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rilke dissertation Die Engel in my career Rainer Maria Rilkes. Literarisches Schreiben ist wie alle Kulturtechniken grundsatzlich lernbar. Interphase Microscope? Sonst ware ein Seminar fur Literaturwissenschaft und literarisches Schreiben sinnlos und der Unterricht verschwendete Zeit. My Career? Doch ergeben Sprachgefuhl und hoher Wortschatz, kompositorische Begabung und die Fahigkeit, Charaktere zu zeichnen, noch keinen Malte; Reim, Rhythmus, Versma? und Metapher noch keine Duineser Elegien. Essay On The Truth Lies? Zur lern- und lehrbaren Seite des literarischen Schreibens tritt etwas Entscheidendes hinzu: Die Gunst der Stunde, in plan dem eine Begabung plotzlich Erfullung findet und das rechte Wort zur richtigen Zeit gesprochen wird. Gothic Parody? Daher ruhrt die Freude des Gelingens, das Staunen und die Dankbarkeit. Plan? Sie ergreift auch den Lehrer. Reproducing Quantitatively In Rock Experiments? Der unverfugbare Augenblick hat eine Kehrseite: Zum Reden gehort das Verstummen, zum Kairos die ausbleibende Inspiration, zum Gelingen das Versagen, zum gro?en Wurf das Banale und Periphere, zum Vollendeten das Fragment.

In dieser Spannung befindet sich Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926), als er sich auf Schloss Duino zuruckzieht. Hier weilt er vom 22. Plan? Oktober 1911 bis zum 9. Mai 1912 als Gast der Furstin Marie von Thurn und Taxis-Hohenlohe (1855-1934). Rilke suchte neue Inspirationen an american gothic einem Ort, der nach der Uberlieferung schon Dante Zuflucht geboten hatte. Der Dante-Felsen erinnerte an jenen Dichter, der die alte Lehre von den neun Choren der Engel in seiner Gottlichen Komodie beschworen hatte. My Career Plan? Gemeinsam mit der zwanzig Jahre alteren Furstin widmete sich Rilke der Dante-Lekture und ubersetzte die Vita nuova.

Dante inspirierte die Furstin auch zu jenem Titel eines Dottor Serafico oder Serafico (der Engelgleiche), mit dem sie Rilke anredete. And Realistically In Rock Cutting? Im hochsten Chor der Engel sitzen die sechsflugeligen Seraphim. Sie sind die Mittler zwischen den Propheten und Gott (Jesaja 6.1-7). My Career? Ihr Gesang ist das Trishagion. Reproducing In Rock? Ihr Name gibt ihre Funktion an: Entflammer oder Erhitzer zur reinen Liebe. Plan? Franz von Assisi trug den Titel eines seraphischen Heiligen, weil er der Legende nach von einem sechsflugeligen Seraphim die Stigmata erhalten hatte. Kennengelernt hatten sich Rilke und die Furstin im Dezember 1909 in texas political culture Paris. My Career? Im April 1910 besuchte Rilke zum ersten Mal Duino, diesen Ort des kulturellen Gedachtnisses. Essay Truth Behind? Im Herbst 1911 zahlt zu den weiteren Gasten der Furstin der Philosoph Rudolf Kassner (1873-1959) (1).

Ihm wird er die achte Elegie zueignen, der Furstin aber das gesamte Werk der zehn Elegien mit seinen 853 Versen. Schon vor den Elegien war der Engel ein immer wiederkehrendes Motiv in plan Rilkes Werk gewesen. About Betrayal? Rilke war in my career einem katholischen Kulturkreis aufgewachsen, in dem die Heiligen, die Muttergottes und die Engel den Alltag strukturierten. Political? Wichtiger als die Geburtstage waren hier die Namenstage mit ihrem Gedenken des Schutzpatrons, das Kirchenjahr mit den religiosen Festen im Familienkreis und der feierlichen Liturgie der katholischen Messe. Selbstverstandliches Ritual war auch das Gebet zu den Heiligen und den Engeln. Rilke war zwar, was seine Mutter nie erfahren sollte, als er die norddeutsche Protestantin Clara Westhoff (1878-1954) heiratete, aus der katholischen Kirche ausgetreten (2), aber er blieb doch Katholik. My Career Plan? Einen Teil des Honorars fur die in Reproducing Quantitatively Process einer Erstauflage von 10000 Exemplaren erscheinenden Duineser Elegien wird er fur die Renovierung der kleinen St. Anna Kapelle neben dem Turm von Muzot verwenden. Rilke befand sich in einer desolaten Lage.

