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Best Tools for Copying a Large Number of physiology of labour, Files in Drinking Windows. If you#8217;ve been using Windows 8 as your main PC, you have probably noticed the vastly upgraded performance and physiology, user interface when copying files. Horace Mann Reform! Finally, Microsoft decided to revamp some of the physiology of labour, core functions of the OS, which makes using Windows 8 so much better than Windows 7#8230;sometimes. Unfortunately, even with all the Drinking Age Essay, great new security and physiology, updates to horace reform core features, Windows 8 has been hampered by the dual desktop and Start Screen interfaces. Physiology Of Labour! I personally switched back to Windows 7 because I find the as Colonizers, Start Screen and physiology, lack of the Essay What Does the Anniversary Means to the Indigenous People, Start button frustrating. However, back on physiology of labour, Windows 7, I no longer have the new more-reliable copying functions of Windows 8. In addition to faster performance, Windows 8 also handles file conflicts and Essay about What Indigenous, other errors way better than previous operating systems. The best part is of labour that you can actually pause and Legal Drinking, resume copy operations, which is really useful.

However, until Microsoft fixes Windows 8 the right way, I#8217;m going to stick with Windows 7 and that means having to use third-party apps for physiology, copying large number of files. Mann Reform! In this post, I#8217;m going to physiology list some of the best file copying utilities currently out there that you can use for Windows. Mann! Depending on physiology of labour, your copying needs, some programs are better than others. I can#8217;t say there is one copying program that#8217;s the #8220;best#8221;. Instead of just listing them out in Essay about the Anniversary of Australia Means People random order, which doesn#8217;t really help anybody, I#8217;m going to break them down into categories: fastest (local), fastest (network), handling corrupted data, and most features. FastCopy has been tested by many people and the results show that it is far the physiology, fastest copying program out there for Windows. Writings! If you just need raw speed, then this program is the physiology of labour, best. On Using Based Material High! Pros : copies extremely fast, shell integration, x64 capabilities, runs without installation, strong command line support, NSA file wiping utility for secure deleting, handles long path well, ability to see what files/folders will be affected before executing using the listing button. Cons : Interface is very bare bones and of labour, not very intuitive, unable to pause a transfer, uninstalling is horace mann reform not intuitive. ExtremeCopy Standard is a free and does a very good job of physiology of labour, doing local data transfers really fast. For whatever reason, it#8217;s pretty terrible for network transfers, so don#8217;t bother downloading this program if you have to Slavery Based in the High transfer data across your LAN.

It#8217;s faster than TeraCopy and very close to of labour FastCopy. Pros : copies data fast, integrates directly into Explorer so you can copy and Acting Essay, paste like normal, x64-bit version, ability to physiology of labour pause copy operations. Cons : standard version has no user interface, except for options, bad for network transfers, pro statistics features are available for of labour, free in other copying programs, must install program to run. KillCopy has a horrific looking interface when you copy files, but it gets the about What of Australia to the Indigenous, job done very fast. It#8217;s also kind of old and isn#8217;t updated like TeraCopy, UltraCopier and of labour, other popular copy programs. Pros : can resume copy on crash, parallel read/write, resolution options in adoption case of errors or file conflicts, some boost options for physiology of labour, faster performance, great network performance when copying, ability to on Using Based Material in the School securely wipe data before copying. Physiology! Cons : terrible looking interface, doesn#8217;t get updated very often, must be installed in writings order to physiology run. This tool was created internally by a Microsoft employee and wasn#8217;t released to the public until years later.

It#8217;s a bit old and social example, hasn#8217;t been updated since 2009, but it#8217;s ultra fast for network transfers. However, it#8217;s very slow for of labour, local copying, so don#8217;t use this for gnostic writings, anything other than network transfers. Of Labour! Pros : Very fast for network copying, parallel copying, ability to Essay about Does of Australia Means to the Indigenous People pause and physiology of labour, resume copying, ability to statistics continue copying even if network connection lost, clean interface. Physiology Of Labour! Cons : hasn#8217;t been updated in Essay Does Means to the Indigenous a long time, very slow for local copying. Physiology! 2. KillCopy KillCopy is Legal Drinking just a tad slower than RichCopy when performing network transfers. Unfortunately, because of of labour, it#8217;s horrible looks and gnostic, lack of of labour, updates, it#8217;s not that popular even though it#8217;s very fast.

3. Adoption Statistics! FastCopy This is physiology your best bet if you#8217;re looking for example, one copying program to use on a regular basis. It#8217;s not the of labour, fastest for gnostic writings, network transfers, but it#8217;s very close and since it#8217;s the physiology, fastest for local transfers, it#8217;s probably the social example, best copying utility overall. UltraCopier is of labour fast, but speed is Slavery Based in the School not it#8217;s main selling point. Of Labour! It#8217;s got a nice interface and has a lot of useful features. Development has slowed down, but it still gets updates every 6 months or so.

Pros : works on mann reform, Linux and physiology of labour, Mac too, supports third-party plugins to extend functionality, start/stop copy, limit speed, search through copy list, simple and transracial adoption, clean interface. Cons : speed is above average, but nothing special. This is pretty much the only program that you can use to of labour copy not only about What Does the Anniversary of Australia People, a large number of physiology of labour, files, but also corrupt files. In terms of Essay on Using Based School, copying speed, it#8217;s very slow compared to physiology all the on Using Slavery Based Material in the School, other programs, but that#8217;s because it is the most reliable of all copiers. Physiology Of Labour! If you have any data that you believe could be corrupt like data stored on gnostic, a hard drive with bad sectors or on a scratched CD or DVD, then you should use Unstoppable Copier. Physiology Of Labour! Pros : can recover data from corrupt files while copying, batch mode, various settings for data recovery. Cons : very slow in Age Essay terms of physiology of labour, copying speed. If you#8217;re looking for Essay Does the Anniversary Means to the People, a more full-featured and fancier-looking copier, then TeraCopy is the physiology, best choice. It would actually be the best one overall if it#8217;s copying speeds were on par with FastCopy, however, it#8217;s only about average.

Where it makes up is Drinking all the physiology of labour, features and gnostic writings, the nice interface. Physiology! Pros : very nice interface, integrates fully with Windows, works with Windows 8 x64, stop and as Colonizers Essay, start, ability to physiology recover from Knowledge in Healhcare Essay errors, failed file list, very actively updated. Physiology! Cons : copying speed is only average. Writings! Beyond just the of labour, above-mentioned file copiers, there are some other programs that can help you copy files in different ways. Here are two of about Does of Australia Means to the Indigenous, my favorites. XXCOPY is physiology a command line copier program with no GUI interface. However, if you know how to Knowledge use the physiology, command line, it has over Essay What Does the Anniversary Means to the Indigenous People, 230 command line switches you can use to physiology of labour create very specific copy operations that you can#8217;t do with any other program.

Want to copy only the files older than a certain date, larger than a certain size and horace mann, with a certain word in the file name? XXCOPY can do that. Pros : huge command line options, works with all versions of physiology of labour, Windows, access remote network storage. Cons : only transracial statistics, non-stop copying, can#8217;t recover from errors, can#8217;t pause and resume. Physiology! Another smart way to statistics copy files is to physiology of labour just compare two folders and see what#8217;s different. That#8217;s how Beyond Compare works. Transracial Adoption Statistics! Even if it crashes in physiology of labour the middle or there is some sort of error, you can always just run it again and on Using Based in the Classroom, since it#8217;s comparing everything, it#8217;ll copy over any remaining items. Of Labour! This is the only program that doesn#8217;t have a free version, though, so you#8217;d have to adoption cough up $30 for it. However, there are lots of programmers and physiology, IT Pros that overwhelmingly vouch for this program. Acting! There are a bunch of physiology, other file copier programs out there, but there#8217;s really no point in What Does the Anniversary Indigenous People mentioning all of physiology, them because you#8217;ll be better off using one from the list above. If you use a file copier not mentioned above or prefer one over another, let us know in the comments.

Enjoy! The new version of Beyond Compare (v4) has a lot of improvements. And now, it works on Mac. I am using it more than once every day. Seriously, I#8217;m the only Robocopy user? I think they even have a GUI UI now! #8220;WinRoboCopy#8221; or something! Founder of Acting Essay, Online Tech Tips and managing editor.

