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Cinna ou le paradoxe de la Clemence. Pages : 176 ISBN : 9782130526148 DOI : 10.3917/rhlf.023.0443 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Revue d'histoire litteraire de la France. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.
Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Cinna ou la clemence d’Auguste est un texte tres — trop ? — connu, un classique consacre, un chef-d’?uvre intouchable. The Equal. Et pourtant cette tragedie ne cesse d’intriguer les critiques. Society. C. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. Venesoen n’hesite pas a ecrire que « toute relecture de Cinna risque de reserver quelques surprises »   « Cinna et les avatars de l’heroisme cornelien », Papers. Cassandra Facebook. . Of 1963. Il n’y a pas si longtemps, l’interpretation du denouement de cette piece a encore provoque une polemique entre trois critiques de qualite, A. Cassandra Facebook. Georges, R. Pay Act. Pommier et C. Essay Crisis. J. Pay Act. Gossip   A. On Grandparents. Georges, « L’Evolution morale d’Auguste dans Cinna ». Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. . Cassandra Facebook. Par ailleurs, on of 1963 Essay, peut se faire une idee du foisonnement des commentaires contradictoires de cette ?uvre en consultant le panorama qu’en brossent W. Gustav Courbet. Leiner et S. The Equal Essay. Bayne dans leur etude : « Cinna ou l’agenouillement d’Emilie devant la clemence d’Auguste »   Dans Onze etudes sur l’image de la femme…, reunies. Adaptation In Life And Lolita. . Les travaux de ces chercheurs ont, semble-t-il, ouvert la voie a une interpretation globale de la piece, une interpretation qui prendrait en compte a la fois la dramaturgie et la signification (ethique, philosophique, spirituelle) du texte. Of 1963 Essay. Il s’agit donc de tenter de montrer que le pardon d’Auguste est a la fois un effet dramatique — un « coup de theatre » — et un acte d’une portee morale profonde, qui revele toute une philosophie de l’existence. La premiere remarque qui s’impose au spectateur de Cinna concerne le poids du passe, un poids qui marque tous les protagonistes et qui finit par les ecraser.
Parmi les personnages, il en est un pour qui cela parait peu evident, c’est Cinna. Hindu Temple Kansas. Et pourtant, comment oublier qu’il porte en lui le souvenir de son aieul, Pompee ? On peut considerer que c’est parfois un souvenir commode, qui lui offre un argument politique facile, comme dans son discours aux conjures. The Equal Of 1963. Il termine en effet sa harangue par le rappel des liens qui le rattachent a ce glorieux ancetre, et affirme que sa conduite est dictee par la fidelite a cet exemple illustre : Ainsi d’un coup mortel la victime frappee. Cinna se situe ici dans une logique de la vengeance : le sang appelle le sang. Hindu Temple Kansas. Le personnage se range dans la typologie topique du « heros vengeur ». Pay Act Of 1963. Meme si l’on sait que le personnage obeit a un autre motif — plus profond — celui de meriter Emilie, il n’en reste pas moins que le rappel de cette heredite va marquer tout son role. In Life Of Pi And Lolita. Apres sa palinodie du deuxieme acte, pour convaincre Auguste de rester sur le trone imperial, Maxime lui rappelle precisement le souvenir et l’exemple de son « aieul Pompee »   II, 1, v. The Equal Of 1963. 563. And Mondern Society Essay. . Essay. De la meme facon, Emilie lui reproche de trahir l’ideal de son ancetre, de n’etre pas digne de lui : Pardonnez-moi, grands dieux, si je me suis trompee. Quand j’ai pense cherir un neveu de Pompee, Et si d’un faux-semblant mon esprit abuse. A fait choix d’un esclave en son lieu suppose   III, 4, v. Cassandra Facebook. 1029-1032. The Equal Pay Act. . Peut-etre n’a-t-on pas examine ces vers avec assez d’attention : c’est sans doute, de la part d’Emilie, l’aveu qu’elle a d’abord aime Cinna parce qu’il etait le descendant de Pompee. Temple. Leur amour ainsi aurait eu une origine ideologique et historique. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Decidement, le poids du passe est encore plus lourd qu’on ne le supposait…
Enfin, a l’acte V, c’est Auguste qui rappelle encore a Cinna son lien avec Pompee : Tu vois le jour, Cinna ; mais ceux dont tu le tiens. Furent les ennemis de mon pere, et les miens : Au milieu de leur camp tu recus la naissance, Et lorsqu’apres leur mort tu vins en ma puissance, Leur haine enracinee au milieu de ton sein. T’avait mis contre moi les armes a la main; Tu fus mon ennemi meme avant que de naitre   V, 1, v. Temple Kansas. 1435-1441. Of 1963. . Et Cinna, loin de renier ce schema, l’assume et le revendique : Seigneur, je suis Romain, et du sang de Pompee. Le pere et les deux fils, lachement egorges, Par la mort de Cesar etaient trop peu venges. C’est la d’un beau dessein l’illustre et seule cause […]   V, 1, v. Essay On Energy Solutions. 1546-1549. Of 1963. . Meme s’il essaie ainsi de sauver Emilie en cachant les vrais motifs de son engagement dans le complot, Cinna n’en exprime pas moins une partie de la verite. Hindu Temple. Car la piece est bien d’abord une tragedie de la vengeance, de la vengeance familiale. The Equal Of 1963. On se rappelle que les conjures avaient accepte cette explication, y avaient meme adhere avec enthousiasme.
Le sens est clair : la vengeance est consideree par la doxa comme un comportement naturel, normal et necessaire, en quelque sorte un mobile noble, digne d’une tragedie deja classique. Il est evidemment plus facile de montrer qu’Emilie est hantee par le passe. Hindu Kansas. Elle est litteralement obsedee par le meurtre de son pere, Toranius, assassine par Auguste. Of 1963 Essay. Elle vit dans le souvenir de ce drame. Facebook. Sa memoire et son imagination s’unissent pour donner a ce souvenir une force singuliere exprimee des l’ouverture de l’?uvre par la plus energique des figures, l’hypotypose. Pay Act Essay. Citons simplement ce court passage : […] par sa propre main mon pere massacre. Du trone ou je le vois fait le premier degre   I, 1, v. Ancient Egypt Essay. 11-12. Of 1963. . Sa volonte de se venger, d’obtenir une « illustre vengeance » (v. On Energy Crisis And Its Possible Solutions. 1), est pour elle un veritable devoir de memoire. Essay. Tout son role decline ce theme : « la sanglante image » de son pere (v.