Seine Ehe mit Clara Westhoff ist gescheitert. My Career? Um die gemeinsame Tochter Ruth kummern sich die Schwiegereltern. American Gothic? Rilke hat sich nach dem Malte ausgeschrieben. Plan? Er klagt uber Gedachtnisschwache, Zahnschmerzen nervoser Art, Migrane, Hamorrhoiden, Wetterfuhligkeit, ein ubertriebenes Schlafbedurfnis. Deshalb hat er Kontakt zu dem Psychoanalytiker Emil Freiherr von Gebsattel (1883-1976) aufgenommen und erwagt eine Therapie, um die Schreibblockaden aufzulosen. Resource Management Essay? Mit der alten Freundin Lou Andreas-Salome hatte er zwei Mal Russland besucht. Nun war das Verhaltnis unterkuhlt. Plan? Lou machte eine Ausbildung zur Analytikerin bei Freud und rat Rilke entschieden von einer Therapie ab: Mit den Neurosen werde auch sein kreatives Potential wegtherapiert.

Der Aufenthalt in Duino soll die Rahmenbedingungen fur neue Inspirationen schaffen. Essay On The Truth Behind? Literarisches Schreiben sei fur ihn eine Form der Selbstbehandlung (3), bekundet Rilke gegenuber Emil von Gebsattel und Lou Andreas-Salome. Schreiben hat eine therapeutische Funktion. Worin diese besteht, darauf werden die Duineser Elegien eine Antwort geben: Die Verwandlung der Welt in ein erworbenes Wort. Sind wir vielleicht hier , um zu sagen: Haus, Brucke, Brunnen, Tor, Krug, Obstbaum, Fenster,- Hochstens: Saule, Turm . My Career? aber zu sagen , verstehs, oh zu sagen so , wie die Dinge niemals. Im Dezember 1911 beginnt auf Duino eine Inszenierung, wie Rilke sie als Stimulanz brauchte: Zuerst wird fur ihn ein Stehpult angefertigt, dann werden Mobel verruckt und Bilder umgehangt, ein Pavillon im Garten wird zuerst umstandlich eingerichtet, dann aber doch nicht bezogen. Interphase? Schlie?lich logiert er in my career plan einem gro?en Eckzimmer des Schlosses.

Durch die Fenster schaut er auf das Meer: links in Richtung Triest und Istrien, rechts bis nach Aquileja und zu den Lagunen von Grado. Doch neben der sichtbaren Welt existiert hier oben auf Duino ein unsichtbares Reich der Geister, fur das Rilke sehr empfanglich ist. Texas? Seinem Malte erscheint die langst verstorbene Christine Brahe. Auf Duino geistern Raymondine und die mit funfzehn Jahren gestorbene Polyxene durch die Raume. Plan? Auf okkulten Sitzungen wird mit Hilfe der Technik des automatischen Schreibens ihre Gegenwart beschworen. Essay On The Truth Lies? Gemeinsam mit der Furstin, sie war langjahriges Mitglied der Londoner Society of Psychical Research, und ihrem Sohn Alexander (Pascha) werden Seancen abgehalten. Die in jungen Jahren verstorbenen Frauen gehoren zu jenen Fruheentruckten, von denen die zweite Elegie spricht. Plan? Fur Engel sind sie wie die Lebenden reale Gegenwart: alle den Fehler, da? sie zu stark unterscheiden. Engel (sagt man) wu?ten oft nicht, ob sie unter. Lebenden gehen oder Toten.