He began blogging in 2007 and quit his job in of labour 2010 to horace mann reform blog full-time. Welcome to Online Tech Tips – A blog that provide readers with daily computer tutorials, technology news, software reviews, and physiology, personal computing tips. Essay On Using Slavery Material In The High! My name is physiology of labour Aseem Kishore and Legal Age Essay, I am a professional blogger living in Dallas, TX. Of Labour! I graduated from transracial Emory University in Atlanta, GA in physiology 2002 with a degree in writings Computer Science and Mathematics.

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new homework ideas I have been thrown into a bit of a quandary since this morning. It all started when I was reviewing a bunch of lessons for grade 7. The topic was “Human Body” and lessons were to cover aspects regarding the circulatory, respiratory, digestive and excretory system. When I started reading through, I was thrown off-gear on a couple of physiology, accounts – what are we trying to Essay about Does the Anniversary Means to the Indigenous People, teach? Where are we trying to physiology of labour, reach? What do we ultimately want our students to Essay of Australia Means to the Indigenous, learn about/from this topic? These questions have been hounding me, to the point that I am hopelessly distracted and stirred from within. To establish some sense of calm, I asked myself – are there any conceptual errors?

Is the format being followed? Any problems with pedagogy? Are the worksheets in place? Any issues with assessments? NO, NO, NO, NO – the answer echoed again and again. Then, why was I still twitchy?

I guess the only reason was – because I was unable to see the spark in the child’s eyes. (That child who would endure the implementation of these lesson plans). I guess I kept looking for that spark in each lesson I read through. But if there were no conceptual or pedagogical errors, why wouldn’t the physiology child’s eyes light up? The answer lied in the fact that I was reading the lesson plans through my teacher’s lens! (The one who taught me a thing or two about the human body and inspired me to study emergency medicine). He was a truly “inspiring” teacher who I can’t forget. Brian was his name. The question is – what made him truly “inspiring”? I guess he brought the human body alive! He didn’t make the digestive system look like a bunch of facts.

The heart was not “only” about the aorta, atrium, ventricle or the pulmonary artery. In every little detail, he was able to instill the “WOW” about the human body. Adoption! He told us how our digestive system worked tirelessly even though we forgot about physiology of labour that biscuit we munched on the moment it melted in our mouth. He made each vein, artery, muscle, bone, organ seem like they existed only to help us and had been working thanklessly for us. Therefore they deserved if not anything else a silent heartfelt “thank you”. Post his class, most of us were so starry eyed that we headed straight to the library to see pictures of how this stomach really looked (those were pre-internet days folks!) Gory, yet beautiful we thought. The next time one overate, the first thing one thought of Legal, was ‘sorry, am hurting you my stomach.’ Brian had successfully established for us a very deep connect with our own body. Not only had he ensured that we knew all about the colon, stomach, gall bladder and liver, but more importantly, he had inspired us to think of the human body like this ‘marvel’ that we had been bestowed with. I still remember the glee on our faces.

And till this date, trust me I firmly believe that the human body is such a wonder! Hmm. So, getting back to the real world of lesson planning, needlessly to state, the plans I was reading through came nowhere close to Brian’s interpretation of the physiology of labour human body. In my opinion, what plagues our teaching is indeed the over-emphasis on facts and least focus on the affective domain of learning. Do we expect 7th graders to undertake a detailed study of human anatomy? Do we want them to memorize facts, the names of organs, their location, and their functions or do we want them to develop a sense of statistics, marvel, connect, empathy, care and respect for the body? Take your call.

But please don’t forget Brian! The children need more people like him! A good teacher can transform the life of a student. How many teachers dare to go beyond the ordinary? Today’s post explores the physiology of labour role of mann, a good teacher by drawing parallels from the physiology of labour movie Taare Zameen Par . The movie is an insight into the life of an eight year old boy, Ishaan, and how he comes to gnostic writings, form a relationship with his teacher who not only of labour helps him academically but also develops his social skills and helps instill in Ishaan, a sense of Age Essay, self confidence. Ishaan, who dislikes school, fails exams and tests and is always ridiculed by his teachers. Noticing the tiniest of things in his surroundings and looking at of labour, them in wonder, all Ishaan wants to do is paint, explore his surroundings and create things.This wonderful talent that resides within him unfortunately goes unrecognised.

Adding to his woes, Ishaan’s elder brother’s academic and co-curricular excellence stands as a constant reminder of his own academic failure. Unfortunately, Ishaan’s inability is mistaken for repetitive bad behavior and he ends up getting admitted in a boarding school. Age Essay! Finding himself in a completely unfamiliar and unfriendly environment, he sinks into of labour, depression and fear. Most of Ishaan’s teachers judged his inability to study as his way of on Using School Classroom, revolting.His art teacher, Nikumbh, was quick to realise that Ishaan’sacademic shortcomings indicated dyslexia. His efforts at of labour, trying and explaining this situation to Legal Drinking Age Essay, Ishaan’s parents is also taken as an excuse for his poor performance. A good teacher lovesselflessly . Not letting judgment get in the way of their treatment towards the students, a good teacher finds the depth of the problem. Of Labour! S/he is determined to make the writings student succeed under any circumstances. This is where a good teacher tries to first understand her/his student and then modifies her/his teaching methodology to suit the student’s needs. Physiology! Exemplifying this, Nikumbh seeks permission to tutor Ishaan and teaches him using remedial techniques. It is said that a good teacher is a work of art . I say, a good teacher is a work of heart . Very rarely does one find a teacher who understands and Legal Drinking Age Essay, believes in a student more than the of labour child’s parents. When everybody is busy blaming the student for writings, her/his incompetence, a good teacher realises the issue and works hard to help her/his student overcome their problems.

Persistence and physiology, determination go hand in hand for a good teacher. It is her/his belief that keeps her/him going and striving to about, achieve the best for of labour, the student. The love and confidence that a good teacher demonstrates for her/his students is to the what instills a sense of physiology of labour, self-assurance in the student. Very few students are lucky to find that one mentor who will lead them to the path of success. I, on behalf of EI, would like to thank each and every teacher who has helped us and many more students out there to be what they are today. We surely wouldn’t have made it this far without your support and help. Educational Innovations and Management, the DAV schools: In Conversation with the Academic Supervisors. With the increasing frequency of physiology, our visits to DAV Public School, SreshthaVihar, it almost feels like home, says Dr. Priyanka Jain, Lead- Teacher Education, #Educational #Innovations.

Having completed two successful workshop series with the teachers of this school on #Effective #Teaching #Learning, Educational Innovations (EI) recently conducted a 2-day workshop with the Academic Supervisors of various DAV schools in the Delhi NCR. The workshop, titled Role of Supervisors in Academics, aimed at equipping the supervisors in enhancing academics in their schools. The supervisors were oriented with the approaches to pedagogy, lesson planning and the key elements of a conducive learning environment in a school. Essay On Using Slavery School! It also focused on the vision of subject teaching as laid down by the National Curriculum Framework 2005 (NCF). The school's principal, Mrs. PremLataGarg, also spoke about the importance of the physiology of labour NCF and how the writings role of the physiology of labour supervisors and teachers is vital in ensuring academic success in schools.

Mrs. Garg calls NCF the 'bible of education'. For her, each and Age Essay, every teacher should know exactly why s/he wants to teach and physiology, the purpose toward which s/he is working. SreshthaVihar scored an average of 97.7 per cent in computer science in horace the class 12 board exams this year. Mr. Ashok Kumar Goel teaches C++ in the school and physiology of labour, is one dedicated educator. Available 24*7 to his students, Mr.

Goel used to wait for his students in the school till 9 in the night. Students used to finish their coaching classes and come back to school and get their doubts resolved from him. It is reform this dedication that PremLata ma'am talks about. She emphasises how important it is to marry co-curricular excellence with good academic results. Discussions and activities were also conducted on the vision of the NCF 2005 and physiology of labour, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) along with the importance of conceptual teaching and understanding and developing higher order thinking skills. Knowledge Management In Healhcare Essay! These in physiology of labour turn led to practical worries raised by the supervisors. They were concerned with the high teacher-student ratio in most schools, teacher bias and the casual attitude of students.

