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25 Things You Should Know About Writing Fantasy. I dont write fantasy. Transition Metals! Not really. Ive written it from time to time (my short story collection, Irregular Creatures , has some). And Blackbirds apparently counts as urban fantasy.

Just the same, I am woefully underqualified to write this list. But by golly, thats never stopped me before. So here I am, offering up my list of Essay on Eating in a Context 25 in metals uses the fantasy arena. Though I write with a certain authoritative sense of gavel-bangery, please understand that these are just my opinions and shaky, unproven opinions, at that. Accept.

Discuss. Discard. Do as thou wilt. 1. Nobody Knows What The Fuck Fantasy Is. Fantasy is a bullseye painted on a horses rump just before someone fired a magical spell up under the nags tail and set her to stampeding. We can all agree that something that has dragons in it and castles and a great deal of faux Medieval frippery is likely to be considered fantasy, but beyond that, its hard to and virtue, say. Transition Metals! It probably has magic or deals with the supernatural. It likely avoids science.

It might be scary, but not so scary that it be labeled horror instead. On Vehicle Exhaust! Its a fuzzy, muzzy, gauzy, hazy fog-clogged hollow, this genre. Transition Uses! As it should be. Genre does best when its definition is decidedly low-fi rather than high-def . Fantasy is vivisected into various gobbets, limbs and organs sword-and-sorcery does battle with epic or high fantasy, horror-tinged fantasy used to brian club, be dark fantasy but now its urban fantasy or maybe paranormal fantasy or maybe fantasy with vampires and werewolves looking sexy while clad in uses genital-crushing leathers. Theres fantasy of myth and on Vehicle Analysis, fantasy thats funny and fantasy thats laced with a thread of metals uses science-fiction. Exhaust Analysis! You have magic realism and one day well probably have real magicalism and Im sure theres a genre of fantasy where lots of fantasy creatures bang the transition metals uses whimsy right out of one another ( hot centaur-on-goblin action, yow ). Sub-genres have value as marketing tools and as a way to give you some direction and fencing as you write. Otherwise: ignore as you see fit. Or create your own! Reality is club fantasys best friend. We, the audience, and metals uses, you, the writer, all live in brian the breakfast club reality. The problems we understand are real problems. Uses! Genuine conflicts.

True drama . The drama of families, of lost loves, of financial woes. Cruel neighbors and callow bullies and loved ones dead. On Vehicle Exhaust Analysis! This is the transition uses nature of theater write what you know , and the fantasy writers version of that is, write whats real . Which sounds like very bad advice, because last time I checked, none of us were plagued by dragons or sentient fungal cities or old gods come back to haunt us. But thats not the transition metals uses point the point is, you use the fantasy to highlight the reality. The dragon is the callow bully.

The lease on your fungal apartment is up and british hall society, your financial woes puts you in tithe to the old gods who in turn make for very bad neighbors . Transition Metals! You grab the core essence of brian club a true problem and uses, swaddle it in the mad glittery ribbons of fantasy and genetic engineering, therein you find glorious new permutations of conflict. Reality expressed in mind-boggling ways. Reach for fantasy. Find the reality. 4. Metals Uses! Break Reality With Your Magic Hammer, Rearrange The Resultant Shards. Reality also offers up awesomeness in the form of brian club data . You may think, Well, I cant research a fantasy world because it doesnt exist , dummy but again root fantasy in the real. Look to actual events. Look to history. Transition Metals Uses! Look to culture and religion.

Mine truth for fiction. Some cultures (Asian in Essay particular) have a practice where friends and family and villagers help pay for transition metals, each others funerals. Club! Right there, you can take that, tweak it, use it. Uses! Drama lives there. What if the village wont pay for someones funeral? Why?

Whats the stigma? Why the exile? Adherence to dark magic? Broken oath? Cranky centaur bastard child? 5. The Breakfast Club! Woebetide The Faux Medieval Frippery. Kings and knights and dragons and oaths and tithes and princesses and plumbers rescuing those princesses from metals uses, giant rage-apes and okay, wait, maybe not that last part. What Im saying is, European Medievality (not a word) is the brian club meat-and-potatoes of the transition metals fantasy genre. On Vehicle Exhaust! And I think we can do better than meat-and-potatoes.

Look beyond that single slice of time and space for your inspiration. Transition Uses! What about the 18th century bloody rivalry between chiefs and kings in Essay on Vehicle Hawaii? Or the French Resistance in WWII? Or Masada? Or that time the Ewoks repelled the Empire and blew up the Death Star in their space gliders? The power of fantasy is that you can do anything. Anything at all. You start with that core of reality and uses, from there youre allowed to grow anything from the breakfast club, that fertile seed-bed. And yet, so much fantasy looks like so much other fantasy. Stop that. Embrace the wide open openness of the genre.

The power of magic is that its motherfucking magic . You are beholden only to that which you yourself create. Go big. Dream weird. Be original. Metals! Why do what everyone else has already done? 7. British Music! Opinion: The Bravest Fantasy Right Now Is In The Young Adult Space. Im just putting that out there. Discuss amongst yourselves. Its easy to get lost in the shiny crazy bits dragon undertakers and goblin butlers and the culinary traditions of the metals Autochthonic Worm Lords.

Its easy to be dizzily dazzled by aristotle the sheer overwhelming potential fantasy affords. But at the end of the day, fantasy has to be about characters above ideas, above culture, above all the fiddly fantasy bits. Great characters are our vehicle through the fantasy. Fantasy fiction often seems to be about external conflict sieges and metals uses, escaped gods and blasphemous magic and, I dunno, unicorn orgies. Theater! But what we connect to in storytelling is the internal conflict. What lies in the heart of a character is what we understand and, in fact, relate to most.

Yes, the battlefield is a muddy bloody hell-ground of decapitations and magic missiles, but those two forces are clashing based on the motives of characters characters who feel betrayed or vengeful, who send nations to die to rescue one lost love, who risk it all because of some real or imagined slight decades before. The human heart even when encased in transition uses an ogre kings chest drives fantasy fiction. Put differently: find the little story in the big story because the little story needs to actually be the big story. Music! Did you follow that? Let me explain: fantasy is often about epic motherfucking stuff . Quest for the magic boomerang! Dragon Parliament is going to war with the Unicorn Tribe of the Northern Blood Red Shadow Death Crescent-Steppe! Evil has awakened from its thousand year nap and now stumbles drunkenly toward our villages oh by the gods hes stubbed his toe and now Evil is very very angry . Metals! Those are big stories. And they dont matter.

Not without a compelling little story. The story of and virtue ethics a boy in transition love. The story of a fractured family pulling itself together (or further apart). A coming-of-age tale! The tale of redemption and regret!

The big stuff is just a trapping epic shadows cast on the wall, thrown there by firelight. 11. Building A World Where Nobody Lives. Though the stage is essential, theater is the breakfast club not about the stage. All the pieces on metals uses it contribute to the action, the blocking. But theater is not about the stage. Aristotle! Theater is transition metals about the stories of people, and so too is genetic fantasy. Fantasy is not about the worldbuilding, though its tempting to uses, make it so.

Its a tantalizing proposition, to slide down that muddy chute ( get your head out of the gutters, and also, out of other peoples mud-chutes, I mean, unless they invited you ) and to keep on going designing forest ecologies and ossuary cities (bone-o-polis!) and the mating dances of the randy tumescent Ettins. And weeks later youve forgotten the story. Youve lost the characters (if you ever had them). Worldbuilding supports story, but is brian not itself the story. Transition! Worldbuilding is brian the breakfast just the stage. It demands attention.

But not all of it. Fantasy gives itself over to metals uses, detail very easily. Federal Project! Exposition. Explanation. It feels like, Well, the uses readers have never experienced this world before and so I must paint for them every inch . You can spend a whole page on describing the pommel of a knights mighty sword or the density and on Eating in a, temperature of uses pegasus cloaca , and Analysis, Ill admit that there exists an transition, audience for that sort of thing readers who want to ethics, be immersed so fully in a worlds minutiae that it bubbles up into their nose. For my money, if the fantasy is transition metals uses more about federal theater those details than it is metals about the story or the characters within it, Im done. Im Audi 5000 , son. Grow your world and its many details organically.

Meaning, describe it when you need it. On Vehicle Exhaust Analysis! The test is metals uses easy: can the audience continue without this information? If the answer is british music hall society no, describe as simply and transition uses, clearly as you can manage. If the answer is ethics yes, the move on to the stuff we care about. Fantasy would seem the opposite of reality as in, My reality does not feature merfolk flea markets or werewolves having sex-wars with vampires, and this book has those things aplenty. And yet, each tale of fantasy must have its own reality and the way you accomplish this is by embracing authenticity . Authenticity makes everything feel real, even when it most certainly is not. Authenticity comes from transition, consistency and confidence in your writing. (Logic and common sense dont hurt, either.) Authenticity is Essay on Vehicle a nice glass of warm milk that puts any readers disbelief down for a long, comfortable nap. Part of that consistency Im talking about is transition maintaining a level of consistency in the rules of your fantasy worlds. Your sex-dragons and sentient blimp-creatures dont need to project, act like my sex-dragons and sentient blimp-creatures, but they do need to metals uses, act in a way we find consistent and believable. Discover the on Eating in a Context rules of your magic systems.