Die ewige Stromung. rei?t durch beide Bereiche alle Alter. immer mit sich und ubertont sie in beiden. Die Haushalterin Mi? Greenham wird in about betrayal Rilkes vegetarische Diatwunsche eingewiesen, der Diener Carlo bedient den Dichter in einem Esszimmer. My Career Plan? Er ist angewiesen, den allein speisenden Dichter mit keinem Wort anzusprechen. Die Weihnachtstage verbringt Rilke auf eigenen Wunsch allein mit dem Personal. Zwischen dem 15. und 23. Culture? Januar 1912 entstehen die Gedichte des Marien-Leben. Plan? In Marias Begegnung mit dem Engel Gabriel spurt Rainer Maria Rilke jenem Unverfugbaren nach, aus dem neues Leben und neue Dichtung entsteht. Maria, deren Namen Rilke tragt, verkorpert Rilkes Selbstverstandnis eines inspirierten Dichters, der Schoss und Gefa? sein will.

Inmitten der Arbeit am Marien-Leben wird dem Dichter die erste Elegie geschenkt. American? Nach dem Bericht der Furstin stieg Rilke die steilen Treppen 200 Meter tief zum Meer hinunter. Plan? Die Sonne schien, das Meer leuchtete blau, eine heftige Bora wehte. Da, auf einmal, mitten in Essay on The Behind seinem Grubeln, blieb er stehen, plotzlich, denn es war ihm, als ob im Brausen des Sturmes eine Stimme ihm zugerufen hatte: Wer, wenn ich schriee, horte mich denn aus der Engel Ordnungen? (4) Rilke habe die Verse in plan sein Notizbuch notiert und am Abend die erste Elegie niedergeschrieben.

In ihr spiegelt sich das Erlebnis der Inspiration wieder: Stimmen, Stimmen. About Betrayal? Hore, mein Herz, wie sonst nur. Heilige horten: da? sie der riesige Ruf. aufhob vom Boden (. My Career Plan? ) Aber das Wehende hore, die ununterbrochene Nachricht, die aus Stille sich bildet. Wenige Tage spater entstehen die zweite Elegie und der Beginn der zehnten. Damit stand das Gerust zum Bau einer Dichtung, deren Vollendung trotz aller Bemuhungen in gothic den kommenden zehn Jahren nicht gelingen wollte. My Career Plan? Die Elegie ist ein Klagegesang, der in der deutschen Literatur bei Friedrich Holderlin und Goethe einen Hohepunkt erreicht hatte, an dem gemessen zu werden jeder Dichter riskierte, der sich im fruhen 20. Jahrhundert an diese Gattung wagte. Poetry Betrayal? Hat die Elegie in den Psalmen und in plan den Eingangsversen des Kyrie eleison der Liturgie einen gottlichen Adressaten, so markiert der doppelte Konjunktiv II der beruhmten Eroffnungsverse einen Traditionsbruch.

Die Existenz einer unsichtbaren Welt der Engel Ordnungen wird nicht infrage gestellt. Die Engel bilden eine Welt fur sich, ein Paralleluniversum, eine geschlossene Gesellschaft. Essay? Jede Kommunikation mit ihnen scheint unmoglich geworden zu sein. Wie die Gotter Epikurs interessieren sie sich nicht fur das Schicksal der Menschen. My Career? Im Irrealis der Melancholie, im Lockruf dunkelen Schluchzens, wird von einer zweifachen Unmoglichkeit der Kommunikation gesprochen: Die Engel horen nicht auf den Anruf des Menschen und selbst wenn sie reagierten, so kame eine Begegnung dennoch nicht zustande: und gesetzt selbst, es nahme/ einer mich plotzlich ans Herz: ich verginge von seinem/ starkeren Dasein. Der Gesang der Engel ist das Trishagion, jenes heilig, heilig, heilig, das wahrend der Liturgie vor der Wandlung zitiert wird. Das Heilige aber ist das mysterium tremendum et fascinosum (5) schlechthin. Essay Lies? Wenn es erklingt, dann beben die Stufen des Altars, Knie und Haupt werden ehrfurchtig vor Gottes Gegenwart gebeugt. Plan? Der Engel bezeugt dieses starkere Dasein. Truth Lies? Wo es erscheint, ergreifen den Menschen Furcht und Zittern. My Career? Der judische Prophet Jesaja schreit Weh mir, ich vergehe, Mohammed versucht den Auftrag Gabriels abzuwehren. Furchte dich nicht! lautet daher die himmlische Entwarnungsformel, die Gabriel zu Maria spricht. Diese erschutternde Erfahrung des Heiligen hat Rilke treffend beschrieben, wenn es hei?t: Ein jeder Engel ist schrecklich. Als einziger Vers der gesamten Elegien wird er zu Beginn der zweiten Elegie wortlich wiederholt: Jeder Engel ist schrecklich. Deshalb konnte Rilke auch spater gegenuber seinem polnischen Ubersetzer (6) betonen, dass die Engel der Elegien nichts gemein haben mit dem sentimentalen Engelkitsch einer katholischen Volksfrommigkeit.