13) emplit et obsede sa « triste memoire » (v. Ancient Society Essay. 10), elle est « la cause de [sa] haine » (v. The Equal Pay Act. 14), elle lui dicte sa mission. On peut observer qu’elle va loin, singulierement loin, en ce sens, comme le montre la discrete erotisation de son discours de vengeance : « impatients desirs » (v. Essay. 1), « embrasse » (v.
4), « Vous prenez sur mon ame un trop puissant empire » (v. Of 1963 Essay. 5), « Je m’abandonne toute a vos ardents transports » (v. Facebook. 15). Of 1963 Essay. Le langage du meurtre rejoint celui de la pulsion erotique ; il n’est donc pas etonnant que la vengeance soit la condiion de son union avec Cinna. Kansas. En tout cas, Corneille montre admirablement que le passe obsede Emilie au point de la faire entrer dans une veritable mystique de la vengeance.
Le point culminant de « ce bouillant mouvement » (v. Pay Act Of 1963. 19) se situe evidemment dans la deuxieme scene du premier acte, quand Emilie confie a Fulvie qu’elle irait jusqu’a epouser Auguste pour avoir la possibilite d’assouvir sa haine, son desir vengeur : Je recevrais de lui la place de Livie. Comme un moyen plus sur d’attenter a sa vie   I, 2, v. Hindu. 81-82. The Equal Pay Act. . Assurement, les spectateurs du XVII e siecle ont du voir ici Emilie comme une seconde Judith   On sait la fecondite de cette histoire dans la peinture. Ancient And Mondern Essay. . The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Elle erige sa mission, sa vendetta, en imperatif categorique, ce qu’exprime un vers comme celui-ci : Pour qui venge son pere il n’est point de forfaits   I, 2, v. Essay. 83. The Equal Of 1963. . Le processus mis en scene par Corneille se comprend aisement : le pere, representant de la Loi, dicte a Emilie son devoir. Cassandra Facebook. Elle vit pour venger ce pere, pour accomplir un devoir qui la hante comme une memoire d’outre-tombe. Quant a Auguste, le texte de la piece est largement constitue du rappel de son passe. The Equal. Cinna, dans son discours aux conjures, evoque les guerres civiles et leur cortege d’horreurs; il insiste surtout sur les responsabilites d’Auguste dans ces atrocites : J’ajoute en peu de mots : « Toutes ces cruautes, La perte de nos biens et de nos libertes, Le ravage des champs, le pillage des villes, Et les proscriptions, et les guerres civiles,
Sont les degres sanglants dont Auguste a fait choix. Pour monter dans le trone et nous donner des lois […] »   I, 3, v. Essay. 215-220. The Equal Pay Act. . Le passe d’Auguste est donc celui d’un tyran (v. On Energy Crisis And Its Possible Solutions. 222), mais surtout d’un meurtrier ; en termes anachroniques, nous dirions que la piece fait de lui un veritable criminel de guerre. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. Et le spectateur n’est pas surpris d’entendre Cinna prononcer une sentence qui l’exclut de l’humanite : Si l’on doit le nom d’homme a qui n’a rien d’humain, A ce tigre altere de tout le sang romain   I, 3, v. On Grandparents. 166-168. Pay Act Essay. . Par ces vers, Cinna proclame la denaturation d’Auguste, le renvoie a sa brutalite essentielle et le ravale a l’animalite. Les propos d’Emilie vont evidemment dans le meme sens. Gustav Courbet. Tous ses discours disent sa haine pour Auguste et justifient cette haine. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. Ses evocations du passe de l’empereur sont autant de requisitoires qui stigmatisent l’enormite de ses crimes, qui ont fait « rougir la terre et l’onde » (v. Hindu Kansas. 941). Arretons ici cet inventaire.
Il suffit largement a montrer que chaque personnage est comme prisonnier de son passe. Pay Act. Chacun est engage dans l’Histoire par reference a son passe. Temple. Emilie et Cinna deviennent conspirateurs pour se venger d’un passe durant lequel Auguste a commis les pires exactions. Of 1963 Essay. Ce passe les constitue en ennemis irreductibles. Egypt And Mondern. La fatalite prend la forme de la vengeance, de la vengeance necessaire, imposee comme un devoir. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. La tragedie nait de ce poids du temps ancien sur la vie presente de tous les protagonistes. C’est alors qu’intervient un element nouveau, une peripetie imprevue. Kansas. A l’acte II apparait un Auguste inattendu, bien different de celui qu’avaient decrit Emilie et Cinna au premier acte. Of 1963 Essay. Auguste, lasse du pouvoir, envisage maintenant d’abdiquer.
La raison de cette lassitude reside dans la prise de conscience de la vanite des grandeurs et du pouvoir. Crisis And Its Possible. Mais derriere cette raison s’en cache une autre, plus profonde : l’empereur traverse une crise existentielle. The Equal Of 1963. Comme l’ont remarque S. Essay On Grandparents. Doubrovsky et C. Pay Act. Venesoen, il a le sentiment d’etre « un homme hai, trompe, menace »   C. And Mondern Society. Venesoen, art. The Equal Of 1963. cit., p. Cassandra Facebook. 372. Pay Act. , un homme solitaire, abandonne. Society Essay. Auguste eprouve un vide affectif : « C’est bien ce desir d’affection […] qui meut a present Auguste en perte d’autonomie heroique »   S. Essay. Doubrovsky, Corneille et la dialectique du heros. Essay. . The Equal Of 1963. Et en effet Auguste a besoin de rompre cette solitude, ce qui l’amene a demander, a quemander litteralement l’amitie de Cinna et de Maxime : « Traitez-moi comme ami » (v. Essay On Grandparents. 399). Auguste fait donc devant les spectateurs la douloureuse experience de la dereliction. The Equal. A la fin de la scene, il croit avoir trouve la serenite, sinon le « repos » qu’il recherchait (v. Gustav Courbet. 376) ; il le croit parce qu’il est sur de l’amitie que lui portent Cinna et Maxime : Je vois trop que vos c?urs n’ont point pour moi de fard, Et que chacun de vous, dans l’avis qu’il me donne, Regarde seulement l’Etat et ma personne. Votre amour en tous deux fait ce combat d’esprits […]   II, 1, v. The Equal Pay Act. 628-631. Essay On Grandparents. . Or, par un effet d’ironie tragique, Corneille ne fait qu’enfoncer davantage Auguste dans l’illusion d’etre aime.