Find out what the metals uses zombie magus can and cannot do. And Virtue! What happens if a werewolf tries to make a baby with a mummy? Hell, thats a good question for all of us to answer whether were writing fantasy or not. Transition Uses! I dont want to on Eating in a Social, be sandbagged by some squalling wolf-mummy. Fuck that, man. 16.

The School Of Cool Has Been Shut Down For Serving Re-Heated Poop Mash To Students And Is Pending Investigation Thanks For Your Patience. Dont put something in transition metals your story just because its cool. Wont work. Theater Project! Itll feel like a third nipple just sitting there, squirting scalding hell-milk in your eye. Elements of fantasy should be cool and work in transition the greater context of brian club character, setting, theme, whatever. DUDE SO AWESOME is metals uses not a justification for inclusion. Yes, Im exhorting you to go big, go weird, or go home. But you can go too weird.

You can conjure an insurmountable distance between your world and aristotle ethics, the audience by being too abstract, for embracing weird just for the sake of it. Byzantine abstractions are fascinating, but they dont do well in protracted storytelling unless you can somehow help the audience relate to it. We need to find our story in your story. If we can find no recognizable landmarks, if we can find no familiar paths even murky ones we wont connect with your story. The weirder you go the harder you must strive to connect with us.

18. The Chosen One Is Done, Son, Unless He Got Buns, Hon. Personal opinion: the chosen one is over. Kaput. *poop noise* Jesus, King Arthur, Paul Atreides, Rand alThor, Spongebob Squarepants, whatever. Fuck the prophecy. Its over! Its a puerile convention in a genre thats matured well beyond the need for such over-common trappings.

Anytime I read, Hes the one person who can save the kingdom / defeat the monstrous monster-thing / wield the metals uses magic sword known as Lion-Tickler, I just roll my eyes and gently close the book. I no longer buy it. Music! Its lazy. Do better. (Oh, unless youre subverting that meme. Then you get a fist bump. And a genital bump, if youre into it. *eyebrow waggle* Oh, hey okay, since youre getting out the Taser, maybe not.) 19.

If Your Characters Name Has More Than Six Apostrophes I Will Choke You. If your characters name has a bunch of transition uses consonants jammed together, I will slap your face. Essay Exhaust Analysis! If I need a ten-page pronunciation guide to sound out your heros name, I will kung-fu your soul. If youre desperate to make your character names sound exotic and weird without any cultural underpinnings or consistency, I will clone you and make you fight yourself in a McDonalds ball pit. If all your fantasy names sound the same (Galen Galorn Galendal Galendel Galendole Gaileen Crystal Gayle GALEYGALEGOOBYGALE) I will pull out your heart, stuff it with acorns, and leave it for the squirrels. 20. Metals! This Way To The Great Egress Ha Ha Its Actually An Owlbear Lair You Fool. One of the Essay Analysis things I really like about fantasy is that it pretends to be escapism. Even the word fantasy suggests an metals, imagined escape.

But fantasy can and perhaps should be used to explore some really deep, really profound stuff. By stripping away the faculties of real life you crack open bone and open up the marrow. No topic is too weighty for fantasy life, love, death, marriage, social norms, violence, politics, government, commerce, sex and yet fantasy is a honeypot, luring you in society with promises of transition metals uses a trouble-free escape. That is, in the truest sense of the word, fantastic . (See what I did there?) 21. Maybe You Dont Need To Write A Ten-Book Epic Cycle. You will not get your giant epic fantasy series (with accompanying 1000-page mythic dictionary) published if youre a new writer. Some authors can get away with this. Brian! Most cant.

Before I tackle any big fantasy series, I wait until its all finished. Uses! Because suddenly the author starts taking five year breaks between books and then gets hit by aristotle and virtue ethics a bus before Book Eight and suddenly Im up poop river without hip-waders.But now Ill never find out what becomes of transition metals Lady Braidly Manabozho of the Shadowdark Hegemony! Will she be forced to marry Lord Krommngkar? Will she accept her destiny as one of the Sandmurai and and virtue ethics, join the Magenta Falconers Guild? Maybe calm down. Start smaller.

22. Metals Uses! Read Broadly Lest Ye Regurgitate A Thin Slurry. Dont read only fantasy. Read histories and mysteries. Read biographies and mythologies, thrillers and ethics, chillers. Reading only in your genre ensures you regurgitate your genre. Tolkien deserves kudos.

High-five to him. And now were done. Stop emulating him. No more elves and orcs and transition metals uses, dwarves. No more slavish DD devotion. Fantasy isnt beholden to this dude. Hall! Nobodys forcing you to trample the same grass over and over metals again.

He is not the only example (and fantasy needs few examples, anyway). As a sidenote, fuck Tolkien sounds like fuck token, which I think is how one properly accesses an orgy. Ahm, yes, Im here for the unicorn orgy. Do you have your fuck token? I seem to have lost it. Then get lost, pervo. But I have this copy of the Silmarillion. I said get lost . 24. Also: No More Hot-Pants Vampires. I like vampires. I do. And I like tight leather pants. Aristotle Ethics! Hell, you put a vampire into some tight leather pants and give her a katana, Im good to go . But, urban fantasy its time. Its time to transition uses, back away from the beleathered bloodsuckers and sexy vampire hunters and their hirsute lycanthrope lovers. All the romance and the vampire clans and swords and on Vehicle Exhaust, the two pistols and the sexy tattoos and I mean, were done here, right?

Is there nowhere else to go? Cant you at transition uses, least file off some serial numbers? We dream at Essay on Eating in a, night unfettered. Transition Metals Uses! Our minds unmoored from the known, lifting and drifting into the unknown. Anything is possible in our dreams. Thats why our dreams are so powerful we feel something strong upon waking even as the dream breaks apart in our hands like a crust of Essay beach sand. Its why I encourage writers to write down their dreams if they found them so affecting, and its now why I think our dreams serve as an excellent model for fantasy fiction. Metals! The same feel I get when dreaming is the on Eating in a Social Context same feel I hope to reach when reading fantasy fiction the sense of being out of my head, of entering territory that is unknown and so becomes both beautiful and frightening in equal measure. I want to believe that the author is not fixed by the rigors of reality or the reagents of the genre and that here, All Things Are Possible. The power of the fantasy is in its limitlessness to explore human imagination.

Stop walking the same paths. Stop feeling trapped. Find the dream. Write what you want to write and transition metals uses, let that free your fiction. Fantasy or otherwise. Like this post? Want more just like it? Try these books: The newest: 500 MORE WAYS TO BE A BETTER WRITER The original: 500 WAYS TO BE A BETTER WRITER Only a buck: 250 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT WRITING The biggun: CONFESSIONS OF A FREELANCE PENMONKEY Speak Your Mind, Word-Nerds Cancel reply. As someone plotting out aristotle ethics, a rather involved fantasy novel right now, I thoroughly enjoyed this list!

I also feel proud that I havent fallen into some of the pitfalls that you outline here. Now to go write as a celebration. Well this list is interesting Vampires are boring, especially when carrying crossbows with infinite bolts. Yes. #24lol. I just read a book about an beautiful, exotic-looking vampire girl wielding a katana. It was called The Immortal Rules.

Isnt that something? #128578; Ultimately I agree with most of the items on metals this list at least in the breakfast club part, however I disagree on some of them because I think that the point is too extreme. The main issues of metals this were with the Chosen One and the Tolkien Go Home parts. I think that to an extent your point is true but overall it is wrong because it lacks true context. The idea of the chosen one is a bit cliche and can ruin a good story if done wrong, however you must ultimately realize that most stories that have a single defined protagonist also have that person play the role of the chosen one even if they dont really express it. In some stories such as Harry Potter, The Matrix, etc the main character is defined as the Essay on Vehicle only person who can bring about victory or the metals desirable ending of the story and the reader/viewer is aware of this and the characters sometimes even discuss it openly. British Music Hall! That can work but its hard to pull off. In other stories such as the Sword of Truth series a more medium approach is taken as the protagonist is the chosen one but its not really said out loud like that or at least not for a really long time.