Abschied genommen wird auch von der seit Kindheit vertrauten Gestalt des Schutzengels, die Rilke in gothic vielen seiner Gedichte (7) beschworen hat. Das Buch Tobit hat mit der Pubertatsparabel von Tobit (Tobias) und dem Engel Raphael die Urform aller Legenden vom Schutzengel geschaffen. My Career Plan? Es erzahlt den Weg ins Leben, bei dem der junge Tobit sich in verschiedenen Schlusselsituationen bewahren muss. Auf dieser Reise ins Leben steht ihm Raphael zur Seite. Er wahrt das Geheimnis seiner Identitat, indem er eine menschliche Gestalt angenommen hat und somit inkognito reist. Texas Political? Alle Engelgeschichten von der unsichtbaren Gegenwart himmlischer Geister basieren auf diesem Grundtext der judischen Uberlieferung. My Career? Er ist von bildenden Kunstlern reich rezipiert worden und hat besonders durch Rembrandts (8) lebenslange Beschaftigung mit diesem Motiv das Bild vom Schutzengel entscheidend gepragt. American? Kein Buch der Bibel hat Rembrandt so reich illustriert wie das Buch Tobit. In der lutherischen Tradition zahlt das Buch Tobit zu den Apokyrphen (9), die Rilke wahrend der Arbeit an den Elegien erneut studiert. Diese Lekture findet ihren Widerhall in der Klage um den Verlust jenes Glaubens an plan die unsichtbare Anwesenheit der Schutzengel. da der Strahlendsten einer stand an der einfachen Haustur, zur Reise ein wenig verkleidet und schon nicht mehr furchtbar; (Jungling dem Jungling, wie er neugierig hinaussah).

Trate der Erzengel jetzt, der gefahrliche, hinter den Sternen. eines Schrittes nur nieder und herwarts: hochauf- schlagend erschlug uns das Herz. Die Tage Tobiae aber sind vorbei. Die Engel der Elegien sind Boten des Heiligen. To Study Human Management Essay? Dieses Heilige aber ist Ausdruck der Herrlichkeit einer himmlischen Hierarchie.

Wo sie sichtbar wird, verblasst nicht nur jeder irdische Glanz, wer diese Schonheit angeschaut mit Augen, der fuhlt sich in my career seinem innersten Wesenskern erschuttert. American Gothic? Denn das Schone ist nichts/ als des Schrecklichen Anfang. Die Lehre von den himmlischen Hierarchien geht auf den christlichen Mystiker Dionysios von Areopagita zuruck. My Career Plan? Unter dem Einfluss der Philosophie Plotins (204/5-270) systematisierte er die verstreuten Aussagen der Bibel uber die Engelwelt. An Application Human Resource Essay? Dabei lie? er sich von jenem Schema der Enneaden (Neunergruppen) anregen, nach dem Porphyrius die uberlieferten Texte seines Lehrers Plotin gliederte. My Career Plan? In einer stufenweisen Ordnung umkreisen die neun Chore der Engel das Geheimnis der unsagbaren gottlichen Mitte, das sich wiederum nach neuplatonischem Muster durch die einzelnen Stufen der Engel ergie?t, ohne sich in texas political culture ihnen zu verlieren. In jedem Engel spiegelt sich das Schopferische in einmaliger Weise. Die asthetische Theologie des Areopagiten ist die konzentrische Ordnung von Himmel und Erde, Engel und Mensch im Preisgesang um den Thron des Unsichtbaren: Wort, das sich in my career plan immer breiterem Widerhall fortsetzt, rings um die Mitte des Schweigens; Klang rings um die wesenhafte, unzuganglich verborgene Stille. (10) Sie erschopft sich im Akt bewundernder Anbetung vor der in Resource Management aller Erscheinung unerforschlichen Schonheit. (11) Diese asthetische Wahrheit kann nur durch Eintritt in my career die Bewegung mitvollzogen werden: wer die Schonheit nicht sieht, dem ist durch Erlauterungen nicht zu helfen; wer nicht sehen kann, was in Essay on The Lies der Welt erscheint, dem nutzt kein Gottesbeweis, wem die Wahrheit nicht einleuchtet, die aus der Mitte der Theologie ausstrahlt, dem wird keine Apologetik weiterhelfen. (12) Fur Dionysios von Areopagita ist alle Theologie eine ruhmende Feier der Gottesgeheimnisse, die ihr Ur- und Vorbild in my career plan den liturgischen Gesangen des Himmels besitzt (13). Essay Truth Lies? Seine Engellehre hatte eine beispiellose Pragekraft als evidente, verwirklichte Synthese von Wahrheit und Schonheit, von Theologie und Asthetik (14). Davon zeugt nicht zuletzt Hugo Balls (15) Hymnus auf den Areopagiten und die orthodoxe Theologie, der zeitgleich mit den Duineser Elegien entsteht. Rilkes Elegien beschreiben den Weg zur Erfahrung dieser Herrlichkeit durch Teilhabe am Ruhmen. My Career Plan? Wer seid ihr? (II.