Et lorsqu’il apprendra la trahison de Cinna, sa reaction sera a la mesure de sa deception : « Quoi ? mes plus chers amis ! » (v. The Equal Pay Act. 1081). On Grandparents. Le plus remarquable est qu’il n’analyse pas la situation en termes politiques, mais bien en termes affectifs : il est trahi par ceux a qui il ouvrait son « c?ur » et dont il avait fait « choix » (v. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. 1083). Essay On Energy Solutions. Ses exclamations sont revelatrices et significatives : O trop sensible coup d’une main si cherie !   IV, 1, v. The Equal. 1098. Le monologue qui suit (IV, 2) est tout a fait eclairant. Gustav Courbet. Auguste examine sa vie, ses crimes passes et eprouve enfin le remords : Rentre en toi-meme, Octave, et cesse de te plaindre. Quoi ! tu veux qu’on t’epargne, et tu n’as rien epargne ! Songe aux fleuves de sang ou ton bras s’est baigne,
De combien ont rougi les champs de Macedoine […]   IV, 2, v. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. 1130-1133. Hindu. . Le premier vers est capital. Pay Act Essay. « Rentre en toi-meme » montre qu’Auguste se livre ici a un examen de conscience, a un grand exercice spirituel par lequel il passe en revue tous les crimes de son passe. Temple Kansas. On remarque aussi qu’il se nomme spontanement « Octave », retrouvant tout a coup l’identite du coupable, du meurtrier qu’il a naguere ete. Mais, au terme de cet exercice, il n’a pas encore pris sa decision : il hesite entre le suicide et la repression sanglante. The Equal Pay Act Essay. Remarquons simplement que ce sont deux decisions mortelles. Essay. Dans l’impasse ou il se trouve, seule la mort se presente a son esprit comme la solution de son probleme existentiel. Dans l’acte V, le mouvement dramatique s’accelere. Pay Act Of 1963. La premiere scene, qui a souvent mis les critiques mal a l’aise, a une signification simple, mais profonde : elle montre qu’Auguste est toujours le meme homme. On Grandparents. Orgueilleux, dominateur, superbe, il ecrase Cinna de son mepris et de sa superiorite. Essay. Ce dernier a bien du merite a ne pas faire trop mauvaise figure face a cet empereur redevenu lui-meme et anime par l’energie de la vengeance.
Dans cette scene, c’est encore Octave qui s’exprime. Lorsque, a la scene 2, Emilie lui annonce sa trahison, sa reaction est essentiellement affective. Gustav Courbet. C’est un pere bafoue plus qu’un empereur trahi qui s’exprime dans cette comparaison d’Emilie et de Julie : L’une m’otait l’honneur, l’autre a soif de mon sang ; Et prenant toutes deux leur passion pour guide, L’une fut impudique, et l’autre est parricide. O ma fille ! est-ce la le prix de mes bienfaits ?   V, 2, v. Pay Act Of 1963. 1592-1595. Puis il rappelle le passe : Songe avec quel amour j’elevai ta jeunesse   V, 2, v. Essay On Energy. 1597. The Equal Pay Act Essay. . Mais il a toujours en lui l’energie suffisante, ou plutot la violence suffisante pour prononcer sa sentence : il condamnera au « supplice » (v.
1662) le « couple ingrat et perfide » (v. Adaptation In Life Of Pi And Lolita Essay. 1657). The Equal. C’est encore un jugement digne d’Octave. Adaptation. Cependant, Auguste est reste longtemps silencieux (entre les v. Of 1963. 1597 et 1657). Temple. On peut penser que la nouvelle de la trahison d’Emilie l’a profondement ebranle : son mutisme est le moyen theatral le plus approprie pour traduire ce traumatisme et le cheminement invisible qui s’effectue en lui. Essay. C’est donc un personnage profondement touche qui recoit la nouvelle de la derniere trahison, celle de Maxime. Solutions. Or Corneille a savamment mis en scene cet episode. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Auguste accueille Maxime comme son ultime recours, le dernier refuge de son affection : Approche, seul ami que j’eprouve fidele   V, 3, v. Gustav Courbet. 1665. Essay. . On connait la suite : Maxime avoue a son tour son forfait et Auguste decouvre qu’il a atteint le fond de la solitude et de l’abandon. Cassandra. C’est alors qu’il va prendre la decision du pardon… Pour S. Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Doubrovsky, « Auguste ne pardonne pas par charite ou par magnanimite, au sens moderne, mais par generosite , au sens du XVII e siecle, c’est-a-dire par orgueil aristocratique, pour prouver, a ses yeux comme a ceux des autres, sa propre superiorite »   Op. Adaptation In Life Of Pi And Lolita. cit., p. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. 214. In Life And Lolita. . Pour C. Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Venesoen, Auguste choisit de « dechoir sur le registre male et heroique […]. Essay On Energy And Its Possible. Son anima combat et commence a triompher de son animus »   Art. The Equal Pay Act Essay. cit., p. Hindu Kansas. 373. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. . Temple. L’heroisme male laisse place a une sensibilite feminine, qui lui permet de passer de la force a la clemence.
Pour L. The Equal Of 1963. Herland, Auguste est brutalement saisi par la grace : le pardon n’est pas voulu, medite, decide par Auguste ; il lui est insuffle par Dieu et par la toute-puissance de sa grace   L. Cassandra. Herland, « Le pardon d’Auguste dans Cinna », La. Essay. . A notre avis, toutes ces interpretations ne font pas assez de place a la profondeur spirituelle dont Corneille a dote son personnage. Ancient Egypt And Mondern Society Essay. Nous avons deja observe que la structure de la tragedie etait travaillee de facon a mettre en scene une veritable psychomachie. The Equal Of 1963. Or cette psychomachie se deroule a l’interieur meme du personnage, dans sa conscience. Of Pi And Lolita. Il y a deux etres dans cet unique personnage : Octave et Auguste. The Equal Pay Act. Octave est l’etre du passe, celui qui a commis crimes, meurtres, proscriptions. Hindu Temple Kansas. Octave est celui qui a tue Toranius. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. C’est encore Octave qui ecrasait Cinna de son orgueil implacable (V, 1).
Mais, parallelement, Auguste nait peu a peu en lui. Egypt And Mondern. Il nait dans la crise morale que traverse le personnage, une crise qui le conduit jusqu’au bord de la mort (IV, 2). Pay Act Essay. Mais surtout, cette crise consiste en une experience de depossession, de desappropriation : il se voit depouille, abandonne de tous, trahi par tous. In Life Of Pi. Et c’est alors qu’Octave va enfin devenir Auguste. Il s’agit, par son pardon, de poser un geste d’humanite.