Now this brings me to the part that I think kills this idea completely and makes it worthless as a writing tip. Uses! With very very few exceptions (Im looking at you A Song of the breakfast club Ice and Fire) stories are extremely predictable. This comes from the fact that all stories are build on the same basic plots (even though some do have unique twists). Ultimately any given character has only 4 possible endings for any given story arc. #1. They are ultimately the winner of their story and transition metals uses, good triumphs. British Hall Society! (The villains slain, evil is defeated, the murder is caught, they win the girl/guy, etc). #2. The protagonist makes the True Heros Choice and sacrifices themselves in order to win. (Victory is transition metals uses achieved but it gives the reader melancholy about the heros life). Project! #3. The hero of the story is actually the villain, they either were always the villain or they became the villain along the transition metals uses way. (You either die the hero or you live long enough to see yourself become the villain.

Harvey Dent). #4. No significant change is achieved within the story and it ultimately more a learning experience about and virtue ethics (something). 1984 would fall into this category. Now knowing that basically every story ever written will fall into one of these four categories you can come to realize that the first 3 all have the fact in common that that hero is usually the chosen one. Metals! The fourth option wont work for 99% of all authors.

As a fantasy author you need to approach the chosen one idea with great care and finesse, but it can be used and it is best used in such a way where your characters arent running around saying, Only you can save everything even if that is the case. Now the second part. With the Tolkien part I can see where you are coming from, however your method is aristotle and virtue ethics not a good way to go about expressing the true issue. The real issue here comes from stories such as Eragon which take LOTR and transition metals uses, then copy/paste a lot of the genetic engineering world building into their story. The author is in transition metals love with LOTR and wants to create stories in the universe but he cant so instead he takes most of the important elements and copies them. THAT is bad. Exhaust Analysis! Fantasy isnt actually any different than other stories in any significant way other than the fact that its actually easier to convey certain feelings, ideas, etc. When you said that there is no great definition of fantasy you were completely right for the wrong reason. The real reason fantasy is metals uses undefinable is because any plot in aristotle and virtue existence can work as a fantasy story as fantasy is really just a tool for the author.

Ultimately any magical, fantastical, or alien element of transition metals uses a good fantasy story is actually just a way to personify something that is Essay on Eating Social Context real. If you have some race that isnt human in your story they dont exist for no reason, they exist to help express differences in human nature. If the transition uses race doesnt do this then it is violating the Dont do it to genetic engineering and disadvantages, just be cool reason. If used properly having elves, dwarves, dragons, whatever in a book can add a great deal to the story and metals uses, can actually be the main plot. I read a book (forget the name) that is genetic advantages and disadvantages entirely about elves and transition metals uses, it very much follows a Tolkien DD heritage but it was a worthwhile read because it ultimately used the elves as a tool to explore the corruption or society. For this reason alone I disagree with that statement. Overall I liked your article and agree with 90% of the points you made. For anyone who wants to write fantasy I can give you only a few tips.

Your story doesnt have to be a masterpiece, in genetic engineering fact you will be LESS successful as an transition uses, author if you write that way because it just doesnt sell well. Most people want to read a book that is high octane, simple, and easy to read. James Patterson is music a grand master of writing these kinds of books. I suggest coming up with simple stories and writing them. Save your sweeping fantasy story that will rival Tolkiens works for later. Your earlier works might not be great but the practice will make you a great author and if you collect your best ideas and save them eventually you will have a great story. I am a live long fantasy fan and new author loved the article lots of metals uses great points and definitley will keep some of it in Essay on Vehicle mind going forward. GODDAMNIT CHUCK, YOU JUST EVISCERATED MY ENTIRE IDEA! DX -weeps in corner- I was hoping to transition uses, do something oh-so-magical with different races. Back to the motherflippin grindstone . . . My little addition to Essay Analysis, your Fuck Tolkien: its not just elves and orcs that need to go.

Im fed up with the walking. We must go from here to another place. There we will be told where to go next. And so on transition metals until the end. And then they start walking. Yes, I get it. Brian The Breakfast! Mordor is far away, and walking is transition metals probably the best way to get there (except those damn eagles), but its been done.

Come up with something different. I find myself strangely drawn to #25. Genetic Engineering! Why has this never been done? Is this because it cant or shouldnt be done? Is it because too many people cant remember what they dream? Or is metals uses it because as adults we lose whatever part of the brain (sense probably gets in the way) that allows us to actually imagine like we used to as children? Maybe someone will change this one day

My dreams cannot be properly galvanized into anything remotely resembling rational stories. My last dream I remember involved scores of snowmen murdering people by thrusting them inside themselves whereupon they froze to deathafter a time an alien ufo arrived, the crazed snowmen removed the and virtue ethics corpses, raised them to transition metals, what my mind understood as a tractor beam, and, as the bodies rose into the ufo, the snowmen started changing presents! presents! which followed with the most beautifully wrapped Christmas presents off ever seen getting lowered from the genetic engineering and disadvantages ufo to the killer snowmen. Yes, the snowmen in my dream were murdering people and trading our corpses to aliens in exchange for Christmas presents You really want to transition, read an epic battle to save mankind from that diarrheal brain leakage likely brought on theater project by combining bad cheese with good wine too late in the evening? That actually sounds a little bit awesome. Hmm I agree with most of this. Ive been wondering for some time some things to avoid while writing a modern dark somewhat supernatural book.

The question I have been wondering for so long: Would people rather a For-The-Greater-Good or Bleed-Your-Heart-Out protagonist? I am sick of the dark/angsty anti-hero trend. Id really like to read about a pretty nice guy who tries to do the uses right thing. Maybe thats just me. Somehow I woke up yesterday with some ideas for a fantasy novel. After science-fiction and young adult, I thought it would be nice to change and explore territories I usually hate (including granpa Tolkien). Im glad once again google dragged me around terribleminds and this list. In A Social! I couldnt agree more on some points and it gave me inputs on what not to do. Thanks #128578; Awesome list, very entertaining work.

If anyone is in search of a place to transition, publish/share their fantasy stories or poems, is a great place to british, start. Its a writing/publishing app with a really positive community that I just recently started using. Best of metals luck, Scribblers! I love this list! haha!! These are some excellent points and commentaries! I am wanting to Essay on Vehicle Exhaust, write a fantasy story myself, and have read lots of transition metals uses books (both fiction and non-fiction). These are quite helpful. One of the best pages of advice for fantasy writers I have encountered. Thanks! I loved this! Thank you so much for taking the time to write out this helpful and humorous list.

I learned a lot and it reinforced a lot for me too. Federal Theater! Thanks again! This is quite possibly the uses best (and most humorous) list Ive come across. Kudos to you, sir. The Breakfast! Kudos to you. I absolutely love people with ridiculous, and therefore wonderful, imaginations, people who truly think outside the uses box and are fearless in presenting their ideas but who are also respectful of those who may stumble across their words. All this to federal theater project, say, your examples blend well with all your points, and this list is truly helpful to transition metals, those trying to write the Essay in a Context vague fantasy story.

Thanks. I love this post. Excellent and hilarious, and you went into things I never thought of. Uses! Now Ill have to go back and rethink and Im totally okay with that #128578; Fun stuff. Speaking of vamps in hot pants I always thought it would be fun to read or write a story about a fat, balding, overweight vampire who has the sex appeal of Essay Exhaust a rutabaga. Awesum. Hilarious. And very true.

Nicely said. Have to disagree on #7. What Ive seen in YA Fantasy is uses hopelessly inadequate and often belongs under Romance instead. Good, thoughtful Fantasy fiction that isnt afraid of british music hall society a little exposition and metals, expecting readers to come from college reading level and above will always have a ready audience. 75% of fantasy novels would disappear if the protagonist wasnt, in some degree, the one. The book doesnt have to be about a savior, but with this rule stories like Enders Game wouldnt exist. Was Ender told you are the chosen one!? No, but we as readers understand that he is the only one that could have claimed a victory. Brian! And that aspect of the character makes him interesting.

It a classic literary character and I would argue it will never truly get old. I had a fantasy world that I had created back when I was like 11. Recently, Ive been looking around notes I had made back then and found that I really want to keep this world alive. Im trying to transition metals, avoid all of the brian club tropes and transition uses, trying to the breakfast club, bring something fresh to transition, the table. Also, I agree that fantasy worlds should carry a dreamlike feel. The nostalgia I feel whenever I go into this world is something that Ill definetely try to invoke on readers. Ah, this list made me smile. Truly, youre hilarious and federal, you gave awesome advice. I have to comment on numbers 23 and 24 though #128578; I agree that a lot of fantasy and supernatural literature seem to be beating the transition same, sad, rotting, dead horse. Essay Social! BUT and this is a huge but, as indicated by transition metals uses my use of caps, that is only because a lot of this literature is aristotle of low quality.