Elegie) In kuhnen Metaphern umkreist der Dichter das Wesen des Engels und folgt dabei der seit Augustin gangigen Auffassung von der Engelwelt als erstem Schopfungswerk Gottes. Vor der Erschaffung der sichtbaren Welt der Menschen, Tiere und Pflanzen hat Gott die unsichtbare Welt der Engel durch das Wort ins Leben gerufen: Fruhe Gegluckte, ihr Verwohnten der Schopfung, Hohenzuge, morgenrotliche Grate. aller Erschaffung, - Pollen der bluhenden Gottheit, Gelenke des Lichtes, Gange, Treppen, Throne, Raume aus Wesen, Schilde aus Wonne, Tumulte. sturmisch entzuckten Gefuhls und plotzlich, einzeln, Spiegel : die die entstromende eigene Schonheit. wiederschopfen zuruck in betrayal das eigene Antlitz.

Mensch und Engel bilden in Augustins Gottesstaat eine Einheit. Plan? Sind die Engel der stationare Teil des Gottesstaates, so gehort der Mensch zum pilgernden Teil. An Application To Study Human Resource? Die Einheit beider Teile aber wird in my career plan der Liturgie erfahrbar. To Study Essay? Der Engel spricht und bekennt Gott im immerwahrenden Lobpreis. My Career? In diesen Lobpreis stimmt der Mensch mit dem Gloria und dem Sanctus ein. Interphase Microscope? Ruhmen, das ists! Ein zum Ruhmen Bestellter (Sonette I. Nr.

VII) wird Rilke nach Vollendung der Elegien in my career plan seinen Sonetten an Orpheus schreiben. American Parody? Mensch und Engel bilden eine hymnologische Gemeinschaft. Die Welt ist Klang, die Welt ist Sprache: Der Gott der Genesis ruft allein durch sein Wort eine Welt ins Leben. An diesem Schopfertum haben Mensch und Engel Anteil. My Career? Rilkes Elegien beginnen mit der Klage um den Verlust dieser hymnologischen Einheit, um sie sich schreibend wieder anzueignen mit einer Zunge/ zwischen den Zahnen, die doch,/ dennoch, die preisende bleibt. (IX. Behind Lies? Elegie) Hierarchie bedeutet heilige unerschutterliche Ordnung. My Career? In ihr hat jeder seinen Ort und seine Stimme.

Und jeder erfullt auf seine Weise das Sprich und bekenn. And Realistically Process Documented In Rock Cutting Experiments? Die Chore der Engel sind das Bild dieser Einheit in my career plan der Vielzahl der Stimmen. Essay? Vor diesem Urbild einer theologischen Asthetik entfalten die Elegien zuerst das Drama der fluchtigen menschlichen Existenz. My Career? Nach langen Klagen uber die Fluchtigkeit des Lebens und der Gefuhle wird es gipfeln in Reproducing Quantitatively and Realistically the Fragmentation Process Documented Cutting dem Bekenntnis der siebten Elegie, dem Preislied der Erde: Hiersein ist herrlich. My Career? Diese Herrlichkeit des Lebens schlie?t alle Dunkelheiten des Lebens mit ein. Wie die Engel, so wird auch der Dichter zum Ruhmenden. Interphase Microscope? Das literarische Schreiben hat viele Dimensionen und Formen. Es erschopft sich nicht in plan der Mitteilung, nicht in poetry about betrayal der Formgebung, auch nicht in plan einer moglichen selbsttherapeutischen Funktion. Es ist Daseinsbekundung, ein Akt kultureller Selbstbehauptung, der mit dem Menschsein selbst gegeben ist. Essay Truth? Der Mensch spricht nicht nur, er ist Sprache. Zu sprechen und damit seine Existenz zu bekennen ist der Sinn seiner Existenz.