En effet, la piece montre comment Octave, « ce tigre […] qui n’a rien d’humain »   I, 3, p. Pay Act. 167-168. Egypt And Mondern Essay. , va peu a peu reconquerir son humanite. Of 1963. Le sens de son geste de clemence est a situer dans cette perspective. Egypt Essay. Car au centre de Cinna se pose une question qui traverse tout le theatre de Corneille : l’histoire du monde est une suite de violences, d’atrocites, d’abominations, et on of 1963 Essay, ne sait comment mettre un terme a ce dechainement. Temple Kansas. Ici encore la question se pose, la meme que dans Le Cid : comment arreter cet engrenage infernal ou le sang appelle le sang ? Comment changer le sens tragique de l’Histoire ? C’est alors qu’intervient le heros. The Equal Pay Act Essay. Le heros cornelien est ce personnage qui a l’energie et la generosite necessaires pour inflechir le sens de l’Histoire.
Auguste est heroique en ce qu’il accomplit un acte qui va a contre-courant de la violence generale : il est celui qui dit non a la violence naturelle du monde. Egypt And Mondern Essay. Mais pour cela il lui faut faire l’experience fondamentale de tout heros cornelien, l’experience du sacrifice. Auguste va devoir renoncer a une partie de lui-meme, a la partie violente de son etre. Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Il renonce ici a Octave, a l’homme des guerres civiles, des combats et des assassinats, a l’homme avide de pouvoir qu’il a ete naguere. Egypt And Mondern Essay. Il lui faut tuer en lui le vieil homme. The Equal Pay Act Essay. Octave doit mourir pour laisser vivre le nouvel Auguste : a l’homme de la violence succede l’homme de la clemence.
On assiste donc a une veritable conversion du personnage, a sa metanoia , a son changement d’ ethos . Crisis Solutions. Ainsi, le « tigre » Octave laisse place a Auguste, clement, plein de bonte, en un mot « humain ». Les lectures pessimistes du theatre de Corneille sont nombreuses. Essay. Rappelons, par exemple, celle de R. Cassandra Facebook. Mac Bride : La gloire d’Auguste s’avere de meme nature que celle de Cinna. The Equal Pay Act Essay. Dans tous deux ce n’est rien d’autre que le lyrisme du desespoir qui transcende le desespoir   R. Kansas. Mac Bride, « Quelques reflexions sur le heros cornelien ». The Equal Pay Act Essay. . Or il semble que le recours a la tragedie a fin heureuse (Corneille, on gustav courbet, le sait, disait meme « la tragedie heureuse »   Discours de l’utilite et des parties du Poeme dramatique. The Equal. ) corresponde mal a ce pessimisme. Essay And Its Possible Solutions. Toute technique implique une metaphysique — ou du moins une vision du monde. Of 1963. Celle de Corneille nous semble, a la lumiere de Cinna , resolument optimiste, a cette epoque du moins. Cinna pose en fait une question qui hante l’humanite depuis des siecles : comment arreter l’engrenage du mal ? Comme l’a montre J.-L. Essay And Its Solutions. Marion, dans ses Prolegomenes a la charite   Ed.
La Difference, Paris, 1986. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. , la logique du mal est tres precisement la logique de la vengeance : en rendant le mal pour le mal, on in Life and Lolita, l’entretient au nom de la justice. Pay Act Essay. Auguste se trouve exactement dans cette situation : il a le droit legitime de punir ceux qui ont voulu le tuer. Society. Et cependant, contre toute logique et meme contre toute justice, il ne le fera pas. Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Auguste a compris que le mal reside dans sa transmission et qu’il ne peut le vaincre qu’en rompant cette transmission. Essay On Energy And Its. Il va bloquer le mal en refusant de le rendre, en arretant ainsi l’engrenage infernal, le cycle de la violence et de la repression. The Equal Essay. Auguste renonce donc a toute justice a son endroit. Hindu Temple Kansas. Il choisit de pardonner, c’est-a-dire d’aimer gratuitement, d’aimer a perte, jusqu’a risquer de se perdre lui-meme plutot que de rendre le mal pour le mal. Corneille fait donc accomplir par Auguste le geste qui realise le grand reve humaniste : arreter le mal, sortir de la spirale de la violence et de la haine. Essay. Tel le Serviteur souffrant de la Bible   Isaie, 42,1-3 ; 49,1-9 ; 50,4-11 ; 53,1-12. Gustav Courbet. , il ne repond pas aux coups par des coups, ni a l’insulte par l’insulte. The Equal Pay Act. Au contraire, a partir du vers 1693, il repond a la trahison et a la haine par le pardon et par le don. Facebook. Et la conversion en chaine de tous ses ennemis lui donne raison : il a vraiment vaincu le mal.
Le mal en effet n’a pas donne lieu a un mal plus grand; le mal ne s’est pas propage, le mal n’a pas suivi son chemin infernal. Evidemment, nous pourrions prolonger cette analyse et, en nous appuyant sur les belles etudes de M. Of 1963 Essay. Fumaroli   Voir Heros et orateurs. Ancient Essay. Rhetorique et dramaturgie corneliennes. Pay Act Essay. , nous pourrions remonter a la source evangelique de la meditation de Corneille. Ancient Egypt Society Essay. Nous verrions alors dans le denouement de Cinna une illustration de la parole evangelique : « Aimez vos ennemis »   Matthieu, 5,45. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. . And Lolita. On y trouve, en effet, la meme folie que saint Paul assimilait a la sagesse supreme   Premiere Epitre aux Corinthiens 1,18-25. The Equal Pay Act Essay. . Hindu. Esthetiquement, nous pourrions aussi analyser le geste d’Auguste comme la mise en scene parfaitement accomplie du sublime . Cependant, nous preferons en rester a une interpretation purement ethique de l’?uvre. Pay Act. Corneille a mis en scene le grand exercice spirituel ou intellectuel qui permet a Auguste de comprendre que la seule solution pour creer une cite harmonieuse et pour attteindre le bonheur personnel est l’amour, l’ agape . Kansas. Le choix d’Auguste est le resume de celui que doit effectuer l’humanite tout entiere. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. C’est pourquoi il est permis de considerer Cinna non seulement comme l’une des plus grandes tragedies du repertoire classique, mais aussi comme l’une des plus grandes ?uvres humanistes du patrimoine europeen.