There is nothing wrong with writing about elves, dwarves and sexy vampires any more than there is something wrong with writing about FBI agents, or detectives, or cute, clutsy librarians. Transition Metals! These genres have become so familiar to us that theyre almost as universally well known as our real world. So many phenomenal stories are told set in the real world the one were living in right now. There are no world-based mysteries in these stories no new twist on reality to make our planet special or unique. There are only the characters and the plot. Ethics! And if these two things are done well, we are fully engaged. Switch to a classic Tolkien fantasy setting with a great plot and great characters and no one will care about the fact that its still dwarves and transition uses, elves. Social! Theyll be thinking well shit, thats a brilliant character. The pretty but average girl luring in the hunky vamp isnt a new concept at ALL. Its wish fulfillment, designed to let girls escape into a world where someone just like them got the coolest, sexiest man.

Its Cinderella. Its pretty much every high school romance. Its done in a specific way that generally leaves the characters bereft ofwell, character. You could be as inventive as you want and make the heroine an entirely new species with horns and a cool tail and lizard eyes but if shes a bland character, shell still be mediocre compared to any classically designed elf with a hint of personality. Now, take human romance stories. There are great ones.

And there are crappy ones. The great ones involve incredibly authentic characters, and romantic suspense and occasionally even external conflict. Transition! Both romantic leads are so well developed that they really deserve their own books, separate from their beloved. Take a story with that much quality, and make one of the characters a sexy vampire and project, no one will give a flying fruitcake if its recycled. Metals! Everything is recycled in some way, no matter how hard we try. For something to be fresh and british society, authentic, it really only needs a complex and layered cast, and at least a functional plot in my personal opinion. However that doesnt mean I disagree with you entirely! I agree that fantasy and romance can always benefit from transition uses, new and groundbreaking worlds and designs, the kind that inspire hundreds of books themselves. Federal Project! I simply dont agree that people should ever feel uncomfortable or ashamed if theyre going back to the tried and tested stuff. After all, what makes Tolkiens typical setting any more bland, boring or overused than the world we live in now?

Absolutely nothing. Transition! Its just a world. And better yet, its a world that were almost all completely familiar with and yet its still distant enough for it to feel adventurous and exciting. Its the federal theater stage. When you go see a play and the stage is set up in a completely new and wonderful way, it will mean very little if the play is boring. Uses! If the stage is set up in a way thats similar and kind of cliche, that will quickly be the last of our concerns if the play proves to be great. Mix a great stage and a great play and Ill agree that you have something truly breathtaking.

Still, that level of brian club world-building ingenuity is transition hardly necessary for a great story #128578; Hey on brian club the note of number 5 what if that meat is the meat of a dinosaur and those potatoes are the blue kind grown in uses the countryside of the dragon knights. I read this like once a month. I dont mind that you say that youre unqualified because this was a purely entertaining read. I think these are all great points, except for two, Numbers 19 and 7. I realize Im in a tiny, tiny minority that doesnt mind weird names (Zsasz and Xaro Xhan Xhaxos, for starters) because their books, and dont need to be pronounced. And Virtue Ethics! But thats me, and maybe just me.

But is there really any brave YA fantasy right now? As in genre-defying? I havent noticed any-at least nothing on par with what Patrick Rothfuss or Brandon Sanderson or hell, even GRRM is doing. If there is, please! Tell me about it!

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ANDROID APPLICATION DEVELOPER Resume. India-BANGALORE (will consider relocating) esignation: Graduate Trainee Engineer. Metals? Duration :Dec 2010 till present. Programming Languages: ANSI C, C++,Core JAVA, Android Java (knowledge) Hardware: Microcontrollers: Intel 8051, Atmel 8253,Android 2.2 ad 2.3 based Handsets (HTC, Samsung, Micromax) Technologies: GPS for Navigation and Location Based Services,GSM for communication,RFID. Integrated Development Environment: Eclipse IDE (Helios),MSVC Visual Studio IDE, Knowledge :Networking - TCP/IP, Socket Programming,Data communications, Telematics. Database (SQL, MySQL, MS ACCESS) Course: BE (Electronics communication) Institution/Board: SDM College of Engineering Technology/VTU Karnataka. Institution/Board: Dr. A. British Music Hall Society? V. Baliga College of transition, Arts and Science, Kumta/Pre-University Examination Board.

Institution/Board: Gibb Girl's High School, Kumta/Karnataka Secondary Education Examination. Theater? 2007 Infosys Campus Connect Program (Secured 65.25%) Infosys Technologies Ltd., 2006 C++ Certification APTECH Computer Education, Kumta. #8226; Seminar on “Wi-max technology” during Academic course. #8226; Technical Paper presentation on transition uses 'Embedded Communication' at on Eating, state level competition KLESCET, Belgaum. 1. Project Title: GPS File Reader (.gpx, .kml) Employer: Allegis Services India Pvt Ltd., Client Name: Internal Initiative, Center of Excellence (CoE) Duration: 1 months (on-going) Platform: Eclipse IDE (Helios) Languages: Android Java, Java, C++ Operating System: Android 2.3.3 SDK on Windows 7. Transition? Hardware: HTC Sensation, Samsung Galaxy Pop, Micromax A60 handsets. On Vehicle Exhaust? Team Size: 1 (One) Project Details: The project was about reading an input .gpx file or .kml file and metals uses, displays it on Google Map on handset. .gpx is a standard file format in XML for storing GPS coordinates to be displayed on any MAP (Google Earth or Garmin devices etc.,). Role: Graduate Trainee Engineer. ? Study GPX and KML file formats. ? Develop sample application that reads an input .gpx or .kml file from and virtue SD Card of handset. ? Parse the various fields of GPX / KML file and retrieve the latitude and longitude coordinates. ? Design and uses, initialize the Essay on Eating Context DrawGoogleMap activity and metals, pass the coordinates to map and display as a point with suitable icon. ? Provide zoom in, zoom out and center button controls on MAP for user experience. ? Test the application on various handsets such as HTC, Samsung Galaxy Pop and Micromax A60. ? Document the procedure and record the results. Employer: Allegis Services India Pvt Ltd., Client Name: Internal Initiative, Center of british, Excellence (CoE) Duration: 4 months. Platform: Eclipse IDE (Helios) Languages: Android Java, Java, C++ Operating System: Android 2.3.3 SDK on Windows 7. Hardware: HTC Sensation, Samsung Galaxy Pop, Micromax A60 handsets. Team Size: 1 (One) Project Details: E-mail Phone Contacts: Understand contacts manager in Android, and implement “Push Contacts to E-mail” application, which reads all the uses contacts in a pre-defined format from the handset and composes an Essay Analysis, E-mail with complete contact details as body of the E-mail, and with the To E-mail address indicated by the user. Send User Location: This application has to initiate GPS on the handset, receive coordinates from GPS module, compose an SMS or E-mail and send a link to the destination in a predefined format.

SMS Packetiser: This application requests user to metals enter a destination mobile number, SMS frequency and number of SMSes to be sent. The Breakfast? The application then starts sending GPS coordinates to metals the predefined mobile number. Genetic Engineering And Disadvantages? Role Graduate Trainee Engineer. Metals? ? Study Android OS, Contacts Manager, GPS Manager, Telephony APIs for SMS; Contacts manager in brian, Android needed to transition uses be studied in order to understand the way contacts are organized and british music, stored in an Android handset. ? System setup for suitable AVD (Android Virtual Device), download latest updates. ? Design suitable GUI for the applications, viz., E-mail phone contacts, Send User Location by transition metals uses, SMS and brian the breakfast club, E-mail, SMS Packetiser. ? Modify Android manifest XML file to include all use permissions such as GPS, SMS READ / SEND / RECEIVE. ? Implement the required GUI by making modifications to the main.xml file. Transition Metals? ? Insert suitable code to capture the various button and text field events and federal theater, implement the metals desired action for Essay on Vehicle Exhaust Analysis each of the applications. Transition Metals Uses? ? Test the implementation on various handsets such as HTC, Samsung Galaxy Pop and Micromax A60. Employer: Allegis Services India Pvt Ltd., Client Name: Internal Initiative, Center of Excellence (CoE) Duration: 1 months. Platform: Eclipse IDE (Helios) Languages: Core Java. Operating System: Android 2.3.3 SDK on Windows 7. Hardware: HTC Sensation, Samsung Galaxy Pop, Micromax A60 handsets. Essay On Vehicle Exhaust Analysis? Team Size: 1 (One) Project Details: The project was essentially aimed at ramping up to speed in Java and Eclipse IDE. As a part of the transition uses training, fundamentals of core Java and using Eclipse IDE were to hall be learnt, and an employee database system using swings and MS ACCESS database was to be implemented, including all relevant records of an employee, with basic features such as new/modify/delete/save, E-mail records, SMS records were implemented.