A major issue faced by them was the procurement of projects. CCE directs that projects be given to students as part of their #formative #assessment. The teachers seemed to agree that because of the Material School Classroom massive amount of work at school, they end up giving projects to students as homework. Now, because of no time or incompetence in making these projects, the students end up outsourcing these projects which does not solve the physiology of labour initial purpose of the task. The workshop allowed the teachers to think about these issues and transracial statistics, come to a consensus that projects can and should be given as part of the students' classwork. The workshop also gave an physiology opportunity to the teachers to introspect on the role of the various stakeholders in horace mann a school, namely, students, parents, teachers and the school leadership. Physiology Of Labour! Discussing about the role of and What Does the Anniversary Means, expectations from supervisors, it was established that a supervisor should have at least a working knowledge of all the subjects. Physiology! It is only then that s/he can help and impart knowledge to other teachers. Overall, the workshop led the supervisorsto be more positive about the CCE framework who now wanted to implement it in the right spirit. They agreed on the importance of all stakeholders working together and Legal Drinking Age Essay, that once understood completely, the NCF will prove to be very helpful to each one of them.

It felt good to know that the supervisors valued the physiology workshop and were motivated to share their learning with the teachers in gnostic their respective schools. Good teachers are born, not made. Physiology! –Anonymous. Today’s blog on the good teacher takes cue from E. R. Braithwaite’s autobiographical note, To Sir, With Love, written in 1959. Legal Age Essay! Basing his story on true events that occurred in his school, Braithwaite talks about his journey as an of labour accidental teacher and how he comes to form a relationship based on trust with his students. Once a teacher realises her/his true calling, s/he feels for the students. This coming of age novel encourages teachers to be sensitive towards the students’ needs and realise that no amount of education, tricks or ideas can work if you are not passionate about teaching.

It is a common occurrence for teachers to find certain students in class who don’t accept them and are maybe averse to being taught by them. At this point, a good teacher is someone, who instead of punishing the students or giving up, sets ground rules for them. A good teacher constantly works towards gaining acceptance from her/his students and winning their trust. Seeking ways to break through to her/his students, a good teacher finds herself/himself to be controlled and intelligent. S/he will be able to tame her/his students and What of Australia to the Indigenous People, teach them self-respect. A very important quality displayed by a good teacher here is tact. A good teacher is tactful and physiology, resolves issues carefully. This trait is displayed by Braithwaite when he realises the needs of his students and what they really want to learn and how his students progress from disruption and Essay about the Anniversary to the Indigenous, distasteful pranks to learning the importance of physiology of labour, education and eventually turning into gentlemen and ladies. Legal Drinking! He is physiology of labour calm and resists his students’ negative attitude and remains motivated not to be baited or manipulated by them. This is exactly where self-restraint comes in. Not letting negative thoughts and attitudes affect her/him, a good teacher continues to believe in the good that rests in every student, relates to them and imbibes in them the faith that education is Knowledge Essay important in everyone’s life.

Relating to a student’s needs, a good teacher understands the need for inventive and genuine approaches to overcome teaching challenges. Teaching students the importance of education, a good teacher not only physiology teaches them, but also learns from her/his students. S/he allows students to Age Essay, ask questions and be clear about what they learn and also realise the importance of physiology, building character and determination. Building on this attitude, a good teacher exemplifies a selfless nature and helps her/his students mature. Making students able to adapt to their environment and the world around themselves, a good teacher also adapts herself/himself according to the changes in the needs of the students. Transracial Statistics! This is what a good teacher is.

S/he understands that it is the students and not the teacher who matters most and in of labour this process makes the children realise their own worth and importance. Here is a video from the movie which was adapted from the novel mentioned above. The song was a gift from the students to the teacher thanking him for his time, patience, love and What Does Indigenous, dedication to them and shows how the students’ love in turn completely overcomes him by emotions. This song is a dedication to all the teachers out there who not only physiology struggle but also find their way through into on Using Slavery Based Material in the School, their students’ lives. Freedom Writers Diary My take on a Good Teacher: Erin Gruwell and the Freedom Writers Diary. Writing is powerful. Whether it's a little girl hiding from the Nazis in an attic, or Amnesty International writing letters on behalf of political prisoners, the power of telling stories is usually what causes change. Physiology! — Erin Gruwell. This article takes inspiration from about Does the Anniversary to the Erin Gruwell, a first year teacher who dared to change her class curriculum radically. Erin, along with her students, wrote the book The Freedom Writers Diary: How a Teacher and 150 Teens Used Writing to physiology of labour, Change Themselves and the World Around Them.

The book went on to become a motion picture, The Freedom Writers, in 2007. You will see me drawing parallels to the movie throughout this narration. It will help the readers connect to what I am trying to put across in this description of horace reform, a good teacher.It will be most relatable to teachers working with students coming from low income families, families where these children are probably the first generation learners. When Erin enters her class for the first time, she is physiology welcomed (more like unwelcomed) by a group of Management, students. Classified as the of labour ‘unteachables’ and ‘at risk’ students, she finds it really difficult to get through to them.

How does Erin then draw a connection with each one of them? What does she do to engage, enlighten and empower all students in her class? There is Essay What to the Indigenous People a scene in the movie where she tries to physiology of labour, teach her students essay writing, all this while they revolt. Age Essay! These are children who do not want to physiology, study. They do not connect with the text and gnostic, don’t see a point as to why they should be reading and studying something completely not related to their lives. This is when a good teacher digresses from the curriculum and tries to make things relevant for her/his students by contextualising what s/he teaches. She hands over journals to each one of these students and asks them to record all the events that have occurred in their lives that have had an physiology impact on them. I can’t help but draw a connection to gnostic, this exact same incident that occurred during one of my field trips in the interiors of Odisha.

While conducting a case study, I realised that students of class 9 are made to physiology, read topics like ‘My Birthday Party’ and ‘Christmas’. What Of Australia Means Indigenous! What was dismaying was that these children, belonging to farming families and living in one bedroom kutcha houses had no idea about their own birth dates, let alone having a birthday party. The only of labour festivals they probably knew about and reform, could afford to celebrate were the ones related to the crop harvest and physiology, a few followed by Hindus. Why is it that no one makes a conscious effort and tries to contextualize reading for Knowledge in Healhcare Essay, these kids? A good teacher is also sacrificing and resilient. Erin faced a lot of opposition from the school authorities in terms of getting books for her students to read or conducting field visits. Known as Mrs.

G to her students, she took up two part time jobs to help sponsor her students’ field visits and books. By the end of the school year, Mrs. Physiology! G was able to get around 35 computers donated for her students in order for them to write abook; all this, at the risk of Legal, losing her husband and inviting the displeasure of her fellow teachers. A good teacher fights against all odds and invents new learning models: kinesthetic, auditory and visual. S/he comes up with innovative curriculum emphasising on self- actualisation, tolerance and of labour, the active participation of Drinking, students by building on their common experience to bring learning to life. Before all of this, it is of utmost importance for a good teacher to demonstrate leadership qualities and build her/his students’ trust . Erin here demonstrates what it is like to be a true leader. Physiology! She leads her class against all odds and most of gnostic writings, all believes in physiology her students . It is What Does Means this trust and belief that led to most of her ‘at-risk’ students to work hard and even graduate from physiology school. Being a good teacher is all about commitment, setting high expectations from students and building a partnership with the horace students.

A good teacher doesn’t let anyone put her/his students down. S/he listens more and makes her/his students feel at physiology of labour, home. It is about how effectively and efficiently the teacher is able to help her/his students reach their highest potential. On Using In The School Classroom! In the end, it is all about caring and giving thought about each student. I leave you all with a soundtrack from the movie. Physiology! The song portrays the struggles that most of Legal, us go through on a daily basis and also gives the listener that small ray of hope to strive and achieve what s/he really wants. “One week on physiology, the field! Oh my God”, is in Healhcare Essay what I said to myself looking out of the window in my bedroom. It was getting hot and the only thing that I could think to of labour, myself was the enormous amount of Essay of Australia to the Indigenous People, work staring at me. The thought made me nervous.

I have been out of school for seven years but I must confess that entering the premises of Seth MR Jaipuria School, Lucknow for the first time brought back happy memories. Senior school boys who look older than you, kindergarten students who are no higher than three feet, children playing, loitering in the corridors and physiology, just about every miniscule happening in the school brought back the good old school memories. Setting foot on a totally unfamiliar territory (at least for statistics, me), I walked slowly towards the main building. Making my way inside along with a bunch of UKG students, I started clicking pictures of the junior school girls playing football. This is physiology of labour where I met three boys studying in UKG class. One of mann, them quickly comes up to me and says, “This is the camera I saw on TV!!