Nous constations, au debut de cette etude, que tous les personnages etaient prisonniers de leur passe. Of Pi. La haine, le desir de vengeance bloquaient le temps : chaque personnage etait fige dans ses positions. The Equal Of 1963. Emilie disait, au premier acte : Je demeure toujours la fille d’un proscrit   I, 2, v. On Grandparents. 72. The Equal Of 1963. . Elle ajoutait : « Je suis ce que j’etais » (v. In Life. 78). The Equal Of 1963. Au troisieme acte, elle reprend le meme refrain : Je suis toujours moi-meme, et mon c?ur n’est point autre   III, 4, v. Temple. 914. The Equal. . Et jusqu’au discours de la clemence, elle revendique sa « haine » d’Auguste et en proclame la legitimite et la continuite (v. Essay On Energy Crisis Possible Solutions. 1576 et 1650). The Equal Of 1963 Essay. Emilie est donc bloquee, arretee dans sa position.
Le pardon d’Auguste est le seul geste qui pourra briser ce figement. Essay On Energy Crisis And Its. Le pardon seul permet de debloquer le temps, de changer les c?urs et d’ouvrir un avenir aux individus et a la cite. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. C’est evidemment le sens de la prophetie finale de Livie : Jamais plus d’assassins ni de conspirateurs : Vous avez trouve l’art d’etre maitre des c?urs   V, 3, v. Cassandra. 1763-1764. Essay. . Le pardon a litteralement renverse — converti — le monde, qui passe de la guerre a la paix, de la violence a la douceur, de la haine a la concorde. On se rappelle qu’Auguste ressentait douloureusement un insupportable vide affectif ; maintenant, ce vide est comble : il obtient l’amour de Rome tout entiere (v. Hindu. 1765-1768). Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Desormais s’ouvre une ere de « bonheur » pour le monde (v. Essay On Energy Crisis And Its Solutions. 1768) et les dieux viennent couronner cette apotheose (v. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. 1772). Ce finale somptueux, veritable mise en scene du sublime, a tout a la fois une signification theatrale (le triomphe de la tragedie a fin heureuse), une signification morale (a la loi du Talion se substitue l’ethique du pardon) et une signification spirituelle (l’amour plus fort que la haine, l’amour plus fort que la mort).
Tout cela est symbolise par la fusion, proclamee par Livie, des trois modeles archetypes dans la personne d’Auguste : le heros, le roi, le saint. Si cette piece, par-dela les siecles, nous touche encore si profondement, c’est assurement parce qu’elle met en scene l’une des questions qui hantent depuis toujours notre civilisation, celle du pardon. Essay On Grandparents. Elle nous en propose une version radicale : le pardon s’impose dans sa gratuite absolue, avec tout le pouvoir paradoxal de son infinie faiblesse. La clemence d’Auguste signe donc son passage d’un individualisme clos, narcissique, a un systeme de references et de valeurs morales tout a fait different. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. Le heros passe d’un jugement fonde sur la loi institutionnelle a une decision fondee sur un humanisme profond. Essay On Energy Solutions. Il a compris que l’Autre doit etre place au-dessus de la Loi. La decouverte d’Auguste est donc une sorte d’illumination philosophique et morale : il decouvre que le bien commun et la serenite personnelle peuvent s’acquerir simultanement lorsque l’on erige l’Autre en absolu a respecter. Of 1963 Essay. Auguste est passe de la Loi a l’Amour.
Nul doute que les spectateurs cultives de Corneille, ses contemporains en ce « Siecle des Saints »   On sait que cette expression est attribuee a Charles. Egypt And Mondern Society. , aient reconnu la un des enseignements majeurs de la theologie paulinienne — meme si l’on ne peut affirmer que Corneille l’ait expressement voulu. The Equal Of 1963. En effet, conformement aux analyses de l’ Epitre aux Romains , tous les personnages de la piece sont coupables au regard de la loi; mais, par le geste d’Auguste, tous sont pardonnes et sauves gratuitement   Pour saint Paul, selon la Loi, tous les hommes sont. Cassandra Facebook. . The Equal Of 1963. Qu’il soit laic ou chretien, l’humanisme ainsi defini et affirme est presente par cette ?uvre comme le fondement d’une civilisation harmonieuse, d’une cite heureuse et d’une humanite reconciliee. Universite Jean-Moulin - Lyon III. « Cinna et les avatars de l’heroisme cornelien », Papers on essay on grandparents, French Seventeenth Century Literature , vol. Essay. XVIII, 1991, n° 35, p. And Mondern. 359. A. The Equal. Georges, « L’Evolution morale d’Auguste dans Cinna », L’Information litteraire , marsavril 1982, p. Essay On Energy And Its Solutions. 86-91 ; R. Of 1963 Essay. Pommier, « Quand Auguste decide-t-il de pardonner ? », XVII e Siecle , janvier-mars 1993, n° 178, p. Cassandra Facebook. 139-155 ; C. Pay Act. J. Cassandra Facebook. Gossip, « La clemence d’Auguste, ou pour une interpretation textuelle du Cinna de Corneille », XVII e Siecle , juillet-septembre 1994, n° 184, p. The Equal Essay. 547-554 ; reponses de R. Hindu. Pommier et de C. Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. J. Crisis Possible. Gossip dans XVII e Siecle , janvier-mars 1996, n° 190, p. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. 219-222. Dans Onze etudes sur l’image de la femme… , reunies par W. Essay On Grandparents. Leiner, Tubingen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1984, p. Pay Act Essay. 147-163. Cinna , I, 3, v. Egypt And Mondern Society. 237-238. Of 1963. Toutes nos citations de l’?uvre renvoient a l’edition de G. Essay Crisis And Its Solutions. Couton, Paris, Gallimard, « Bibliotheque de la Pleiade », 1980, t. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. I, p. Essay On Grandparents. 903-969.
III, 4, v. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. 1029-1032. On sait la fecondite de cette histoire dans la peinture occidentale (Botticelli, Lucas Cranach, Cristoforo Allori, Caravage, Artemisia Gentileschi…). C. Essay And Its Solutions. Venesoen, art. Essay. cit., p. On Grandparents. 372. S. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Doubrovsky, Corneille et la dialectique du heros , Paris, Gallimard, 1963, p. Essay On Grandparents. 195. IV, 2, v. The Equal Pay Act Essay. 1130-1133. L. Essay On Energy And Its. Herland, « Le pardon d’Auguste dans Cinna », La Table ronde , n° 15, fevrier 1961, p. Of 1963. 113-126. R. Hindu. Mac Bride, « Quelques reflexions sur le heros cornelien », XVII e Siecle , 1974, n° 104, p. Pay Act. 60. Discours de l’utilite et des parties du Poeme dramatique , ed. Essay. G. Of 1963 Essay. Couton, op. Hindu Temple Kansas. cit. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. , t. Gustav Courbet. III, p. Pay Act Of 1963. 126.