Role: Graduate Trainee Engineer. ? Study core Java and Eclipse IDE; understand project creation and transition metals uses, associated settings in Eclipse, and debug sample applications. ? Design a basic database management system with relevant fields / records. ? Develop the GUI using swings and interface the database for back-end operations. ? Test implementation for Essay in a Social Context functionality and specification coverage. Transition Metals Uses? ? Document the procedure, and report the results. Essay Analysis? A1. Project Title: Electronic Navigation Aid (ENA) -- Vision for Blind. Duration: 6 months. Platform: Microcontroller 8253 (ATMEL) Languages: C, 8051 Assembly Language, Technology used:- RFID, GPS. Team Size: 3 (three) Project Details: Electronic Navigation Aid (ENA) was devised as a prototype that would provide navigation for the blind, in transition, both indoor and outdoor environments. The spatial database was developed via which location details were provided to the user using audio annunciations. Role: Project Engineer / Team Lead. ? Study GPS, RFID and 8253 Atmel Microcontroller modules. ? Design the system and define the aristotle and virtue interfaces for integration. ? Implement GPS Module. ? Project report and documentation. College: Infosys Technologies Ltd., campus program. Duration: 1 month.

Platform: Visual Studio IDE. Languages: ANSI C. Team Size: 3 (three) Project Details: Implementation of a student information database, it would require to save the transition metals internal assessment marks of students and other relative information, of any defined number of entries and later perform a set of predefined functions, both arithmetic and logical, on the data. ? Study different database systems, file structures in C. Engineering Advantages? ? Implement the database system using C programming language and MSVC IDE. Project report and metals, documentation. #8226; Member -- Wall Magazine, SDMCET -- ECE Department, Technical Articles Section. #8226; Editor -- ECE Department, SDMCET Wall Magazine 2007-08 and 2008-09. #8226; Member -- Organizing team of 'Aspirations 2020', Zonal Level, conducted by Infosys. #8226; Member -- NSS Team at SDMCET (2007-2009) 2007 Infosys Campus Connect Program (Secured 65.25%) Infosys Technologies Ltd., 2006 C++ Certification APTECH Computer Education, Kumta.

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Writing a Postgraduate Dissertation in Law. Writing a Postgraduate Dissertation in transition metals Law at Masters Level. This page is intended to on Eating Context offer guidance to law students about to metals uses write a postgraduate dissertation on the breakfast club a taught Masters programme. Transition Metals! This complements the page on writing law essays but is intended more for postgraduate law students on a Masters programme who are writing a substantial 10-20,000 word dissertation. As well as the page on law essays you may well find the Further Reading page useful.

As ever, bear in mind your supervisor, school and Essay Analysis university will all have their own requirements and you should heed these. I am grateful to colleagues and students at the University of Lancaster, Queens University of Belfast and the University of metals, Ulster for their advice on on Eating in a Context these issues over the years. Introduction: Thinking, Research, Writing. When approaching your project, remember that there are three core elements to any project: thinking, research and metals uses writing. These elements are not separate, but each element influences the others. Thus your thinking should inform both your research and your writing, but similarly your research will stimulate your thinking and assist your writing. Your writing will also help develop your research and ethics your thinking. So all the elements are mutually reinforcing. Nevertheless, we will stress the thinking element as this tends to be invisible and is thus forgotten about. Understandably a student will want to feel that he or she is doing something; writing a few hundred words, reading a paper (or even downloading it) all feel like work. In that context it is easy to forget that thinking is essential for a dissertation (or indeed any) project.

Of course thinking great thoughts is not sufficient either! The great thoughts must be based on information and knowledge (research) and must be reduced to written form. Before getting down to uses these requirements, let me stress two points. The dissertation is the genetic engineering, culmination of your degree. Metals! It is premised on the idea that you have been participating in seminars, reading for your courses, discussing law with your colleagues and advantages and disadvantages tutors. All of these experiences provide the environment in which you develop your skills. The readings, seminar questions and discussions have been designed to prepare you to write an independent piece of metals uses, research. Project! If you have a doubt or a query in transition uses the dissertation process try and reflect on what you have learned from the experience so far.

Second, enjoy your dissertation: this is a project based on something you have chosen presumably because you are interested in it, and it is a project where you get to design your own research approach. Exhaust! It is very much about you and your interests, so enjoy. The dissertation or research project needs to show that the uses, author has thought deeply and thoroughly about the project. This is manifested in a number of ways. Has the brian club, student chosen an transition uses, appropriate topic? Does the student have a clear purpose? Does the aristotle and virtue, student demonstrate critical thinking? Has the student thought through his or her approach? Has the student planned appropriately? Choosing a topic. You may find it helpful to choose a topic in transition metals which you have an interest, or some experience; or where you have studied some aspect of federal theater, it in a module.

You may have the possibility to choose a topic which has no connection to a module you have chosen. Uses! Whatever topic you choose remember that you will have to Essay on Vehicle Exhaust Analysis devote several hundred hours to it, so it should be one which will sustain your interest. If choosing a topic about transition metals which you are passionate, do stop to consider whether you might not be too passionate or involved in the topic: you must still be able to exercise critical judgement and if you are too close to the topic this may be difficult. When choosing a topic be aware that some topics are very popular. This does not mean that you should not do them, but you should consider how you can bring a fresh perspective. You could for instance take a more socio-legal perspective or take a different theoretical approach. A dissertation, even more than an essay, is not simply a long document about a topic. Aristotle And Virtue Ethics! It is important to realise that a dissertation does not just describe, or examine, or analyse, or study a particular area of uses, law.

A dissertation must have a purpose to it; there must be a point to the dissertation. Federal! This is sometimes expressed in different ways. The most common way of expressing this requirement is to say that a dissertation must have a research question. Or there may be a requirement that a dissertation have a central thesis. Metals! Or that it have a central argument, though it is important to note here that argument has a technical meaning. Argument here means that it is reasoned answer to Essay a question. The following are not arguments: background, introductions, quotes, descriptions, summaries, explanations, examples, questions, rhetorical questions, statements of opinion/ agreement / disagreement (Cottrell 2005 Ch.

4) You should reflect on what your purpose, or research question, or argument is. You should try and make this explicit, both to yourself and to your reader. Making this purpose explicit to yourself will assist you in choosing research approaches and methods, in how you read, and in structuring your dissertation. Making it explicit to your reader will help the reader understand your dissertation. Transition Metals! Furthermore the assessment of engineering advantages, your dissertation will largely turn on how successfully you answer your research question, on how convincingly you develop your thesis or argument. If your purpose is unclear to yourself or your reader, then it is likely that the dissertation will be confused. The language of research question or thesis highlights an important point. Your dissertation must be based on an open minded approach, one that makes judgements based on evidence, even if the uses, author does not instinctively like the conclusion. This requirement is Essay Exhaust, also implicit though in the academic understanding of what an metals, argument is.

All of genetic advantages, this goes to critical thinking that we will discuss soon. The term argument does highlight other important aspects of the dissertation exercise: your dissertation must come to a conclusion (based on evidence) and this conclusion may involve taking sides. Thus essays which start off with I will examine what the Court has said on issue X, explore the advantages and transition disadvantages of the in a Social Context, Courts approach and then come to a conclusion will rarely get high marks they tend to become descriptive and lack a clear point. Presumably the metals, hypothetical author intends to be open-minded and balanced; this is good but you write the essay after having done the open-minded and balanced research. Aristotle And Virtue! You should be able to give some clearer indication of your conclusion. Try and metals uses make your purpose / research question / argument as precise as possible. In particular avoid very general or vague statements of music society, your purpose. Metals Uses! Your purpose should not simply be to describe the on Vehicle, law pertaining to metals uses the use of force or to examine the law relating to privacy.

Rather your question might be has the Iraq invasion established a new rule on the use of force in international law? or can the law effectively protect privacy in the Twitter age? (For more on trying to make your question precise, see Finch and Fafinski, Ch 13). In your reading, your writing and of course your thinking, you must demonstrate critical thinking. Critical thinking is one of the most important, if not the brian the breakfast club, most important, skill you should develop at University. See the Further Reading page for more reading on critical thinking. Critical here does not mean negative much less nihilistic. Be a critic, not a cynic (Paul and Elder 2001: 381).Critical here means that one exercises independent powers of judgement; that one has the courage to think for oneself (Kant, What is Enlightenment ?) . Borrowing again from Kant, we might say that critical thinking requires an ever unquiet or restless reason; that is to say a questioning attitude. Critical thinking is all about asking the right questions (Browne and Keeley 2007; see also this poster). We often say we are looking for deep thinking rather than surface thinking, i.e. show that you are engaging with the material, questioning it. These questions may go to understanding what someone is metals, saying (what is the authors purpose here?

Can I restate it in my own words?), but should also involve substantive points: what is the evidence for a position? Are the reasons for this position convincing? Is there other evidence that needs to be considered? Question whether the evidence and reasons are accurate, consistent, relevant, convincing? Is there a better interpretation of the the breakfast, evidence? Are there implicit assumptions and uses if so are these justifiable? Do not take anyones views treatise writer, judge, tutor for granted. Demand evidence and reasons for any position. Read court cases carefully make sure to read minority or dissenting opinions as these often give great insight into alternatives to the majority approach.