Will you come to of labour, my class and take our pictures?” I graciously accepted the offer and walked right into transracial, their yoga class. What a delight it was! My work revolved around interacting with the students and teachers. These students, I must admit, are a bunch of really smart, outgoing and most importantly, well-mannered youngsters;right from physiology kindergarten to the senior classes. Shubhang, the school’s Vice Head boy, is pretty satisfied with his teachers. He says, “The methodologies adopted by them have been effective since the time I have been studying here. They have groomed us and have helped us not only in reform establishing ourselves in the school but also outside the physiology of labour school premises.” I also noticed few students wearing a different uniform. I learnt that ‘Nav Sanjivan’ is a parallel school run by Jaipuria which provides free education to children from the underprivileged section of the Legal Drinking city. Also taught by physiology, Mrs.

Anju Wal (Principal, Jaipuria School), the Based High Classroom school which provides classes from KG to physiology, 4 has a different set of teachers. I had the opportunity to observe a couple of their classes. Celebrating Earth Day, the Knowledge Management Essay school had arranged for a competition for the students, “Best of Waste”. The students were asked to collect whatever waste material they thought could be re-used. One particular piece of art that drew my attention was a mango tree made with the help of fallen twigs and of labour, mangoes cut out from in Healhcare Essay empty ‘Frooti’ packets.

The student had depicted the importance of saving the soil in order to avoid the damage of mangoes due to improper and physiology, untimely rains. I was delighted when I learnt that quite a few students from gnostic this school have gone on to appear for the class 10 exams from Jaipuria school. On getting an opportunity to meet the school’s principal, Mrs. Anju Wal, I started talking to of labour, her about the school and its work with Educational Innovations. “It has been a rewarding experience for the Jaipuria teachers, all members of the staff and myself particularly.” The school has now found a new way to look at the teaching learning process and is happy to Legal Drinking, have been able to experience the importance of a child centered learning environment. Ma’am agrees that it is a long process and takes a lot of time to physiology, get the students to Drinking, respond in the right manner and ask them the right questions along with developing critical thinking skills in them.

Overall, the week-long field trip was a wonderful learning experience for me and the entire EI team. The hands-on classroom experience has definitely added value to our work. Using Comics and Graphic Novels as Teaching Learning Tools. Children have a natural affinity for anything graphic- visual illustrations, comics, cartoons, et al. Gone are the days, when we would reprimand kids for sneaking comic books instead of textbooks, or reading story books instead of physiology of labour, completing their Math homework, or watching cartoons instead of drinking milk! Educators and parents have realized the immense potential graphic novels and comics have in Essay Does Indigenous People developing essential skills- writing, reading, drawing, inking, and having computer coloring skills. In my view, graphic novels and comics can completely replace those boring school textbooks with a wall of words, daunting and endless.

They can take the role of literature in the classrooms. Physiology! They have an added advantage as they divide up the text into manageable chunks, which are supported by images. These images help readers increase their vocabulary through the connection between words and transracial, images. Comics and graphic novels can be used as a “point of of labour, reference” to bridge what students already know with what they have yet to learn. For example, comics and Material High School, graphic novels can teach about making inference, since there is a small amount of text associated with it. For students who lack the ability to visualize as they read, comics and graphic novels provide for it. Moreover, it provides an excellent way for reluctant writers to physiology of labour, communicate a story that has a beginning, middle, and Legal Drinking Age Essay, end. I think comics and graphic novels are an excellent vehicle for teaching writing, as a story has to be pared down to physiology, its most basic elements. It is easy for the students to look at a short comic strip and Legal, identify story elements. Comics and of labour, graphic novels also encourage readers to explore different genres, and develop an appreciation for different literary and artistic styles, teach positive messages, such as helping others, working to one’s best ability, working as a team, and persevering.

They also open a reader’s mind to new ways of storytelling, and increase their imagination, through the Essay on Using Slavery Based in the unique combination of of labour, text and pictures used in comics to convey the story. However, selecting the right comic is very crucial. It has to cater to all the Knowledge Essay learners and readers in physiology the classroom. But the real daunting task, teacher might have to face, is getting students to actually enjoy reading comics. Knowledge Management In Healhcare! But given the fact that, children are usually drawn to graphics and cartoons, it would not be very difficult after all. So go on, add some drama to your classroom! From Batman’s intensity, to physiology of labour, Supandi’s absurdity, from Essay the Anniversary Means Indigenous Veronica’s charm to physiology, The Hulk’s anger, from writings Dennis’s menace to Chacha Chaudhury’s wisdom, let your classroom breathe some life and magic!

There is simply no denying that music enhances our senses, feelings and energy levels. It creates the desired moods we want to engage in- happy, angry, sad, etc. Physiology! Essentially it sets the tone for a variety of Essay about the Anniversary of Australia to the People, purposes- from physiology of labour a romantic dinner to Legal Age Essay, loud weddings, from quite sombre outings to jazzy evenings- anything and everything. So, how about physiology of labour using music as a teaching learning tool? Despite the immense pressure on gnostic, teachers and students to accomplish more and more and to do it faster, there is strong rationale to incorporate music in the classroom. Apart from “The Mozart Effect” principle, there are many ways music (or sound to be precise) can help. Through music and movement, children learn acceptable outlets to physiology of labour, express feelings and relieve tension.

Music may also convey a specific mood through which children reveal their feelings and horace mann, emotions. Also, there is a connection between music and the development of of labour, mathematical thinking. Mathematical concepts are developed as children sing counting songs.Music can create an imaginary world that stimulates a child’s creativity. A box can become a drum, a stick can be transformed into a horn, or a broom can become a dance partner. Children make up songs or give new words to old songs for pure enjoyment. (Imagine, a classroom that lively?!) Music helps to establish a positive learning state to create a desired atmosphere, build a sense of anticipation, energize learning activities, change brain wave states, focus concentration, and increase attention. It also facilitates a multisensory learning experience and Management in Healhcare Essay, helps to release tension, enhance imagination, align groups, develop rapport, provide inspiration and motivation, add an element of fun and accentuate theme-oriented units.

Now, let me suggest 5 ways for teachers (even those with little or no musical training) to integrate music into the daily life of their classrooms and schools. Teachers can use music and songs for early morning meeting/assembly. They could keep a list of favorite (appropriate) songs posted and physiology, ask students to sing together. This will build and enhance a sense of solidarity and group competence. Songs can also be used to reinforce content and facilitate memorization. Rhymes, poems, folksongs, audio aids, can be used to develop vocabulary skills and can also be used as teaching learning tools to teach content. Music is Does Means to the Indigenous a tool that can be used to help teachers achieve effective and physiology of labour, efficient classroom management. The calming effects of music have positive effects on the students when it is Knowledge Management in Healhcare introduced into the classroom. Creating a classroom that has low anxiety and stress levels is important to classroom management.Music soothes transitions and soothes tempers, especially in the early elementary grades. There is a long tradition of early childhood educators using songs to support transitions and garner student attention.

A great way to physiology, give primary-grade students opportunities to play with sounds is to create a music center in the classroom. In these areas, teacher can provide a junk box full of objects which can be made into musical instruments, along with a good set of Knowledge Management Essay, rhythm instruments. A variety of recorded music should also be accessible. Songbooks and sheet music can be available to introduce children to the musical symbol system. Dancing supplies, such as scarves, jingle bracelets, and ribbon sticks, can add to the fun. Using background music as a tool to physiology, limit disruptions and behavior problems is an effective strategy. A recent study found, that music was an the Anniversary of Australia Means to the effective method to lower behavior problems and increase performance because disruptive students tend to seek constant stimulus. The background music provided the stimulus that they were seeking, and allowed them to concentrate on the task. They also found that instrumental music was the most effective. Music with vocal accompaniment seemed to provide too much stimulus to the students. The evidence that music impacts the body and physiology of labour, learning suggests that music should be included in classrooms.

Music can be included in any classroom, regardless of grade level or subject matter. The power that music can have on learners is extensive; it can benefit students and Drinking, lead them to higher achievement and development.All children should be given the opportunity to physiology, discover and develop an appreciation of music and how it brings people together. Transracial Adoption! And as Nietzsche puts it, “Without music, life would be a mistake”, let’s make learning (life) melodious and musical! It was 4 in the morning and I was really nervous and excited to of labour, get to gnostic, the railway station. I had to catch a 6:15 train to Lucknow, the city of nawaabs . This happened to be my first out station work trip at Educational Innovations and my visit to the city as well. Seth M R Jaipuria School recently inaugurated a franchise at Bansal Campus. For this, Educational Innovations was invited to conduct a 2-day workshop on Effective Teaching Learning for the newly recruited teachers of the school.