Ed. Hindu. La Difference, Paris, 1986. Isaie, 42,1-3 ; 49,1-9 ; 50,4-11 ; 53,1-12. Voir Heros et orateurs. Pay Act Essay. Rhetorique et dramaturgie corneliennes , Geneve, Droz, 1990.
Premiere Epitre aux Corinthiens 1,18-25. On sait que cette expression est attribuee a Charles de Condren, l’un des maitres de l’Ecole francaise, qui succeda a Berulle comme superieur general de l’Oratoire de France, en 1629. Pour saint Paul, selon la Loi, tous les hommes sont coupables (Ro 3,9-20) mais, par le sacrifice du Christ, tous sont justifies (Ro 5,1-11). Cinna ou le paradoxe de la clemence Le denouement de Cinna a fait l’objet d’interpretations multiples et controversees. Of Pi. Le texte a pourtant tisse tout un reseau d’indices permettant de le comprendre a la fois comme un effet de theatre et comme une profonde reflexion sur le Mal. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. Le choix d’Auguste parvient a arreter l’engrenage de la violence et de la haine, la spirale du Mal. Cassandra. Par l’experience de la desappropriation et du sacrifice, il parvient a convertir le monde aux valeurs d’un humanisme authentique : l’ancien tyran decouvre en l’Autre un absolu a respecter, et son exemple sublime fonde une humanite reconciliee. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques.
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Nov 16, 2017 The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay,
The Life of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Need essay sample on The Life of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Date assignment is due. The Life of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Nowadays, overwhelming majority of the world’s developed nations opted for The Equal, building their life on democratic principles of social organization. Turkish society, with its extensive social freedoms, democratic laws and government, is not an exception.
But everyone, who visits Turkey or is interested in its modern life, can see that the concept of on grandparents personality cult, which is considered to be a characteristic feature of communist or authoritarian systems, is The Equal Pay Act Essay, still practiced there. There’s hardly a modern nation in the world, which would honor the name of its founder with more respect and admiration. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the Father of the Turks), a heaven born leader, a creator of modern Turkish state and a victorious military commander, is simply worshiped by Turkish nation for his contribution to social development of the country, ideological innovations and essay on grandparents numerous important social, economic, cultural, legal, political, educational reforms, which completely changed social life of the Turks in the beginning of the twentieth century. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963? There is a portrait of Ataturk in every governmental office, and a monument to him is built next to every school in the country. His name is crisis solutions, written with giant letters on many important governmental buildings, and it is The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay, impossible to find a city which does not have the main street named after Ataturk. Future Father of the nation of Turks was born as Mustafa (in those times there was no system of surnames in the Ottoman Empire and people had only several first names) in spring of 1881, in a small town of Salonika (Selanik). His father, Ali Ryza (Ali R?za Efendi), who was a police officer and then worked as a merchant, was a man of essay on grandparents Macedonian origin. His mother, Zoobeide (Zubeyde Han?m) was a native Turkish. Mustafa had 5 more siblings, but 4 of them (except his sister Makbule) died in early ages. The Equal? The boy started his education in primary Hafyz Mehmet Efendi’s (Haf?z Mehmet Efendi) school, and later on his parents insisted on transferring him to Shemsi Efendi (Semsi Efendi) religious school.
After finishing Moolkie Rooshtiye (Mulkiye Rustiye) secondary school in Salonika, Mustafa, who dreamt about and Lolita, becoming a military officer, joined Manastir (Manast?r) military high school. He was a brilliant and very diligent student. As an appreciation of his academic success, Mustafa was given the second name “Kemal” (the Perfect) by his math teacher, who was also Mustafa (Columbia Encyclopedia 3234). Mustafa Kemal demonstrated great talents on many subjects, that is why he successfully finished the school and was invited to enter the Military Academy in Istanbul. In 1905 he graduated from the Pay Act, Academy with great prospects to essay on grandparents, start his professional career as a military major and succeed in his life. In those times, Mustafa Kemal started his social activities by joining revolutionary progressive movements of young people.
This resulted in his participation in preparation for so called the Young Turks Revolution, which was an early attempt to launch constitutional government in the Empire. The Equal Pay Act? However, active position of Turkey on international stage and in Life of Pi Essay numerous territorial misunderstandings with neighboring countries diverted the attention of young protester to pursuing his career goals. Thus, in 1909 he was assigned for the military activities in Syria, and in of 1963, 1910-1911 he served in Libya during the Society Essay, military campaign against the Italians. In 1911 Mustafa Kemal became a commander and The Equal Pay Act won several principle combats, including the hindu kansas, battles at of 1963 Essay Tobrook (Tobruk) and Derne (Derne). In 1913 during the Balkan War, the young commander participated in the battles against Bulgarian army. His troops contributed greatly to several victories in modern region of Trakiya (Trakya): in particular, they liberated the city of Ancient Egypt Society Essay Edirne, an important cultural center of the Empire. Of 1963 Essay? As a result, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of Ancient Egypt and Mondern lieutenant-colonel and received a diplomatic mission to Sofia. During the World War I, Mustafa Kemal demonstrated his leading abilities and became a national hero. While defending the lands from the French and British forces, which were ordered to The Equal of 1963, win access to the Black Sea, the young commander managed to motivate his soldiers and did not allow the gustav courbet, enemy to enter the Dardanelles.
This principle battle is known as the Battle of Chanakkale (Canakkale) and it was one of the most memorable fights in the whole history of the Ottoman Army. Mustafa Kemal’s courage and determination became legendary, and many soldiers could never forget the orders of their commander: “I do not order you to attack, I order you to die” (Karpat 88). For this successful military campaign, in of 1963, 1915 Mustafa Kemal received the Adaptation in Life of Pi Essay, rank of colonel. He continued his service in other parts of Turkey, including the eastern regions (the city of Diyarbakyr) and the areas of Caucasian region (the cities of Bitlis and Mush). In 1918, the 37-year-old commander was back to occupied Istanbul, where he joined the Pay Act of 1963 Essay, movement of national resistance. He became one of the most influential national leaders, who were able to mobilize the forces and prepare them for the War of Independence. As one of the main organizers of the gustav courbet, independence movement, Mustafa Kemal started forming the armies in the south and in the west of Turkey. Moreover, his idea was to change governmental and social structure of the country, using the benefits of the situation. In June 1919, together with his supporters, Mustafa Kemal issued his famous Amasya Circular (Amasya Tamimi), in which he called for joining the efforts of all Turkish people and fight for their independence. The Equal Of 1963? He wanted to form alternative democratic elites and hindu obtain independence not only from The Equal Essay foreign invaders, but also from the old Ottoman rulers.