When discussing court cases with more than one judge, consider the status of each judge (is the judge giving an individual opinion, a dissenting opinion, an opinion in which other judges concur?). Be careful relying on the first speech it may be a dissent or partial dissent (e.g. Lord Bingham in ethics Al Skeini ). Metals! Remember that judges frequently summarise others views, eg counsel before them; judges in british society previous cases; other judges in the same case. Do not assume that everything a judge says is his or her own view. Critical thinking and deep reading are very important because not every piece of work you read will itself be entirely rigorous or up to date so it is important for you to make up your own mind. Consider the metals uses, context in which a writer is writing: a view from Jennings in federal theater project 1954 may not be accurate when describing the situation in the 21 st Century. Metals Uses! It is better to make your own mistakes trying to use your own understanding rather than repeating others mistakes! Critical thinking also requires that you think from the viewpoint of others (Paul and genetic Elder 2006 refer to transition uses this as wide thinking).

If you are writing a dissertation about the and virtue, Iraq invasion and transition uses want to argue that it was illegal, think carefully about Essay on Vehicle Exhaust Analysis how the matter would appear to metals someone who did not agree with you (an advisor to the UK Government, an academic who has defended the invasion, a member of the Iraqi opposition). Can you enter into the assumptions and viewpoints of someone else and think through what is required to convince him or her? Critical thinking means being self-critical. Thus you have to examine your own assumptions and advantages try and make them explicit and transition metals justify them. Avoid wishful thinking (Grunfeld et al 2010 suggest human rights scholars are prone to this). Do not attack straw men i.e. anonymous unidentifiable people with whom you disagree. Show awareness of aristotle and virtue ethics, nuance and complexity; avoid broad statements about transition metals uses e.g. broad statements about a specific culture or religions respect for the breakfast, human rights. Be careful about reductionist arguments or either-or (black/white or Manichean) thinking. At the same time do not use complexity or nuance to hide behind: you need to give a clear precise answer to the question (even if it is a complicated answer). Be wary of terms that are question-begging or loaded (undoubtedly obviously it is metals, clear that, that view is absurd!), that encourage complicity (we all know, no sane person would), appeal to fashion (it is no longer the 1950s!), or that are vague or vacuous (quite very fairly).

Do not shy away from Social Context, strongly worded conclusions if these are justified (the stronger the conclusion the greater the transition, justification required). Whilst at the breakfast, the upper levels of the marking scale, we speak of transition metals uses, originality this is a very high standard, more commonly associated with PhDs. We are really looking for a distinctive approach, that you are speaking in a distinctive voice (your own!), maybe looking at engineering, a fairly small area that has not been well covered before, and showing a sense of judgment. You should think carefully about anything you read or write. Is it clear, accurate and precise (Paul and metals Edler 54, 128)? You need to avoid broad statements or generalizations that may oversimplify matters: Human Rights Law. The ECHR protects only civil and political rights is so broad and simplistic as to and virtue be wrong. Better: The ECHR explicitly recognises mainly civil and political rights, but also includes the prohibition of forced labour, the transition metals uses, right to respect for family life, the right to form trade unions, the right to marry, the right to property and the right to education. Constitutional law . Conventions are unwritten practices which evolve over time is again too broad and simplistic. Some conventions can be written down (ministerial code) and and virtue some can be created at metals uses, a specific moment in time (eg Sewell, Salisbury).

Some statements may be an british, unfortunate slip of the transition uses, typing key: other international treaties such as the on Eating Social Context, UDHR is misleading and transition wrong. Similarly if you write that the ECtHR banned the Turkish Welfare Party in the Refah Paritisi case you are wrong (the Turkish constitutional court banned it; the ECtHR held that the Essay on Vehicle Exhaust, ban was compatible with Turkeys obligations under the ECHR). Similarly the PSNI was required to be 50:50 Catholic: Protestant is wrong; what should be said is that there was temporary quota requirement that 50% of PSNI recruits be Catholic. Again, Article 3 of the metals uses, European Convention protects the right to vote is wrong: Article 3 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention protects the right to vote is okay. Try to include specifics rather than generalities. For instance, do not say Few countries have ratified Protocol 12 but rather As of 21 October 2009 only 17 countries of 47 COE member states have ratified Protocol 12. Avoid purely descriptive pieces. Essay Analysis! Look through your papers which parts are quotes, description, summary, background; which parts are your actual arguments or evaluations. Avoid inserting material simply because it somehow looks relevant. It may well be relevant but you need to be explicit about transition metals how it contributes to theater the argument. Be careful when summarising.

Do not do too much summarising (i.e. demonstrating knowledge) we are really looking to see more than knowledge understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation (see Blooms Taxonomy, discussed in Finch and Fafinski; for a poster, click here). This is metals uses, probably the theater project, aspect of dissertation writing that tends to transition metals uses intimidate students, especially when framed in terms of methodology, theory or framework. Genetic Advantages And Disadvantages! See Cryer et al for discussion of transition, these different ways of describing what they call methodology (Cryer et al 2011: 5). Law students and indeed academics sometimes react to questions about methodology by saying that this is what other disciplines do, that lawyers just read cases and and virtue ethics books and then come to conclusions, or even that they use a legal methodology. It follows though from what we have said about critical thinking that we can and uses must say more than this.

To say that one has a legal methodology implies that the lawyers, judges, academics and brian the breakfast philosophers who have contributed to transition the millennia old debates about law were mistaken in thinking that there was any controversy. For instance, even if you wish to engineering and disadvantages take a doctrinal or black-letter analysis, you still need to think about how to approach questions of transition uses, interpretation or precedent. Lawyers disagree about how to approach these questions and have numerous and different ways of analysing rules (Twining and Miers 2010). Hall! If you want to consider a project concerning policy or law reform you need to consider why a particular policy should be favoured. This takes you into normative and metals empirical questions.

Or you could take an approach which is more explicitly critical of the on Eating, law; eg you might want to metals uses take a feminist or Derridean or queer theory approach or a comparative approach. Comparative pieces can be tricky. Think about why you are comparing is it to Essay on Vehicle Exhaust find a better solution, is it to understand something about the nature of metals uses, law, is it to understand something about different legal cultures? Be cautious about ethics better solution comparative law it is not necessarily easy to transplant legal rules or institutions from one jurisdiction to another. When choosing your approach, consider whether you have an adequate grounding in the approach. Transition Metals! It would be a high risk strategy to adopt (eg) a deconstructionist approach if you have no prior experience with deconstruction. For more on these different approaches see Salter and Mason 2007; Cryer et al 2011. You need to devote some thought to how you will work on your dissertation. A dissertation is a substantial piece of work even just in terms of sheer length a dissertation may be twice the length of an average journal article in a UK law review.

To address such a challenge it is necessary to project start planning (and thinking and reading and writing) early . It will be a more manageable task if you start early and break the project down into components that are doable. You cant just sit down and write 10-20,000 words but you can sit down and identify what you need to read, locate it, read it, write notes, do a chapter outline, write first draft of uses, a chapter section, check your references, write a first draft of the and virtue ethics, next three sections, etc. Meet with your supervisor early in the project. You should have some idea as to what you want to talk about -and ideally some sort of dissertation outline (see Finch and transition uses Fafinski Ch 13) before you approach your supervisor, but do not leave it too late. In A! You will need to factor your supervisors schedule into your own, especially if your dissertation needs to be completed over the summer. If you plan to do any sort of empirical work interviews, surveys, site visits it is especially important that you start planning early. Transition Metals! You may well have ethics procedures to comply with, and the practicalities or arranging interviews, visits etc can take a considerable amount of time. And again, you need to consider the timetables of other people.

Any research project has ethical dimensions. The responsibility to give credit for federal project, others work is an ethical requirement. This is why consideration of referencing and plagiarism is important. Similarly, you need to consider whether your research might do any harm. You should consider whether there are any equality dimensions to your project: eg is there a difference in how men and women experience the transition uses, phenomena being examined? Has allowance been made for this in brian the research design? More onerous ethical obligations arise if you want to do empirical work involving interviewing other people.

The ethical obligations will generally escalate as the contact with human persons becomes more sensitive. Transition! There are ethical issues involved in interviewing professionals and expert for instance. Project! Greater obligations exist if one wishes to interview ordinary people and even more so vulnerable groups. Metals Uses! (Probably not relevant if you are doing a law dissertation but most institutions will have very elaborate requirements for any work involving human tissue or experimentation.) Check your institutions ethics policy. The research that you conduct will depend on the purpose of your project and genetic engineering advantages how you conceive your methodological approach.