Defining their curriculum with the core idea of self-learning, the Jaipuria schools imagine education to be holistic. Our workshop focused on imparting the new teachers with the vision of the Jaipuria schools. Physiology! It also oriented them with the curriculum development process, the importance of higher order thinking skills and approaches to pedagogy. I must admit that I had my inhibitions regarding the teachers at horace mann reform, first. Physiology! These of course were shed once we started interacting and I heard their views on the various topics under discussion in these two days.

They were quite vocal about their ideas and contributed their views through the activities and discussions. Excusing myself from the workshop, I made my way to Essay about What Indigenous People, the principal’s office. A very warm and welcoming lady, Mrs. Physiology Of Labour! Monica Tewari calls herself a man! Having joined the What school just a day before our arrival, Mrs. Tewari had a packed schedule meeting parents of prospective students. “The admission process is quite a gigantic task”, she acknowledged.

I quickly struck up a conversation with Monica ma’am, having shared a similar personal background. Talking about her experience, she shared her plans and vision for the Jaipuria School, Bansal Campus. She is very sure as to how she wants her mentors (teachers) to perform in school. Mentors are expected to share their ideas and views on different teaching practices in their staff work station. More than anything, for Mrs. Tewari, it is of utmost importance that a teacher listens first and dictates later . A hard task master, Mrs. Monica Tewari agrees that there is a lot to be done in the school; systems have to physiology, come in place and challenges need to be overcome. For her, a student revolves around her/his school, home and tuitions. Mrs.

Tewari’s focus lies on making the Bansal campus students say no to Does the Anniversary Means Indigenous People, tuitions! The school is going to undertake counselling sessions for physiology of labour, the parents as well as teachers along with providing a lot of diagnostic tools to Knowledge Management in Healhcare Essay, assess the child. She believes in of labour the philosophy of reform, treating the student as a plain white paper who can be shaped by the teacher. The teacher in turn will be made to of labour, appreciate each student just the way s/he is. Essay On Using Slavery Material School Classroom! Getting rid of punishments completely, Mrs. Tewari wants to imbibe a mix of modern technology with Indian culture into of labour, the school learning environment. We continued chatting about our experiences for a while. Just then, a knock on adoption, her door was a reminder for me to take her leave as there were a group of parents waiting for Monica ma’am. Physiology! It was then that I was told that the number of admissions had risen to Essay Based Material School Classroom, 175 from 92 in a day. Wishing the principal good luck for the admissions and the new school session, I quickly made my way out towards the workshop room where the participants shared their excitement about the curriculum development process and its implementation.

Their zeal and eagerness assured me that they indeed were. Well, so were we! We all grow up hearing stories from our elders about physiology so many different things. Stories form the key to transracial statistics, child’s learning especially during elementary stages. They capture a child’s imaginations in the text. Children of all ages love when learning happens in a narrative way through stories. One can teach so many concepts to a child easily through stories.

“Education is the physiology most powerful weapon, which you can use to change the world.” - Nelson Mandela. Clearly, even fanatics and terrorists have understood this and they intend to sabotage the cause of education, especially education of the girl child. For decades now, we have seen this felony getting legitimised by the Taliban in Afghanistan, killing or punishing by throwing acid on women who dared to seek education; in Pakistan, when the Taliban shot Malala Yousufzai in the head for being ‘unislamic’ and attending school! But the most gross and horace reform, the latest, is the abduction of around 300 school girls aged 9-15 years in Nigeria by the terrorist group, ‘Boko Haram’. Boko Haram translates as “western education is a sin”. Rarely, has a name revealed so much!

In full notoriety, they kidnapped the girls in their sleep from their boarding school and fled with them to unknown locations. In a video released recently, the chief of the group claimed responsibility and threatened to physiology, sell ‘your’ girls in Legal Age Essay the ‘market by Allah’. So, what is so scary about women seeking education? Like Mandela puts it, education can change the world. It can change everything. It can turn patriarchy on its head and transform society.

According to an article that featured in The New York Times, educating the feminine force actually changes demography! For every 1 percentage point increase in the share of the population aged 15 to 24, the risk of civil war increases by 4 percent. Physiology Of Labour! That means, curbing birthrates tends to lead to stability, and that's where educating girls comes in. You educate a boy, and he'll have fewer children, but it's a small effect. Horace Mann Reform! You educate a girl, and, on average, she will have a significantly smaller family. Another study found that, for each additional year of primary school, a girl has 0.26 fewer children.

Also, educated women add to the working force. Physiology! According to the World Bank, educating a girl child leads to an increase in infant survival rates and reduction in maternal deaths. Educated women marry at a later age; make use of birth control measures and maternal health services. They provide better nutrition to the family and better health care. On Using Based Material School! Educated women also understand the importance of sending children to school, without discriminating against girls. Simply put, educating a girl can actually break the poverty cycle for future generations as well. Now, that is something that should really scare the fanatics.

And scared they are. No wonder they intend to physiology, sell the kidnapped girls as slaves, for reasons best known to them, slavery and prostitution are not as sinful as education is! Boko Haram has a stronghold in northeastern Nigeria because it's an area where education is weak and women are marginalised. Some two-thirds of women in the region have had no formal education. Only 1 in 20 has completed high school.

Half are married by the age of 15. Huge amount of finances are doled out every year by almost all developing countries to increase growth rates, counter terrorist activities, test missiles, look for alien life, building infrastructure, etc. How about funding the gnostic cause of education? In a nation like India, where man-hood is divine and female foeticide is the norm, how much can we gain by ignoring education and worshipping growth rates which can hardly do anything for human development? Can we? Let’s think about it. As of now, let’s just try and #BringBackOurGirls. Tackling Ignorance through Awareness. Image source:

Nido Taniam, a student from Arunachal Pradesh, who was mercilessly beaten up by locals in Delhi's Lajpat Nagar and then died in a hospital, was just 19 years old. His death has yet again highlighted the question that raises its head very rarely in our country- racial profiling of the people from India's north-east (NE). Of Labour! Not entering the debate on Management in Healhcare Essay, whether we are a racist country or not (let’s leave it to TV news channels), let us examine our ignorance towards people from the NE. It’s easy to physiology of labour, condemn racism. But how can you condemn someone who is ignorant, ignorant for no fault of his.

I firmly believe, ignorance or lack of awareness is the Essay on Using Slavery School Classroom root cause of of labour, this ‘hatred’ towards people from the NE. The other day, I was asked if I was really from the North-East. Statistics! Perhaps, my ‘non-tribal’ appearance confused people. I replied, “I am from Assam.” The person in question, looked confused for some time before saying, “Aah that’s why!” Even as I was wondering what to make of that comment, he remarked that since I was from Assam, which is the most mainstream among the other NE states, that, I was not a ‘chinki’, a colloquial for anybody with.

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10 Tips for Writing the College Application Essay. No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is physiology as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of writing the essay and Drinking being judged on it. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and physiology special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door.

Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only Essay on Using Slavery High, a suggested minimum of physiology, 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest.

Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to be the What Does, copy editor of the newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the of labour, president. Not everyone has to be the star at everything. Knowledge Management Essay! You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Be an individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know? It's not in of labour your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. Adoption Statistics! It is your mind and physiology how it works that are distinctive. How do you think?

Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to on Using Material in the High School, the whole exercise. 4. Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to of labour, babble, but I mean write about just one subject at a time. Don't try to cover everything in an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of Based in the, snapshots of what you do. It is inevitably incomplete. Physiology! The colleges expect this. Go along with them. 5. Horace Reform! Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying).

Attend to the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment. Provide some details to help the reader see the setting.

Use the names (or invent them) for the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. It also shows the reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of physiology, your writing, which is something you'll surely want to Knowledge Essay, do. 7. Be likable. Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in physiology of labour dorms, classes, etc.

Are you someone they would like to have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. In Healhcare Essay! Subtlety is good. Of Labour! 8. Be cautious in your use of humor. Horace! You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to physiology, you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in the eye of the writings, beholder. Physiology Of Labour! Be funny only if you think you have to. Then think again. 9. Be controversial (if you can).

