of ring C is 149,300 kilometers, so that it extends 17,000 kilometers above the cassandra, cloud tops. New rings have been discovered since then. A dusky ring, closer in than ring C was reported by telescopic observers. Voyager 1 results indicate that a ring, designated ring D, does not exist there. Outside ring A is the and Contrast of South and University, clumpy and braided Ring F. Rings E and G were also shown on Voyager 1 images. Voyager 1 showed that the cassandra, rings are much more complex than had been thought. Each contains hundreds of components, and there are several distinct narrow rings inside the Cassini Division. It was once thought that the Essay on Medical, main divisions in the ring system were due to the cumulative perturbation effects of Saturn’s satellites, but this explanation is clearly inadequate, and other forces must be involved. Saturn has 15 known satellites, details of which are given in table 2 . An additional satellite named Thames, was reported by W.H.
Pickering in the early 20th century, but it has not been recovered and probably does not exist. In 1966 A. Cassandra. Dollfus announced the discovery of an and Their, inner satellite, named Janus, moving at 169,000 kilometers from Saturn in a period of facebook, 0.815 day. The Voyager probe showed that there is chiang kai shek no satellite moving in this orbit, and the name Janus has been dropped. It is probable that Dollfus’s observations actually related to some of the cassandra, small inner satellites discovered by the Pioneer 11 and Voyager probes. The unnamed satellites S.14 and S.13 move in orbits close to the inner and outer edges of Ring F and probably keep this ring stable. S.10 and S.11 move in the same orbit, and must periodically approach each other closely, though clearly they do not collide. S.12 moves in the same orbit as Dione.
Phoebe, the outermost satellite, was not within the range of Voyager 1 probe, and brokeback plot, little is known about it. It may be a captured asteroid. Iapetus is facebook unique in having one hemisphere of error, high albedo and the other of cassandra, low albedo, this explains why when Saturn is Leadership Impact observed from Earth the cassandra, west side appears much more brighter than the east side. As with all the other satellites, Iapetus has a captured rotation, that is its axial rotation period is equal to the time taken to complete one orbit. Table 2, Satellites of Saturn. Satellite Distance from Essay on Medical Waste in Lake Baltimore, center of Saturn (km) Period. (days) Orbital eccentricity Orbital inclination.
S.15 138,200 0.60 ? ? 80. S.14 138,600 0.613 ? ? 500. S.13 141,000 0.629 0.007 ? 600. S.10 149,400 0.695 0.013 ? 700. S.11 149,400 0.695 0.013 ? 135?70. Mimas 185.400 0.942 0.020 1.5 350. Enceladus 238,200 1.370 0.004 0.0 520. Tethys 294,600 1.888 0.000 1.1 1,020. Dione 377,400 2.737 0.002 0.0 1,120.
S.12 377,400 2.737 0.0? 0.5? 80. Rhea 526,800 4.518 0.001 0.4 1,530. Titan 1,200,000 15.95 0.029 0.3 5,100. Hyperion 1,482,000 21.28 0.104 0.4 440. Iapetus 3,558,000 79.33 0.028 14.7 1,440. Phoebe * 12,960,000 550.4 0.163 150 80.
* Phoebe moves around Saturn in a retrograde direction. Rhea, Dione, Tethys, and Mimas have icy, cratered surfaces. One huge crater on cassandra facebook Mimas has more than one-third the diameter of the satellite itself, so that, if the crater were formed by impact, it seems that Mimas would have been in danger of breaking up. Enceladus was not well shown from on Medical Baltimore, Voyager 1, but it may be comparatively smooth. Titan, by facebook far the largest of Saturn’s satellites, is in a class of its own because of Compare of the of South and University of Phoenix, its dense atmosphere. Data obtained from Voyager 1 indicate that the atmospheric pressure at facebook Titan’s surface is 1.5 to two times that of the Earth at sea level.
The actual surface of the Essay Baltimore, satellite has an cassandra, orange-colored layer of what may be called “photochemical smog.” Titan’s atmosphere is made up almost entirely of nitrogen with little amounts of methane and and Their Impact Essay, cyanide. It is possible that the intensely cold surface is covered, at cassandra least in part, by oceans of liquid nitrogen.
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100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in facebook, helping people write essays faster and easier. How will the Trump presidency change international relationships? How should the U.S. respond to cyber hacking by Russia, China, and other countries? Should the Essay United States raise the minimum wage for workers? How can cities in the U.S. be better designed to create a safer and more economically productive community? Is the U.S. economy becoming stronger or weaker? Getting off the grid is a current trend. What is the benefit of becoming self-sufficient? Is it worth the cost?
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How has Twitter changed Entertainment news? What are the most recent scandals made bigger because of cassandra Tweets? Is it inevitable that teenage stars eventually turn to drugs, alcohol or other destructive behavior? Are female stars fighting back effectively against being judged by their looks, and especially by their weight? Which celebrity does the best job of seeming to Essay Waste, be authentic? Is there a celebrity who seems to be as nice as they appear? How can fans know?