It is important that everything coheres in the dissertation. Sometimes students form the metals, impression that they should use a particular research method (eg surveys or interviews or a Derridean analysis) because this will look impressive. This is a high risk strategy. If the research method is not suitable to advantages and disadvantages your purpose and approach, or if you have selected a method which you do not firmly understand then the transition, project may have serious flaws. So assess you research methods in the light of genetic engineering advantages, your purpose and approach. Having said that, markers will generally want to see that your research is wide ranging, thorough, up to date, well judged and appropriate to transition uses your purpose and aristotle and virtue ethics approach. You should consider a wide range of different types of sources.

Try not to over rely on any one source or type of transition uses, source (i.e. dont just refer to Steiner et al text book on human rights; examine the primary sources and secondary sources; do not just refer to books show you have researched the journal articles as well). For legal research you should consider the full range of primary legal sources (statutes, cases, treaties, EU law, etc) and also other material like soft law documents (eg international declarations, etc). Genetic Engineering Advantages And Disadvantages! You should consider the range of relevant official documents (parliamentary committee reports, white papers, Law Commission papers, departmental consultation documents, etc). It will be important that you show familiarity with, and engagement with, the range of transition metals, academic writings relevant to your project. It is important that you go beyond relying on a small number of textbooks. Project! You should also consider whether there are monographs or edited collections relevant to your research. Crucially you will need to show that you have sought out journal articles, especially from peer reviewed journals . Material published in peer reviewed journals may well be more up to date and more focused than some other sources; if the journal is uses, peer reviewed then the article will have been examined by one or two experts anonymously prior to publication, so there is Essay on Vehicle Exhaust Analysis, a guarantee of quality. Again, depending on your purpose and approach, you should consider going beyond legal, official or legal academic sources (provided always you show judgement). You may want to rely on material from philosophy, psychology, literature, history, politics, etc. You may want to use news media sources, or reports from uses, nongovernmental organisations.

You might want to refer to on Vehicle (but be cautious here) blogs. Thorough and up to date. No one can be expected to read and synthesise everything, especially not for a dissertation; similarly it would be unreasonable to expect a detailed re-write of a dissertation because of a court decision two days before submission. Nevertheless, your marker will expect your work to be thorough and metals up to date. It can be disastrous if a student relies on an out of Essay on Eating in a Context, date court case if for instance, you devote your dissertation to an extensive criticism of a High Court judgment but do not realise that it was reversed on metals uses appeal, then this is engineering advantages, a serious problem. Sometimes the problems stems from a tendency to round up a few textbooks and read through them. However textbooks may be out of date it is important to metals do your own research into both the primary and the secondary sources. To ensure your work is british hall society, thorough and up to date, use several strategies. If your dissertation is related to a topic covered in metals uses a module, then check the Essay in a Social Context, relevant module syllabus to see which sources are considered important. If a module syllabus clearly indicates that a particular court case or treaty or statute is relevant to the topic then consider carefully including it. Use a range of transition, search techniques to sweep up the relevant sources: do not just rely on one research technique.

If you rely on Lexis searches for instance this may mean you miss material only available on Westlaw or HeinOnLine. On Eating In A Social Context! Search the databases relevant to your research carefully and patiently. If writing about the ECtHR then you will need to spend time working with the HUDOC database for example. If a particular source is key to your argument then take some time to see what has been said about it, eg if it is a case has it been disapproved or applied? You could find the transition metals, Westlaw case analysis useful for this but do not rely just on that tool. You ensure that you are thorough and up to date by reading carefully the material you acquire: if you are reading the material carefully this will hopefully mean you pick up on what others think is important.

Well judged and aristotle appropriate. Your thinking (and specifically your thinking about your purpose and approach) needs to feed in to uses what you read, research and federal project write. You must show judgement about transition metals which sources you rely upon and show an understanding of their relative importance. Thus if you want to make a criticism of Essay Context, (say) John Rawls, you need to consider whether you are relying on transition metals uses an introductory textbook, or an article critiquing Rawls, or whether you have read Rawls own words to form your judgement. Show a sense of judgement about on Vehicle what is important. Transition! There are thousands of brian, cases on transition Article 6 and delay in the Italian courts if discussing the problem of hall, delay you do not need to mention every single case! It is transition metals, not easy to be prescriptive about what cases are important: generally if a higher court says something that is new and changes the understanding of the theater, law that is very important. Accordingly you may well be especially interested in uses judgements from the theater, ECtHR Grand Chamber or the highest courts such as the UK Supreme Court or (eg) the Constitutional Court of a country. This does not mean you will never be interested in first instance cases, and some scholars recommend more attention be paid to what happens in the majority of transition metals, courts, rather than just the top court. That is also fine what matters is that what you read and write about makes sense in light of your purpose and approach. Be clear about genetic engineering advantages which jurisdiction / area you are writing about.

If you are writing about the ICCPR then be careful about citing US cases or ECHR cases. If you are writing about US policy in Guantanamo, you should not talk about violations of the metals uses, ECHR (the USA is not a party to the ECHR). You need to be especially carefully when relying on web based resources. While the web is a valuable resource for research, it also contains much that is bad or ugly as the aristotle and virtue ethics, Internet Detective puts it. I once had a student who unfortunately relied on a Neo-Nazi website; the student was hardly to blame as the transition metals uses, website was disguised to portray itself as an academic resource. The point is that you need to aristotle and virtue ethics be sceptical about material found on the web. Transition Metals Uses! Always consider carefully whether the material is reliable.

You may want to rely on blogs as a resource. Certainly these should not be a major source in your dissertation. There are some excellent law blogs run by well established academics. These provide useful insights, especially in Analysis relation to very recent developments where the law journal articles may not yet have had time to appear. Even so, remember what we said above about the range of sources you should use. Note taking and transition metals referencing while reading. It is important that you get into aristotle, good habits when it comes to note taking and in transition metals particular referencing early in your research. This is important for several reasons. Federal Theater! First, you will have to transition metals uses manage a large amount of material a system of post its, scribbled pages and random emails wont enable you to aristotle and virtue ethics do this.

Second, academic integrity requires that you give credit to transition metals uses others for the breakfast club, their work. Third, good habits are essential to avoid unfounded accusations of plagiarism or academic malpractice. Good practice here means that you should take a full citation note of anything you read, and make sure to take down all the relevant details. I lost a week at the end of my LLM because I had to check the metals, Library for the first initial of every author I had read. Check what citation system you need to use early on in the project and keep the relevant details.

Where to keep the federal, details? You may simply want to keep them listed in a word document. Another option you might consider is transition, storing them in brian the breakfast a spreadsheet or database programme, though it may not be easy to create references for uses, insertion into your dissertation. The most advanced solution is to use bibliography software to the breakfast club manage your references. Uses! Some of these are free to use and rely on a web based interface (Refworks, or Mendeley), while others are more expensive and may require loading a programme on to a particular machine (Endnote). Some universities offer training in the use of one or other of these packages. On Vehicle Exhaust! None of them are ideal for legal sources or OSCOLA referencing though. Refworks works well with Harvard referencing but is often unsatisfactory if you want to use footnotes in your dissertation.

See the Tech tips page for transition metals uses, more on these programmes. When taking notes, be selective, do not write everything down. As noted above, your thinking should inform your research (reading) so read bearing in Essay on Vehicle Analysis mind your purpose and approach. When making notes, ensure that, if you write down a direct quote, then it will be obvious to you in 3 or 6 months time that it is a direct quote. Similarly, when making notes ensure that you write down the appropriate pinpoint (page reference or paragraph reference); this will save you needlessly having to re-read everything six months later. Plan to give yourself time to draft, redraft, redraft, redraft, redraft, etc. Metals! papers. There are no good writers, only good rewriters (Tredinnick 2008: 10).

Style is a very individual matter, and people may reasonably differ over what is an appropriate writing style for an academic dissertation. Try to keep your writing style clear. You should try to make everything transparent to the reader. If your meaning is and virtue, unclear then this may well indicate that your thinking on the subject is unclear. Keep your language concise: avoid unnecessary words or phrases. Transition! Consider carefully whether every chapter, section, paragraph, sentence and Social Context word is necessary to convey your meaning. If not then delete it. Consider: is transition, the ECHR does explicitly recognise any different from the ECHR explicitly recognises. Avoid wordiness, verbiage, trying to look too smart.

I have occasionally read essays in Essay Social Context which in the course of a paragraph, a judge opines, pronounces, declares sometimes judges might just say something. By all means mix different types of paragraphs and different types of sentences (Tredinnick), but avoid having too many short paragraphs or too many long sentences. Avoid too many short paragraphs in an essay. Some people find it helpful to take a journal article that they find insightful, and sit down and think why they find it insightful. What characteristics about the article make it worthwhile? Then try and develop those characteristics in your own writing. Abbreviations / acronyms. Write these out in full the first time and metals uses put the abbreviation/acronym in theater project brackets afterwards.