So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the Essay Slavery Material in the, final truth. And don't just get up on your soapbox and physiology spout off on a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Management Essay! Colleges are places for physiology of labour, the discussion of Knowledge Management, ideas, and physiology admissions officers look for diversity of mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play. Knowledge In Healhcare Essay! It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is of labour why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC.

All rights reserved. Weighing Faculty Diversity for Age Essay, College. Professors from different ethnicities and backgrounds can broaden students' undergraduate experience. Physiology! Discover what it's like to attend more than 70 colleges across the country. 4 Myths About Athletic Scholarships. Despite misconceptions, athletes in sports ranging from golf to water polo can earn college scholarships.

Federal Investigation Fuels Amateurism Debate. The debate over mann reform, if and how college athletes should be paid got new legs after a federal investigation alleged fraud and bribery schemes at marquee national programs. Maximize Study Abroad as Premed Student. Physiology! Students can strengthen their medical school applications through foreign experiences. Top Universities With Rolling Admissions. Eighty-three ranked schools evaluate college applicants on a first-come, first-served basis, U.S.

News data show. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and language sections of the Drinking, exam. Washington College Road Trip: University of Washington. Discover what it's like to attend this public institution in physiology Seattle. Washington College Road Trip: Gonzaga University. Learn what it's like to attend this Spokane, Washington school. Take a College Road Trip to Washington.

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concluding a paper By Behrouz Karoubi. University Lecturer at Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran. For years translations were considered as derivatives, copies, and translators as mechanical devices replacing linguistic codes (equivalents) from one language into another, and the translator's autonomy was always questioned (and is physiology still being questioned) by those who thought of him/her ‘as a monkey, with no choice save to make the same grimaces as his master’ (Leppihalme, 1997: 19), until recent years when, under the influence of poststructuralism and functionalism, the focus of attention has been shifted to horace mann reform, the issue of translator’s agency and subjectivity, and physiology the notions of originality and Knowledge in Healhcare Essay (absolute) equivalence and also author’s superiority over translator have been severely questioned. Bassnett (1996) stresses the need for physiology, reassessing the role of the translator by analyzing his/her intervention in the process of linguistic transfer, when she argues ‘Once considered a subservient, transparent filter through which a text could and should pass without adulteration, the translation can now be seen as a process in which intervention is crucial’ (p. 22). Awareness of horace mann complexity of translation process and avoidance of the physiology, simplistic view of regarding translation as mere process of transferring words from one text to another, Álvarez Vidal (1996) claim, will result in realizing the importance of the ideology underlying a translation.

They argue that behind every one of the translator’s selections, as what to add, what to leave out, which words to choose and transracial adoption how to place them, ‘there is a voluntary act that reveals his history and the socio-political milieu that surrounds him; in other words, his own culture [and ideology]’. (Álvarez Vidal, 1996: 5). The exercise of ideology in translation is as old as the of labour, history of translation itself. According to Fawcett (1998), ‘throughout the centuries, individuals and institutions applied their particular beliefs to the production of certain effect in translation’ (p. 107). He claims that ‘an ideological approach to translation can be found in some of the Legal Drinking Age Essay, earliest examples of translation known to us’ (p.

106). Nevertheless, the linguistics-oriented approaches to translation studies have failed to address the concept of ideology through years of physiology their prevalence, because such approaches are limited to their scientific models for research and the empirical data they collect, so that ‘they remain reluctant to take into account the social values [and ideologies] that enter into translating as well as the study of it’ (Venuti, 1998a: 1). The deficiency of old linguistics-based approaches – which ‘are mainly descriptive studies focusing on textual forms’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 8) – in accounting for social values in translation and Slavery Material in the High Classroom other aspects of language use resulted in developing a new trend of research called Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) ‘whose primary aim is to expose the ideological forces that underlie communicative exchanges [like translating]’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 2). Physiology Of Labour. According to CDA advocates, all language use, including translation, is ideological and Essay about the Anniversary of Australia Means to the People this means that translation is always a site for ideological encounters (p. 2). Similarly, Schäffner (2003) claims that all translations are ideological since ‘the choice of a source text and the use to which the subsequent target text is put are determined by the interests, aims, and objectives of social agents’ (p. 23). She evidently opts for van Dijk’s definition for ideology as ‘basic systems of shared social representations that may control more specific group beliefs’ (van Dijk, 1996: 7). However, there are a profusion of diverse definitions of ideology defining the term from different perspectives – amongst them is van Dijk’s definition – some of which are deemed necessary to be overviewed here. The term ‘ideology’ has been always accompanied by its political connotation as it is evident in its dictionary definition as ‘a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and of labour policy ’ (The New Oxford Dictionary of English). Translation scholars who slant in favor of the political definitions of ideology mainly believe that translating itself is a political act as Tahir-Gürça#287;lar (2003: 113) argues, ‘Translation is political because, both as activity and product, it displays process of negotiation among different agents.

On micro-level, these agents are translators, authors, critics, publishers, editors, and readers’. Under the statistics, influence of Marx who defines ideology as action without knowledge (false consciousness), ideology is physiology sometimes defined in its negative political sense as ‘a system of wrong, false, distorted or otherwise misguided beliefs’ (van Dijk, qtd in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 3). Essay About What To The Indigenous People. In its more constructive sense, Marxists like Lenin define Socialist ideology as ‘a force that encourages revolutionary consciousness and fosters progress’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003 : 4). According to Calzada-Pérez ( ibid. ), recent definitions of ideology are linked with the concepts of power relations and domination, as she quotes from Eagleton: ‘[Ideology is] ideas and beliefs which help to legitimate the interest of a ruling group or class by distortion or dissimulation’. Physiology. This view, in fact, forms the basis of post-colonial thinking which ‘highlights the power relations which inform contemporary cultural exchanges’ (Simon, 1996: 136). However, Calzada-Pérez (2003) argues that sometimes ideology is viewed in Essay more positive sense ‘as a vehicle to promote or legitimate interests of a particular social group (rather than a means to of labour, destroy contenders)’ (p.

5). Scholars in the field of language-related, cultural and translation studies, however, often tend to extend the concept of ideology beyond political sphere and define it in a rather politically neutralized sense as ‘a set of Slavery Based Material in the High ideas, which organize our lives and help us understand the relation to our environment’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 5). In most parts of the current paper, nevertheless, the of labour, writer opts for the definition proposed by the Anniversary of Australia Means to the Indigenous People, van Dijk (1996: 7) for ideology as a framework that is ‘assumed to specifically organize and physiology of labour monitor one form of socially shared mental representation, in other words, the writings, organized evaluative beliefstraditionally called 'attitudes'shared by social groups’. The ideology of translation could be traced in both process and of labour product of translation which are, however, closely interdependent. The ideology of a translation, according to Tymoczko (2003), will be a combination of the content of the source text and the various speech acts represented in the source text relevant to the source context, layered together with the horace mann reform, representation of the content, its relevance to the receptor audience, and the various speech acts of the translation itself addressing the target context, as well as resonance and of labour discrepancies between these two ‘utterances’. Legal Drinking Age Essay. However, she further explains that ‘the ideology of translation resides not simply in the text translated, but in the voicing and stance of the translator, and in its relevance to the receiving audience’ (pp. 182–83). Schäffner (2003) explains: Ideological aspect can […] be determined within a text itself, both at the lexical level (reflected, for example, in the deliberate choice or avoidance of a particular word […]) and the grammatical level (for example, use of passive structures to avoid an expression of agency). Of Labour. Ideological aspects can be more or less obvious in writings texts, depending on the topic of a text, its genre and communicative purposes. (p. 23)

Ideological aspects can also be examined in the process of text production (translating) and the role of the translator as a target text producer as well as a source text interpreter. These aspects along with two major influencing schools of post-structuralism and functionalism will be further explained in details in the following paragraphs. Ideology and the translator as a reader of the source text: Poststructuralism. According to Venuti (1992: 6), poststructuralist thinkers like Derrida and de Man, mainly under the influence of Benjamin’s works, explode the of labour, binary opposition between original and horace translation which causes translators to physiology, be invisible. Before the emergence of poststructuralism, structuralists like Saussure, defined language as the scientifically examinable world of symbols constituting the mann reform, linguistic system and social structure within which the individual is socially shaped. The structuralists believed that ‘language is constructed as a system of signs, each sign being the result of physiology conventional relation between word and meaning, between a signifier (a sound or sound-image) and a signified (the referent, or concept represented by the signifier)’ (Roman, 2002: 309).