Practically, those were the first revolutionary steps of temple kansas Mustafa Kemal. In 1920 he gathered the Turkish Grand Assembly, which was planned to become the first democratic government of the country. Nevertheless, rescuing Turkish lands from the Greek, British, French and The Equal of 1963 Essay other invaders was the primary task. Therefore, Mustafa Kemal agreed to lead national patriotic army. Due to hindu, brilliant intuition and wise strategic decisions of the commander, Turkish forces successfully defeated American armies in the east of the country (the battles of Kars, Chukurova, Gaziantep, etc.), and won a number of principle battles in the western parts of Turkey, including the battles for Izmir, Sakarya and the Great (final) Attack. In spring of 1923, after signing the The Equal Pay Act of 1963, Peace Treaty in Lausanne, Turkish Independence war was over, and on grandparents Mustafa Kemal was honored by receiving the rank of Pay Act marshal. As a result of this glorious victory of the Independence war, Mustafa Kemal freed the nation from old-fashioned Ottoman rule and mobilized a group of his supporters to temple kansas, make serious social changes. In October 1923, the Turkish Republic was established and Mustafa Kemal, the nation’s spiritual leader and liberator, became the first President. For the next several years he worked on creating an extensive system of radical reforms, which were aimed on making Turkey a developed, advanced and modern society.
For his infinite patriotism, resolution and progressive social ideas, Mustafa Kemal was honored with the name of Ataturk (Ataturk), which means the Father of Turkish Nation. General idea of Pay Act Ataturk’s reformative revolutionary strategy was to create a secular state and essay crisis possible solutions separate the government from religion. At that, Islam was supposed to remain as a sovereign symbol of faith. The Equal Of 1963? A number of important reformations were implemented by Ataturk in economic sector. They included, first of all, creating a specific plan for economic modernization and development of the Turkish Republic. Such tactical steps as abolition of some taxes and improvement of fiscal system, launching the system of governmental support of industrial companies, creating more favorable environment for investments, especially in transportation infrastructure, etc. resulted in certain economic rise. In addition, a lot of principal and important reforms in political, legal and governmental sectors were implemented. One of the main purposes of these revolutionary changes was abolition of the Caliphate and the rule of Sultan, that is cassandra facebook, why Ataturk’s supporters seized the power and established a new democratic regime. Following the ideas of democracy, Ataturk introduced a new Turkish Civil Code, which was very progressive for those times. It offered a great deal of new civil rights, as well as new opportunities for improving social life of Turkish nation. Therefore, the country became the first Islamic community, where women were granted equal rights with men to get married, to participate in public vote, to receive education, and so on.
Another contribution of Ataturk to The Equal, economic sector was launching the program directed on encouraging farming and support of agricultural sector. However, in order to boost economic development, the President had to Adaptation in Life and Lolita, face and The Equal Pay Act of 1963 find solutions for such problems, as unemployment, absence of qualified workforce and massive illiteracy. That is why he concentrated his efforts on total reformation and reconstruction of the country’s educational system, which had serious lack of facilities and essay crisis and its possible solutions competent teachers. Ataturk was the first to The Equal Pay Act Essay, organize and support several colleges and universities throughout the country. In addition, a series of social reforms and innovations, introduced by essay on grandparents Ataturk, had enormous positive effects, as they set the nation on the way of westernization and integration into European societies. Pay Act Of 1963? He introduced international system of measurement and Gregorian Computation. Also, he introduced Latin alphabet instead of difficult Arabic one, as well as launched new trends in Turkish linguistics, making Turkish language to be oriented on European speeches.
He put to essay on energy solutions, order the Pay Act Essay, system of social identification, abolished nicknames and titles and introduced a system of in Life of Pi and Lolita surnames. Finally, Ataturk completely changed common dressing code of the Turks, trying to promote modern Western-style outlook (Ataturk.com). Undoubtedly, all these reformations and innovations can be called revolutionary, and it was very hard for conservative Turkish society to adopt such great number of social changes and accept them. That is The Equal of 1963, why in that historical period, not every innovative idea of Ataturk was receiving positive feedback and public understanding. Several acts and movements of public disagreement and protests against new rules of writing, new requirements as to the outfit and other regulations took place throughout the country and gustav courbet contributed in The Equal Pay Act of 1963, discrediting new policies of the President and his allies. In addition, Ataturk’s reformations were severely criticized by the representatives of old Ottoman patriotic elites and supporters of the kansas, Sharihat, who demonstrated a lot of antagonism to political reformations and, especially, to westernization of the country. The Equal Of 1963? They did everything possible in order to interrupt Ataturk’s programs, especially legal and language reforms. As a reaction on secularism and minimization of the role of religion, many were blaming Ataturk for his hidden aspiration to weaken the essay on grandparents, influence of Islam and destroy the country’s religious traditions (Karpat, 215). It is impossible to deny that some ideas of Ataturk were not implemented properly or proved to be too liberal for Turkish society of those times. However, his reformations brought to numerous social improvements and cultural progress.
Undoubtedly, Ataturk’s reformist ideology was absolutely constructive, balanced, rational, and all his innovations were aimed only on social or political modernization. Finally, Ataturk was a true patriot of Turkey, who laid down his life on serving his nation. That is why modern Turkish society honors his memory and achievements with unprecedented passion and gratitude. Ataturk served as the of 1963 Essay, President of Turkey for 15 years. During the last years of essay his life, he continued vivid social activities and participated in several charity campaigns. He was supporting orphan houses and different cultural programs. He was found of Pay Act theater, dancing, reading and leading active life-styles.
Ataturk died in November 1938 in Istanbul and was buried according to Islamic traditions. Essay On Energy? Years later, in 1953 Ataturk’s remains were transferred to the capital Ankara, to the Anitkabir (An?tkabir, the Ataturk’s Mausoleum). The strong personality, determination and Pay Act of 1963 Essay effective leadership style of Ataturk influenced other political and social leaders, both in Turkey and abroad. Ataturk had a lot of admirers among the members of local social and military circles, who helped and supported his reforms and innovations. His close associate Ismet Inonu (Ismet Inonu) was a significant figure during the establishment of the republic and solving numerous military conflicts. He was Ataturk’s successor as the President of the Turkish Republic and, together with his ally Shurku Sarachoglu (Sukru Saracoglu), he continued following the path of reforms. Ataturk’s revolution had a great impact on many worlds’ leaders and inspired them for vivid activities directed on improving people’s social life and welfare.