Dieses Sprechen weist uber das Sichtbare hinaus, verwandelt es, spiegelt es zuruck. Worum es in my career plan den Elegien geht, ist die Verankerung der eigenen dichterischen Berufung und uber sie hinaus der gesamten Kultur in einem transzendenten Prinzip. Human Resource Management Essay? Dass sich der Geist in der Kunst offenbart, ist die Grundannahme jeder idealistischen Asthetik. Rilkes Asthetik des Ruhmens als innerweltliche asthetische Transzendenz findet in dem Lobpreis der Engel ihr himmlisches Vorbild. Der Engel ist Adressat der Elegien. Plan? Er wird nicht mehr als Begleiter beschworen, der in der Immanenz erscheint und den Menschen durchs Leben fuhrt. Glaub nicht, dass ich werbe./ Engel, wurb ich dich auch! Du kommst nicht. Denn mein/ Anruf ist immer voll Hinweg; wider so starke/ Stromung kannst du nicht schreiten. (VII. Elegie) Der Mensch begegnet jetzt dem Engel mit neuem Selbstbewusstsein auf gleicher Hohe, indem er der Erde treu bleibt. Culture? Er preist dem Engel die Welt, er ruhmt das Vergangliche.

Kultur schafft Gedachtnis. My Career? Zu ihr gehort auch das Handwerk, von dem Rilke in betrayal Erinnerung an plan seine Reisen nach Rom und Agypten spricht: Preise dem Engel die Welt, nicht die unsagliche, ihm. kannst du nicht gro?tun mit herrlich Erfuhltem; im Weltall, wo er fuhlender fuhlt, bist du ein Neuling. Microscope? Drum zeig. ihm das Einfache, das, von Geschlecht zu Geschlechtern gestaltet, als ein Unsriges lebt, neben der Hand und im Blick. Sag ihm die Dinge. My Career Plan? Er wird staunender stehn; wie du standest. bei dem Seiler in Behind Rom, oder beim Topfer am Nil. Das Wesen des kulturellen Gedachtnisses ist die Memoria (16). Plan? Durch sie schafft der Mensch eine eigene geistige Welt und stellt sie - das ist die Perspektive der Elegien komplementar zu der geistigen Welt der Engel.

Die Kulturgeschichte ist voller Beispiele fur die Erfahrung, dass gerade im Zusammenbruch die gro?en Schopfungen der Menschheit entstehen: Das gilt fur die Sagen der Antike, die Schopfungsberichte der Genesis, die Evangelien des Neuen Testaments, die Weisheit des Talmud, Augustins Gottestaat, Benedikts Klostergrundung, die Marchen der Grimms bis zu Erich Auerbachs Mimesis, mit dem der judische Gelehrte im Istanbuler Exil ohne Zugriff auf wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken den Kreis der abendlandischen Literatur durchschreitet. Es gilt auch fur jene deutschen Gelehrten, die ein Jahrzehnt der Arbeit in Essay Behind Lies den russischen Steinbruchen uberstanden, weil sie aus der geistigen Welt der auswendig gelernten Gedichte lebten und diese auf den Mundstucken der Zigaretten in my career plan Miniaturschrift uberlebten. lebenden Dinge verstehn, da? du sie ruhmst; verganglich, traun sie ein Rettendes uns, den Verganglichsten, zu. Wollen, wir sollen sie ganz im unsichtbaren Herzen verwandeln. in o unendlich in Truth Behind Lies uns!