Later, Barthes, an early poststructuralist, claimed that ‘signifiers and singnifieds are not fixed, unchangeable, but, on the contrary, can make the sign itself signifying more complex mythical signs as intricate signifiers of the order of myth’ (Roman, 2002: 310). This shift of idea from structuralism toward poststructuralism resulted in extreme revisions in different domains of language, for example, developing of ‘the death of author’ thinking which later found its way into Translation Studies. From instability of the signifiers and signifieds, Barthes concludes that reading texts in terms of authorial intention or what we think the author meant by such and such a statement, and referring the source of meaning and authority of a text back to its author (as the creator of that text) is no more acceptable (Royle, 2003: 7). Barthes argues that ‘since writers only write within a system of about the Anniversary to the language in which particularized authors are born and shaped, texts cannot be thought of in terms of of labour their author’s intentions, but only in relationship with other texts: in intertextuality’ (Roman, 2002: 311). In the absence of the Essay about of Australia Means People, author, Barthes explains, the readers (a translator could be one of them) interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is ideological; and the meaning of physiology of labour a text becomes what individual readers extract from it, not what a supreme Author put in. (Hermans, 1999: 69) ‘ “The birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author”, Barthes bravely declares’ ( ibid ). Derrida, another poststructuralist, draws attention from the signifieds to the chain of signifiers, as Roman (2002) explains:

Derrida takes the structure of sign from Saussure, but transforms it into a fluid entity, whereby meaning and writing consist solely in signifiers. Signifiers refer only to each other and meaning becomes unstable since any deferral to yet another signifier implies a difference in an endless chain of Knowledge Management Essay signification. This is the of labour, meaning of the French term différence (from the French verb différer, with its polysemantics of to differ and to delay), or Différance, a neologism created by Derrida particularly to express the indeterminacy of gnostic meaning. Physiology Of Labour. (p. 311) According to Venuti (1992), poststructuralist thinkers believe that the original is itself a translation, an incomplete process of translating a signifying chain into gnostic writings, univocal signified, and this process is both displayed and further complicated when it is translated by another signifying chain in a different language.

The originality of the foreign text is of labour thus compromised by the poststructuralist concept of textuality. Neither the foreign nor the translation is an original semantic unity; both are derivative, consisting of diverse linguistic and gnostic writings cultural materials, making meaning plural and differential (p. 7). Physiology Of Labour. In the same way, neither the author nor the translator as a reader of source text possesses the authorial power to definitely determine the Knowledge Essay, meaning; and the ‘authority’ will always remain collective due to endless circle of signification. Poststructuralist textuality redefines the notion of equivalence in translation by assuming from the outset that the differential plurality in every text precludes a simple correspondence of meaning, and a ratio of loss and gain inextricably occurs during translation process (Venuti, 1992: 7–8). Similarly, Carbonell (1996) points out that, since the nature of the context of signification in both the physiology of labour, source and target cultures is heterogeneous, meaning changes unavoidably in Legal Age Essay the process of translation and there will be always possibility of physiology contradiction between the author’s intentions and the translator’s (p. 98). But why have such relativism and perspectivism result not in a state of complete anarchy and unintelligibility? According to Toury (2000), ‘Cognition itself is influenced, probably even modified by socio-cultural factors’ (p.

119). A translator, just like an author, is not simply a ‘person’ but a socially and historically constituted subject. As mentioned earlier, translators interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of Management known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in physiology other words, their general knowledge which is ideological. This knowledge allows them to interpret the text and at the same time limits the range of their interpretation as Robinson aptly notices: Translators […] are those people who let their knowledge govern their behavior. And that knowledge is ideological. It is controlled by ideological norms.

If you want to become a translator you must submit to Knowledge, the translator’s submissive role, submit to being possessed by what ideological norms inform you. (qtd. in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 7) What brings de facto the individual interpretations close together is the likeness of the intertextual and ideological configurations the individuals are located in. Physiology. Translators are hardly (maybe never) aware of ideological factors governing their process of the Drinking, source text interpretation. Toury (1999: 18) admits the difficulties of determining the role of socio-cultural factors which unconsciously affect the translator’s behavior: One thing I would not venture to do […] is of labour tackle the intriguing question of how, and to what extent, the environment affects the workings of the Drinking Age Essay, brain, or how the cognitive is physiology influenced by the socio-cultural, even though this would surely make an invaluable contribution to our understanding of translation. Nevertheless, sometimes it becomes extremely difficult for a translation scholar to about What Means Indigenous, justify whether the ideological discrepancies observed between the source text and the target text are results of the translator’s subconscious ideological interpretation or of his/her intentional ideological intervention which will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

Ideology and physiology of labour the translator as a writer of the target text: Functionalism. While one of the pivotal achievements of the poststructuralist approaches is dethroning the author and his/her authorial intention by emphasizing the role of the translator as an Legal Drinking Age Essay, autonomous reader of the source text, functionalist approaches try to dethrone the source text itself by emphasizing the role of the translator as a creator of the target text and giving priority to physiology, purpose ( skopos ) of gnostic producing target text. According to Schäffner (1996), ‘Functionalist approach is of labour a kind of cover term for the research of transracial adoption statistics scholars who argue that the purpose of the TT is the most important criterion in any translation’ (p. Physiology Of Labour. 2). Functionalism is a major shift from ‘linguistic equivalence’ to ‘functional appropriateness’. From the What Does Means to the Indigenous People, perspective of functional approaches to translation (particularly, under the influence of Holz-Mänttäri’s theory of ‘translational action’), translation is viewed as a communicative act. In this view, translation is physiology of labour conceived primarily ‘as a process of intercultural communication, whose end product is a text which is capable of Legal Age Essay functioning appropriately in specific situations and context of use’ (Schäffner, 1998a: 3). The principles of physiology translational (translatorial) action theory then founded the basis of Vermeer’s Skopos theory. ‘ Skopos is a technical term for the aim or purpose of Management in Healhcare Essay a translation’ (Vermeer, 2000: 221).

Skopostheorists assert that any action has an physiology, aim, a purpose. From their standpoint, translation is considered not as a process of transcoding (the position usually adopted by Knowledge Management in Healhcare, earlier non-functionalist approaches), but as a form of human action which has its own purpose basically decided on by the translator (Schäffner, 1998b: 235; Hönig, 1998: 9). The skopos of a translation, Vermeer (2000) explains, is the goal or purpose, defined by the commission and if necessary adjusted by the translator. He defines commission as ‘the instruction, given by oneself or by someone else, to carry out a given action [which could be translation]’ (p. 229). A text in skopostheorist approach is physiology regarded as an offer of information from Essay Does of Australia Means to the Indigenous People, its producer to a recipient.

Translation is then a secondary offer of information about information originally offered in another language within another culture (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). The translator, as an expert in translational action, must interpret ST information ‘by selecting those features which most closely correspond to the requirements of the target situation (Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). From this point of view, the physiology of labour, translation process is not (necessarily) determined retrospectively by the source text, its effects on its addressees, or the intention of its author, but prospectively by the skopos of the target text as determined by the target recipient’s requirements (which are, however, discerned and decided on by the translator himself/ herself). The translation then is ‘the production of a functionally appropriate target text based on an existing source text [or what Neubert calls ‘source-text induced target-text production’], and the relationship between the horace mann reform, two texts is specified according to the skopos of the translation’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). Focusing on the purpose of translation as the most decisive factor in translation action, skopos theory emphasizes the role of the translator as an expert in translational action and regards the source text no longer as the ‘sacred original’ from which the skopos (purpose) of the translation is deduced, but as a mere offer of information whose role in the action is to be decided by the translator, depending on the expectations and needs of the physiology of labour, target readers (Hönig, 1998: 9). Schäffner (1998b) explains ‘The translator offers information about certain aspects of the source-text-in-situation, according to the target text skopos specified by the initiator’ (p. 236). Skopos theory and functionalism focus on the translator, giving him/her more freedom and at the same time more responsibility, as Hönig (1998) asserts: [The translator] may be held responsible for the result of his/her translational acts by recipients and clients.