Later you can just use the acronym/abbreviation. Avoid inventing unusual abbreviations of your own that defy accepted conventions (e.g. by transition metals, convention we do not abbreviate Lord to L when discussing the aristotle ethics, Law Lords.) Footnote references: Normally put footnote references at the end of a sentence outside of punctuation. It is also acceptable to put them inside punctuation provided you are consistent. Ibid refers to the immediately preceding footnote reference. When proofreading, you may want to proofread in stages (Goldstein and Lieberman 2002), ie proofread once to check the uses, overall flow of the narrative; proofread a second time to check how paragraphs link together; proofread a third time to pick up on spelling and grammar; proofread a fourth time to check citations. You need a certain distance from your work in order to proofread it properly. This is a strong reason to start your dissertation early this means you can give yourself a few days or a week or so between finishing an advanced draft and then proofreading it carefully. You may also find it useful to aristotle ethics swap your dissertation with a colleagues and to red-pen each others work. Or you may be able to ask a friend or family member to read the dissertation.

Many people when proofreading find it useful to work off a hard copy rather than the computer screen. So if you have spent 100 hours in front of the computer screen now may be a good time to print a hard copy and read through it take it to metals a park or a cafe and sit down and just read it. Avoid the passive voice. Indicate the subject of your sentence- this is usually clearer, more specific and project more forceful. Compare Not every payment made by the state to an individual will be regarded as a social security matter in the Strasbourg Court. The ECtHR does not regard every payment made by the State to metals uses an individual as a social security matter. Consider your structure carefully.

Your purpose (/research question/ argument) will likely determine your structure. A dissertation will normally be structured around chapters (or maybe sections), including introductory and concluding chapters. Within chapters headings and even sub-headings may be used. In addition to the chapters there will usually be a bibliography (and possibly tables of cases, statutes, etc), a table of Essay, contents, a title page, an abstract page and an acknowledgements page. Metals! If there are no University guidelines as to brian formatting then see if you can get ahold of a copy of metals, a good quality dissertation example to see how it is laid out. Just as the chapters must be logically structured, so must the paragraphs. Each paragraph should develop a distinct idea use a new paragraph for a new idea. Your paragraphs should follow logically. If you are finding it difficult to see the logic of your paragraphs try underlining the key word or sentence, or writing the Essay on Eating in a, key point beside the paragraph.

See then if the order of the paragraphs makes sense. Use signalling to help the reader understand how the chapters, sections, paragraphs are linked. Thus the beginning of a chapter might want to refer back to the previous chapter and the overall argument; the end of a chapter might want to transition metals uses allude to the next stage of the argument. Similarly check each paragraphs: Does it link to the next paragraph? It is an old piece of and virtue ethics, advice but it remains true: devote extra attention to your introduction and your conclusion. As these create the first and the last impressions on transition metals the reader it is important that they be well crafted. A strong (or weak) conclusion can determine the result of what has hitherto been a borderline dissertation. Your introduction should entice the british hall, reader if possible, but should more prosaically give some background, provide a road map of the dissertation, and uses indicate the purpose of the thesis. It is often useful to brian the breakfast indicate what your argument or conclusion will be in the introduction.

It is metals uses, sometimes difficult to write a conclusion; especially if you have concluded your argument or answered your research question in the last substantive chapter before the conclusion. The best advice I have seen here is that the conclusion should thoughtfully bring the project, dissertation to an end. Check that your thesis reflects your title and vice versa. As with all the guidance here, check your university documentation to transition uses see if there is specific guidance as to expectations. This may detail matters like placement and format of title page, anti-plagiarism declaration, abstract, acknowledgements, table of contents, content of thesis, bibliography, appendices, etc. When reading material always keep a note of the aristotle and virtue ethics, proper citation of what you are reading. Make sure you include pinpoint page or paragraph numbers. Make sure that if you write down direct quotes in your notes that you use quote marks (or later you might forget the words are someone elses and metals inadvertently commit plagiarism).

There are many different citation styles which differ according to discipline, country, even journal! Use a recognised citation style and use it consistently . Make sure to federal theater project use a consistent citation system. Do not try to transition metals invent your own citation system. If directed to use a specific style (eg OSCOLA, Harvard) use it correctly. There is no official citation system for legal sources, but the OSCOLA systems is increasingly used: There is a great one page summary which you should keep to hand when writing. There is also an excellent tutorial at It is important that you cite any source you use.

Do not say Someone says, academics think It is thought, etc. Federal Theater Project! Say (eg) Chalmers and Anderson argue that (fnref). Citations must be full and they must be precise. By full that means the reader needs to know: Book: author, title, year of publication and transition uses the publisher. Article: author, title, year of Essay on Vehicle Exhaust Analysis, publication, name of journal, volume of journal, page reference within journal. Case: name, Neutral Citation, year, volume, law report, page within the report.

By precise I mean that if you refer to a source in your text, give the exact page or paragraph where the author or judge or whatever says what you claim s/he says. (Always think of the reader is transition metals uses, it possible for the reader to doubt this claim? Then give him/her the precise page or paragraph where he/she can find support for the claim.) This is called pinpoint referencing. Where someone does not provide a full or precise citation, the marker may assume that s/he has not really read that source, but is just taking it from somewhere else. Be careful when cross referencing in genetic engineering advantages and disadvantages footnotes it is easy to transition metals make mistakes. Aristotle! It is probably better not to transition metals uses cross reference but to give the full reference in the first footnote and then a short reference in subsequent ones. If you do cross reference make sure this is the last thing you do and do not change any footnotes afterwards!

You will usually be expected to the breakfast club include a bibliography. Again each institution may have its own version of how this should be presented. A few matters to bear in mind: Any bibliography should distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As there are many different types of primary source you will probably need to distinguish between eg UK case law, Case law of the CJEU Acts of the UK Parliament etc. Make sure you use the citation system precisely and metals uses consistently. Some markers will have a strong preference that a bibliography should only include material you have actually referenced in theater project your work. Transition Metals! (However this may differ depending on the academic culture or discipline, where you may be expected to have a comprehensive bibliography) Different universities will define plagiarism slightly differently. Brian The Breakfast! In some instances the transition metals uses, difference between plagiarism and bad academic practice is aristotle ethics, unclear. However you should strive to transition avoid all bad academic practice anyway!

Remember plagiarism (or bad academic practice) can include more than just passing off someone elses words as your own. Engineering Advantages And Disadvantages! It can include any instance where you do not give credit to someone else for transition uses, their information, ideas and words. Theater! This can include failing to give credit to other students or indeed to yourself if you rely on work previously submitted. It can include paraphrasing others if you do not give an appropriate reference, and it can include lifting footnotes from metals uses, other sources. It may happen inadvertently . Plagiarism may also consist of using another students work, using your own work or even purchasing a paper from elsewhere. The key to avoiding plagiarism or bad academic practice is to british hall get into good habits when it comes to transition uses note taking and referencing. Avoid the temptation to paraphrase material (changing the and virtue, words only transition uses slightly). Be very careful when summarising what others have said. Is what you have written recognisably yours, or someone elses? The penalties for plagiarism can be severe and may seriously hurt your professional career.

Finally, good luck and Essay Social Context enjoy! BROWNE, M. N. KEELEY, S. Transition Uses! M. 2004. Asking the Right Questions: a Guide to Critical Thinking, Upper Saddle River, N.J., Pearson Prentice Hall. COTTRELL, S. Engineering Advantages And Disadvantages! 2005. Critical Thinking Skills: Developing Effective Analysis and Argument, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. CRYER, R., HERVEY, T., SOKHI-BULLEY, B. BOHM, A. 2011. Research Methodologies in EU and International Law, Oxford, Hart. FINCH, E. Transition! FAFINSKI, S. 2009.

Legal Skills, Oxford ; New York, Oxford University Press. GOLDSTEIN, T. Essay On Vehicle Exhaust Analysis! LIEBERMAN, J. K. Metals! 2002. The Lawyers Guide to Writing Well, Berkeley, University of California Press. GRUNFELD, F., KAMMINGA, M. T. The Breakfast Club! COOMANS, F. Metals Uses! 2010. Methods of Human Rights Research: A Primer. Brian The Breakfast Club! Human rights quarterly, 32 , 179-186. KANT, I. 1991 [1784]. An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? . In: REISS (ed.) Kant: Political Writings.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PAUL, R. Metals Uses! ELDER, L. 2006. Critical thinking : tools for taking charge of your learning and your life, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson/Prentice Hall. SALTER, M. MASON, J. 2007. Writing Law Dissertations: an Introduction and Guide to the Conduct of Legal Research, Harlow, England ; New York, Pearson/Longman. TREDINNICK, M. 2008. Writing Well: the Essential Guide, Cambridge ; New York, Cambridge University Press. TWINING, W. Federal Theater! L. MIERS, D. Transition Metals! 2010.

How to do Things with Rules: a Primer with Interpretation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Usage: Rory OConnell, 2014. On Eating! Please feel free to link to this page or make use of it for metals uses, teaching purposes provided the source is acknowledged.