In particular, the leader of Russian revolutionary movement Vladimir Lenin was highly evaluating the achievements of Ataturk: “Mustafa Kemal … is a good organizer, with great understanding, progressive, with good thoughts and an intelligent leader… I believe that he will break the kansas, pride of the imperialists and that he will beat the Sultan together with his friends” (Madak). Another significant reformer and important political personality Jawaharlal Nehru was highly impressed with personal charisma, ambitiousness and The Equal Pay Act Essay incomparable leadership qualities of Ataturk: “Kemal Ataturk … was my hero during my youth. I was very moved when I read about his great reforms. I met with great praise the general efforts made by Ataturk on the course of modernizing Turkey. His dynamism, undauntedness and essay unawareness of fatigue created a great effect on people. He was one of the The Equal of 1963, builders of the Society Essay, modern age in the orient. I continue to be among his greatest admirers” (Madak). Finally, the The Equal, personality of Ataturk was a point of great interest of many American political leaders, including Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower and hindu temple John F. Kennedy, as well as of our other numerous political ideologists and historians. Pay Act? Such enormous domestic and international appreciation and acknowledgment of the achievements, career, personal identity and gustav courbet political legacy of the Father of Turkish Nation entitle specialists to consider Mustafa Kemal Ataturk to be one of the most significant and influential personalities of the Pay Act Essay, twentieth century. Karpat, Kemal H. On Energy And Its Solutions? Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays.
Boston: Brill, 2004. Madak, Ozgur. “World Leaders Praise Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.” Turkish Time. Assembly of The Equal Pay Act Turkish American Associations. June 2003. Temple? 19 Apr, 2008 http://www.theturkishtimes.com/op-madak.html . “Mustafa Kemal.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition.
New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
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Nov 16, 2017 The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay,
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Facebook? publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 -1 Cost Leadership Cost Leadership The Strategic. Strategic planning and the nursing process. ? Strategic Planning and the Nursing Process Lacey Takhtay HCS 482 February 15, 2016 Lynn Bertsch Strategic Planning and the Nursing Process Nursing as a profession has evolved over the years. This once emotionally driven profession has now utilized a systematic. TUI travelmasters better the industry CSF than its competitors. ? TUI Travel masters better the industry CSF than its competitors. Who are the competitors?
Tour operators = the direct competitors in the industry = there is for example the The Equal of 1963 Essay main competitor : Thomas Cook + some others such as REWE, Kuoni, Club Med Do-It-Yourself Holidays that is to say holidays. ?Unit6 – Preparing for Employment in Travel and Tourism P1, P2 M1 Marites Marzan TT L3 Yr1 GrpB Harish Tutor P1 - Describe career opportunities within different industries in the travel and tourism sector. Tour Operators A tour operator requires a holiday representative to work throughout. The history of strategic planning begins in the military. According to Webster's New World Dictionary, strategy is the science of planning and directing large-scale military operations, of maneuvering forces into the most advantageous position prior to actual engagement with the enemy (Guralnic, 1986). EXTERNAL SCAN Before brainstorming and coming up with ideas for a new strategic plan, any company must perform a SWOT analysis as a jumping off platform. The SWOT analysis will allow a company, in this case InterContinental Hotel Group, Plc (IHG), to give itself a thorough examination of the strengths and. have all, on essay on energy and its solutions, the whole, segmented their global market on The Equal Pay Act Essay, the basis of geographic territories. The segmentation of essay SIA falls into the fourth cell, strategic segmentation, combines both a customer focus and a high level of organizational integration. SIA is able to apply customer-based data (collect from. Market Research On Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc - Product Pipeline Review - 2014.
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Nov 16, 2017 The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay,
chinese model essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from gustav courbet, Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years.
The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in Pay Act Essay, China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to Adaptation in Life and Lolita Essay take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is The Equal precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and hindu, lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works.
The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in The Equal Pay Act, Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the in Life and Lolita equivalent in Essay, Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the Ancient and Mondern Essay importance of the lineage of the clan and Pay Act of 1963 Essay, the centrality of family ethics. Ancient Egypt. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests.
The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. And Mondern Society Essay. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Pay Act of 1963 Essay Chinese rural society and gustav courbet, folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and The Equal Pay Act of 1963, their mutual impact on essay on energy crisis and its possible, contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of Pay Act of 1963 Essay different theories and methodologies? Many of gustav courbet us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in The Equal Pay Act Essay, a living space that is cassandra facebook still richly resonant with meaning, and The Equal Pay Act Essay, then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings.
It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of temple kansas life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in The Equal of 1963, rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the Adaptation in Life Essay process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from The Equal of 1963, Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by cassandra facebook the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the Essay City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure.
from their land and essay and its solutions, their integration into city life. Since the Essay 1980s, because of radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to cassandra a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from of 1963 Essay, rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. Egypt Society Essay. The challenges they face in Pay Act, the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Gustav Courbet. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers.
The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the The Equal Pay Act taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to essay their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the The Equal Essay 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of in Life of Pi Essay social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of Pay Act of 1963 urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is Egypt and Mondern Society a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of Pay Act living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in essay, their external world.
For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in The Equal Pay Act of 1963, government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the kansas society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the Pay Act people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. Adaptation In Life Of Pi And Lolita Essay. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. The Equal Pay Act Of 1963. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the essay deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description.
In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of The Equal of 1963 No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the gustav courbet 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to Pay Act Essay capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. Hindu. He does so by gathering a large number of Pay Act photographic details of everyday life in essay, the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the.
same frame to provoke associations regarding the The Equal Pay Act of 1963 passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Adaptation in Life of Pi Essay Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and of 1963 Essay, the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast.
New Residences of Ancient Egypt and Mondern Society Luoyang (series) Such works by The Equal Essay Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of gustav courbet Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the The Equal of 1963 Essay modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the Ancient and Mondern tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed.
According to The Equal Essay this scheme industrial workers and cassandra, peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The “masters” of Chinese society in The Equal of 1963 Essay, Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in essay, China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the Pay Act of 1963 motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and Adaptation of Pi and Lolita, subsistence of the workers.
His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the gustav courbet working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Pay Act. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of and Mondern Essay Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in The Equal Pay Act, China is following a unique trajectory.
Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the Egypt Society pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in of 1963, the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Cassandra. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the The Equal Pay Act historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and and Mondern Society, intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation.
From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and Pay Act, changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the of Pi Essay beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is The Equal of 1963 emerging from the constraints of on grandparents state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the The Equal Pay Act reality of society. Temple. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.