In order to act responsibly, however, translators must be allowed the Legal, freedom to decide in co-operation with their clients what is in their best interests. (p. 10) An awareness of the requirements of the skopos , Vermeer maintains, ‘expands the possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible translation strategies, and releases the physiology of labour, translator from the corset of an enforced – and hence often meaningless – literalness’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). The translator thus becomes a target-text author freed from the transracial adoption, ‘limitations and restrictions imposed by a narrowly defined concept of loyalty to the source text alone’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 238). Hönig (1998: 14) usefully contrasts the characteristics of physiology functional approaches vs. Horace Mann. non-functional approaches as follows: Must be visible. Should be invisible.

Translation processes should be. Target text oriented. Source text oriented. Aim of translation is. Translation tools taken from. Figure 1: A schematic view of functionalist and non-functionalist approaches.

As it is evident in Hönig’s schematic view, ‘ visibility ’ of the translator is a key concept in functional approaches. According to Hönig (1998: 12–13), in functionalism the translator inevitably has to physiology of labour, be visible, since functional approaches do not establish rules but support decision-making strategies and the translator has to make critical decisions as to how define the translation skopos and which strategies can best meet the target recipient’s requirements; s/he should be visible, making his/her decisions transparent to his/her client and accepting the responsibility of his/her choices. A visible translator has to accept the gnostic writings, consequences of his/her translational decisions, as Toury (1999) declares, ‘it is always the translator herself or himself, as an autonomous individual, who decides how to behave, be that decision fully conscious or not. Whatever the degree of awareness, it is s/he who will also have to bear the consequences’ (p. 19). According to Nord (2003), almost any decision in translation is – consciously or unconsciously – guided by ideological criteria (p. 111). Ideological factors are very decisive in defining the translation skopos (target-text intended purpose) and selecting the functionally appropriate strategies by the translator, based on of labour the expectations of the translation clients. These factors which affect and regulate the translator’s behavior are further investigated in the following section under the title of ‘ norms ’.

According to Toury (1999), all human beings have an inherent tendency toward socializing and social acceptability; as a result, under normal conditions, people tend to avoid behaviors which are prohibited or sanctioned as well as to adopt behaviors which are considered as being appropriate within the group they belong to gnostic writings, (pp. 15–19). Physiology. There is a socially shared knowledge between members of gnostic every community as to physiology, what is considered correct or appropriate as a communicative behavior. Essay About What The Anniversary Means Indigenous. This knowledge exists in the form of norms. They serve consciously as a pattern of physiology behavior, and ‘they also regulate expectations concerning both behavior itself and the products of this behavior’ (Schäffner, 1999: 5). Toury (1999) defines norm in terms of ‘the translation of general values or ideas shared by a groupas to what is conventionally right and wrong, adequate and inadequateinto performance instructions appropriate for and applicable to particular situations’ (p. 14). Taking into consideration the definition of ideology by Management Essay, van Dijk (1996) as ‘the organized evaluative beliefs shared by social groups’, normsas defined by Toury (1999)seem to have much in common with ideology; in other words, norms can be understood as ideological realization of the physiology of labour, concept of appropriateness and correctness.

Decision-making is Legal Drinking Age Essay a key concept in the discussion of norms. Norms exist ‘only in situations which allow for alternative kind of behavior, involving the need to select among these, with the additional condition that selection be non-random’ (Toury, 1999: 15). Of Labour. This selection, according to transracial statistics, Toury (1999), could be posited between two constraining extremes of ‘relatively absolute rules on one hand, and pure idiosyncrasies on the other’ (p. 16). Toury applies the norms concept to translation studies presuming that translating involves playing a social role subject to several types of socio-cultural constraints of physiology of labour varying degree. He, consequently, argues that the acquisition of a set of norms for determining the suitability of horace mann translational behavior, and for maneuvering between all factors which may constrain it, is a prerequisite for becoming a translator within a cultural environment (Toury, 2000: 198). Toury (2000) claims that norms govern every level of decision-making in physiology of labour the translating process from choice of text to translate to the very final choices of translation strategies of action.

He, consequently, introduces three kinds of norm: 1) initial norm; 2) preliminary norms; and 3) operational norms. Initial norm governs the translator’s overall decisions to adhere ‘either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product’ (Toury, 2000: 201). Toury (2000), however, denies the necessity of full conformity between an overall decision made and on Using every single decision be made in physiology the lower-levels of translation process; and, consequently, denies the existence of absolute regularity in translational behaviors (p. 201). The options which are made available to the translator by Toury’s initial norm are very similar to Legal Age Essay, those which Venuti (1998b: 240) talks about in his foreignizing and domesticating strategies of translation. Preliminary norms govern the decisions to be made concerning translation policy and directness . According to Toury (2000: 202), ‘ translation policy refers to those factors that govern the choice of text types; or individual texts, to be imported through translation into a particular culture/language at physiology of labour, a particular point in Knowledge in Healhcare time’. He further explains that ‘considerations concerning directness of physiology of labour translation involve the threshold of tolerance for translating from languages other than the ultimate source language’ (p. 202). Operational norms direct the horace mann, actual decisions made during the of labour, act of horace reform translation and are subdivided into matricial and textual-linguistic norms.

Matricial norms govern the segmentation and distribution of textual materials in the target text. Textual-linguistic norms ‘govern the selection of of labour material to formulate the Essay What Does of Australia Means, target text in, or replace the original textual and linguistic material with’ (Toury, 2000: 202–3). It should be noted that, according to Toury (2000), ‘There is no necessary identity between the norms themselves and any formulation of of labour them in mann language (p. 200). He believes that the observed regularities in translational behaviors are not themselves the norms; they are rather ‘external evidence’ which reflect the existence of norms (Toury, 1999: 15). Physiology. Toury also does not identify repeated translational strategies as to be identical with norms; but he thinks norms are the idea behind a strategy (qtd. in Schäffner, 1999: 84). Therefore, Baker’s interpretation of norms as ‘regularities of translational behavior within a specific socio-cultural situation’ (Baker, 1998: 163) or ‘strategies of translation which are repeatedly opted for, in preference to other available strategies, in a given culture or textual system’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 114) seems to be an Essay about of Australia to the Indigenous People, oversimplification of this concept. Chesterman (1993) looks at the concept of norms from a different perspective. Whereas Toury does not pay too much heed to the role of the readership and their feedback in norm construction, Chesterman (1993: 8) puts distinction between expectancy norms , which are the expectations of the target readership and the client etc., and the professional norms which explain the translator's tendency to of labour, observe these expectancy norms.

According to Toury (2000), norms themselves actually are not observable. Age Essay. He declares that what are actually available for observation are rather norm-governed instances of behavior or the products of such behavior (p. Physiology. 206). Toury introduces two major sources for horace reform, reconstruction of translational norms: 1. Textual : the physiology, translated text themselves, for gnostic, all kinds of physiology norms, as well as analytical inventories of translation (i.e., ‘virtual texts’), for various preliminary norms; 2. Extratextual : semi-theoretical or critical formulations, such as perspective ‘theories’ of translation, statements made by translators, editors, publishers, and other persons involved in or connected with the activity, critical appraisals of transracial adoption individual translations, or the activity of a translator or ‘school’ of of labour translators, and so forth. (Toury, 2000: 207) Likewise, Baker (1998) introduces studying of a ‘corpus of authentic translations’ as a means for Knowledge Management in Healhcare Essay, identifying regular instances of translational behavior which are represented in physiology that corpus by the translator, and, thus, for identifying the translational norms (p. 164).

After so many years of the dominance of the prescriptive approaches over translation teaching, maybe the time has come for a serious revision in translation teaching methods. Translation teaching should no longer be seen as a set of rules and instructions prescribed by Management in Healhcare Essay, translation teachers to the students as to what strategies will lead to a ‘ good ’ or ‘ correct ’ translation and what to a ‘ wrong ’ and ‘ incorrect ’ one. Understanding the physiology, importance of decision-making in translation, the translation teachers should try to describe the actual translational decisions made by actual translators under different socio-cultural and ideological settings in real life and real situations, and gnostic writings explain the perlocutionary consequences resulted from physiology of labour, adoption of such decisions for the students. They should allow the Legal Age Essay, students to select voluntarily between different options they have at hand, reminding them that they will be responsible for the selections they make. Translation teachers should make it clear for the students that every translation has its own aim determined by of labour, its translator, and that they could freely choose the Essay What the Anniversary of Australia to the Indigenous People, options that best serve their intended aim of translation. Álvarez, R. Vidal, M.C. (1996).Translating: A political act. In R. Álvarez M. C. Physiology. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 1-9).

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