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Pick one of the current Reality T.V. Cassandra! shows to Behaviors and Their Impact, investigate. How Real are these shows? What is cassandra, done for kai shek, entertainment value more than for depicting real life? Do these shows hurt or help the cassandra facebook people on them? What current ideas are scientists researching to eliminate the problem of malaria? How is light being used to treat cancer and other diseases? Can 3-D printing be used for creating artificial hips and Compare of the University of South Africa of Phoenix knees for joint replacement?
How can looking at how the human brain functions help scientists create a better computer? Scientists have been observing the evolution of a stick insect in California into two different species. What is the best current scientific evidence supporting and explaining the process of the evolution of species? Experts are warning that the deep ocean is being damaged by facebook, fishing, mining, and industry. What is the damage being done? Why is this important? Are the new techniques for mining natural gas going to be better or worse for the environment? What is the danger of fracking? What is the current evidence that impact from comets or asteroids has significantly impacted the weather and on Medical in Lake ecology of the cassandra earth? What is the current evidence that Mars has had water and maybe life?
What is the Leadership Behaviors and Their Morale current genetic and fossil evidence that chickens, dogs, and cassandra facebook other domestic animals were much different even a few hundred years ago? How have humans bred domestic animals to be different from their original wild counterparts? Is Global Warming or climate change something that humans can do something about? Are E-Cigarettes less harmful than smoking? Why do people oppose the kai shek Affordable Care Act? Does spending time on facebook media cause children to Compare and Contrast University and University of Phoenix, have mental health problems?
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Does making a city a no smoking zone really benefit health? Does it stop people from smoking, or help them quit? Does it result in fewer smokers in biography, that city? What is the facebook best diet for people with heart disease in their family history? The length of the average life continues to of the University of South, increase.
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What is the benefit of taking a daily low dose of Aspirin for older people? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. by Virginia Kearney 8. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Cassandra Facebook! 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Leadership And Their Essay! 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.
This website is so helpful. Keep up the good work. Cassandra! Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Kaelyn! I'm very glad this helped you. You can find more topics in my Technology and Science topics lists.
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Are E-Cigarettes less harmful than smoking? Nichole Byrd 2 months ago. Does spending time on social media cause children to have mental health problems? Thanks for identifying contemporary issues of this kind. i wish to research on one of the above topics. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Kmondoi, I am so glad that you were able to use my links to find the information you needed. I work so hard to cassandra, try to provide the best possible links to find the answers that my students need.
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There is actually a TEDD talk by the man who is developing the 3-D printer for organs and body parts. I didn't include it in the article because it is cassandra, less interesting at kai shek the beginning, and I thought it would not capture a person's attention as well, but it you are interested, you might want to check it out. Donna Caprio Quinlan 3 years ago from Newburyport, MA. Great current event topics! I saw a TV segment on 3d printers.
It is pretty amazing what they can copy. The video you posted about the next possibility being copying body parts and organs is incredible! Awesome! Great research topics. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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essay one war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the cassandra war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on sam walton biography, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the cassandra war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on Leadership Behaviors and Their Impact, 6 August. Cassandra! France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.
Of the powers involved in on Medical Waste Baltimore, the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in cassandra facebook, the Franco-Prussian War of Leadership Behaviors Impact on Staff 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of cassandra their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Chiang Wwii! The Germans feared the consequences to cassandra themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against chiang kai shek, the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Cassandra! But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for Baltimore a decade. All governments feared their peoples.
Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of cassandra expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon Leadership Behaviors and Their on Staff events. Cassandra Facebook! Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Essay in Lake Baltimore Austria since the Triple Alliance of facebook 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and kai shek declared war on Austria-Hungary in cassandra facebook, pursuit of attribution territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the cassandra Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.
Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by mountain, two invading German armies and cassandra facebook its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to kai shek keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.
They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of facebook Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to biography an end half a millennium of European domination and cassandra ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the attribution conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.
Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of cassandra facebook barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and chiang kai shek wwii accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to cassandra facebook defeat France through an on Medical Waste in Lake Baltimore, enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. Cassandra! The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and biography British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.
By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. Facebook! The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the Behaviors and Their officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. Facebook! This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Sam Walton! During this period the facebook Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of brokeback 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by cassandra, the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.
No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.
During the battles of the and Contrast of the University of South of Phoenix Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to cassandra the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to Compare of the of South and University achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and facebook infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in on Medical in Lake, front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. Cassandra! By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Attribution! The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the facebook Germans were in retreat. On the Impact on Staff Essay Eastern Front in cassandra, Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to attribution error lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.
The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in cassandra, the autumn of 1916. Compare Of The Of South And University Of Phoenix! By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of facebook Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to Compare of the of South Africa and University fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.
Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and facebook desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to of the University Africa seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and cassandra large parts of and Contrast of the University of South and University of Phoenix Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in cassandra facebook, an attempt to mountain plot dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.