Wer wir am Ende auch seien. Erde, ist es nicht dies, was du willst: unsichtbar. ins uns erstehn? Ist es dein Traum nicht, einmal unsichtbar zu sein? Erde! unsichtbar! Was, wenn Verwandlung nicht, ist dein drangender Auftrag? Damit ist auch die Frage nach dem Adressaten der Elegien geklart. Die Elegien sind ein Gebet. Es richtet sich an my career plan den Engel.

Wer, wenn nicht sie, versteht etwas von der besonderen Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos? Wer, wenn nicht sie, kann das Gluck der Erfahrung einer inneren Welt nachvollziehen? Wer, wenn nicht sie, kennt das uberzahlige Dasein, das dem Herzen entspringt (IX. Elegie) und nach Ausdruck verlangt? Die Elegien preisen den Raum der Kultur als ein unendliches und unerschopfliches inneres Universum. An Application To Study Human Resource Essay? Sie rufen die Engel als Zeugen der menschlichen Selbsttranszendierung in der Musik und in den Kathedralen, jenen gro?en aus Stein errichteten Gleichnissen des Himmels, an: War es nicht Wunder? O staune, Engel, denn wir sinds, wir, o du Gro?er, erzahls, dass wir solches vermochten, mein Atem. reicht fur die Ruhmung nicht aus. My Career Plan? So haben wir dennoch.

nicht die Raume versaumt, diese gewahrenden, diese. unseren Raume. An Application To Study Human Management Essay? (Was mussen sie furchterlich gro? sein, da sie Jahrtausende nicht unseres Fuhlns uberfulln.) Aber ein Turm war gro?, nicht wahr? O Engel, er war es,- Gro? auch noch neben dir?

Chartres war gro?-, und Musik. Reichte noch weiter hinan und uberstieg uns. Doch selbst nur. Eine Liebende-, oh, allein am nachtlichen Fenster. reichte sie dir nicht ans Knie? Wem soll der Engel von diesen Wundern erzahlen? Wunder, staunen, ruhmen, lieben -: mit diesem Wortfeld der Herrlichkeit hat sich Rilke zu jener hymnischen Hohe emporgeschwunden, auf der der Mensch nun zum Mitsanger unter den Choren der Engel wird. Die hymnologische Einheit von Mensch und Engel, wie sie in my career plan der katholischen Liturgie gefeiert wird, findet ihr dichterisches Spiegelbild in american gothic der letzten Elegie.

Ihre Eingangsverse wurden bereits im Januar 1912 niedergeschrieben. My Career? Sie sprechen eine Bitte aus, dass sich Mensch und Engel dereinst zu einer hymnologischen Gemeinschaft vereinen: Da? ich dereinst, an dem Ausgang der grimmigen Einsicht, Jubel und Ruhm aufsinge zustimmenden Engeln. Das von Dionysios uber Dante vermittelte Bild der neun Hierarchien erfahrt hier eine Erganzung durch den zehnten Chor, der einst mit den Stimmen der Menschen besetzt werden wird. Die Lehre vom zehnten Engelchor spielte in den eschatologischen Bildern mittelalterlicher Dichtung wie etwa Wolframs Legende Willehalm (308,5) eine Rolle. Ob Rilke sie gekannt hat, ist nicht zu klaren und letztlich auch unerheblich. Vollendet wurden die Elegien auf Chateau Muzot nach einer ahnlichen Inszenierung, wie damals auf dem nun durch den Krieg zerstorten Duino. American? Nanny Wunderly-Volkert (1878-1962), musste ihren Cousin aus Winterthur, den Industriellen und Mazen Werner Reinhardt nicht lange uberreden, um den Turm von Muzot samt des Hausgespenstes Isabelle de Chevron zu kaufen und nach Rilkes Bedurfnissen ausbauen zu lassen. Rilkes Nike und seine zahlreichen weiteren Gonnerinnen, Freundinnen und Geliebten teilten das Selbstverstandnis dieses Dichters, der sich als ein zum Ruhmen Bestellter zugleich als von jeder Sorge um den finanziellen Unterhalt seines Lebens befreiter Sanger verstand. My Career? Die Engel der Elegien sind auch das Urbild einer aller materiellen Sorgen enthobenen Dichterexistenz, wie sie Rilke seit je fur sich reklamierte.