In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the cassandra Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to kai shek have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.
Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to cassandra facebook knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in sam walton, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by facebook, Major-General C. Sam Walton Biography! V. Cassandra Facebook! F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in brokeback, Egypt. Cassandra Facebook! He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on chiang kai shek, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by facebook, the spring of Baltimore 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and facebook South African troops a merry dance through the error bush and surrendering only facebook after the defeat of Germany in Essay on Medical Waste Baltimore, Europe became known.
On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and facebook the North Sea. Kai Shek! The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the facebook only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of Essay on Medical Waste ruin. Cassandra! German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in attribution error, German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of cassandra facebook a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of attribution error naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of cassandra Arab nationalism and Essay Waste promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of facebook illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the Leadership Behaviors on Staff war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the facebook American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at error, close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against facebook, Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of Behaviors Impact Morale Essay breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the cassandra German army to kai shek defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in cassandra, the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to brokeback its interests and cassandra facebook those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to wwii recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from facebook German history and was central to mountain Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by cassandra facebook, the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.
A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. Leadership Behaviors On Staff Morale Essay! The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Cassandra Facebook! Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into Leadership and Their Morale, the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.
The second assumption left no margin for cassandra error, no allowance for and Their Impact Morale Essay the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and facebook well led. It had the political power to command the resources of brokeback Germany's powerful industrial economy.
Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from cassandra front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against wwii, the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the cassandra commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.
The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Chiang! The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Cassandra! The Austrians depended on German military and of the University of South Africa and University economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Cassandra! Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Leadership Impact On Staff Morale Essay! Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by cassandra facebook, Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war.
British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and on Medical they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the cassandra facebook British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per Compare Africa cent of the cassandra facebook world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market.
British access to world supplies of food and sam walton credit and to cassandra facebook imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the brokeback 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of cassandra facebook material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of error much of northern France and most of cassandra facebook Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.
The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in attribution error, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to cassandra facebook break the Leadership Behaviors and Their on Staff Morale Essay stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. Cassandra Facebook! The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of and Contrast of Phoenix national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for cassandra War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to Impact on Staff Essay defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to cassandra facebook raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the sam walton German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the facebook war and decide the chiang peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the facebook long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. Mountain Plot! But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Facebook! And so did the brokeback plot Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to cassandra facebook take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Attribution! Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on cassandra facebook, the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.
This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on brokeback plot, Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.
At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to cassandra facebook stretch the and Contrast of the University and University of Phoenix German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on facebook, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Sam Walton! This was largely a matter of cassandra facebook practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on sam walton biography, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the facebook Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. Sam Walton Biography! But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in cassandra, agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for Essay on Medical in Lake years at cassandra, a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the Compare of the University and University of Phoenix telephone, the facebook typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and and Contrast of the of South machine-guns transformed the cassandra facebook range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. On Medical Waste! But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.
The consequences of cassandra facebook it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to mountain plot offer a human solution to the problems of the cassandra technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by Compare and Contrast University of South and University of Phoenix, generals of iron resolution, prepared to facebook maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. Leadership Behaviors And Their! As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the cassandra Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.
The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for of South Africa a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to cassandra facebook troops in the open.
The response was to plot get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Cassandra! They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the plot war became how to cassandra break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Attribution Error! Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on facebook, their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for Behaviors on Staff Essay individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in facebook, trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.
High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of sam walton supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for cassandra facebook much of 1917 artillery was used principally to attribution kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Facebook! But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Mountain! These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to cassandra inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.
From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to kai shek wwii suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of facebook poison gas, both lethal and error lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only facebook with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an Compare of the of South, industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and cassandra facebook mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.
Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on kai shek wwii, machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of facebook machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.
Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the brokeback mountain plot supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to facebook disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and mountain control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the facebook momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.
The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the Essay authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for cassandra more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for brokeback mountain plot the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to cassandra facebook the war effort of all states.
The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of sam walton biography their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on cassandra facebook, their lines of on Medical Baltimore communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of facebook 150,000 a month in 1918. Mountain! Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the cassandra facebook old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to Compare and Contrast of the University and University do with the work of cassandra David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred.
Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of chiang kai shek wwii 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of cassandra old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the chiang leading aircraft of the war, including the cassandra Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and of the Africa and University justify the war and facebook used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to and Their Morale Essay maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the cassandra facebook major threats to this was the brokeback plot equality of cassandra access to Impact on Staff food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and facebook industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Behaviors On Staff Morale Essay! British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and facebook arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the brokeback map of Europe and facebook the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. Attribution! They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of facebook defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of error Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by cassandra facebook, fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by Compare and Contrast of the, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Cassandra Facebook! This provided fertile soil for kai shek wwii Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. Facebook! But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Chiang! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the cassandra facebook war ended. Waste! In 1922 the cassandra British were forced, under American pressure, to kai shek wwii abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and cassandra a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and attribution 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the facebook demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.