Der Dichter singt wie der Engel: das ist seine Bestimmung und der Sinn seines Hierseins. Fur die Okonomie des Lebens sorgt der Mazen. Selbstverstandlich wird mit Frida Baumgartner aus dem Kanton Solothurn, einem stillen flei?igen jungen Madchen, mit der ich nicht zehn Worte spreche in der ganzen Woche (17) eine Haushalterin eingestellt. Er wohne nun, berichtet Rilke seiner Mutter, im katholischsten Kanton der Schweiz nach etwa dem von Fribourg. To Study Resource? Die alten Kirchen sind wunderbar und da sich hier uberhaupt viel alte Uberlieferung unter den uberaus armen und hart arbeitenden Bauern erhalt und fortsetzt, so sind auch die kirchlichen Traditionen im Volk sehr wirksam geblieben. Steigt man von Sierre nach meinem alten Muzot herauf, so ist jede Wegkreuzung durch ein gro?es Missionskreuz bezeichnet-, und zum Schlo?chen Muzot selbst gehort durch die Jahrhunderte ein kleines Kirchlein, die alte St.

Annakapelle (18). Plan? Rilke besitzt den Schlussel zu der kleinen St. Anna-Kapelle. An Application Management? In den Weihnachtstagen schmuckt er selber den Altar mit Christrosen und halt die Kapelle mit Kerzen festlich erleuchtet. Zwischen dem 7. und 14. My Career Plan? Februar 1922 eignen sich dann die produktivsten Tage in poetry about betrayal Rilkes Leben. My Career? In einem Schwung werden die Elegien und die 50 Sonette an poetry about Orpheus vollendet.

In den Briefen an plan die Freundinnen verwendet Rilke durchgangig ein religioses Vokabular: Freude und Wunder (19), Dank (20) und Amen (21) hei?t es immer wieder, unaussprechliche Gnade (22), ein gro?es gewaltiges Gebet (23), Wunder. Gnade (24). Parody? Unter den Freundinnen ist es vor allen Dingen Lou Andreas-Salome, die in plan diesen hohen Koloraturen virtuos mitsingen kann. Sie wahlt den denkbar hochsten aller Vergleich, wenn sie das Werk der Elegien als Wort gewordene Unaussprechlichkeit und Urtext der Seele mit der Gottesgeburt vergleicht: Moglich wohl, da? eine Reaktion eintritt, weil das Geschopf den Schopfer aushalten mu?te, dann la? Dich davon nicht erschrecken (so fuhlten sich auch die Marien nach der ihrem Zimmermann unfa?lichen Geburt.) (25) Das Weihnachtsmysterium steht auch im Mittelpunkt jenes Briefes an gothic die Mutter, den Rilke der Sendung seiner Elegien und der Sonette beilegt. Rilke hat ein widerspruchliches Bild von seinen ersten Lebensjahren und dem Verhaltnis zu seiner Mutter uberliefert. Neben der Klage uber die Kleider, die Sophia Rilke ihrem Sohn anzog (Kindheit Winter 1905/6) steht die dankbare Erinnerung an diese kindlichen Rituale der Verkleidung und Inszenierung als Weihnachtsengel: Kommt doch alles Lichte meiner Kindheit in jenen glucklichen Abenden zusammen, da man, in dem schonen Kleide, gleichsam den Engeln verschwistert war und sich zwischen ihnen und der ubrigen Welt auf einer schwebenden Insel erhielt, zu der einen Leichtigkeit des eigenen Herzens hinaufgehoben hatte. (26) Jedes Jahr erfullten die adventlichen Rituale im Familienkreis und der geschmuckte Baum hinter der verschlossenen Tur das Kind mit einer gro?en Vorfreude. Plan? Vielleicht bin ich deshalb, meine liebe Mama, ein solcher Ruhmer der Freude geworden (sie dem Gluck, auch noch dem, was die Menschen ein gro?es Gluck nennen, unbedenklich vorziehend), weil ihr mich zu so gro?er Vorfreude erzogen habt und an about diesem einen Tag, in my career plan dem so viel Erfullung geheimnisvoll zusammenkam, meinem Herzen zumuthet, in der Leistung der Vorfreude, ein Ma? der Freude anzunehmen, das vollig unaussprechlich war. (. Microscope? ) In diesem Sinne lies auch meine beiden neuen Bucher, die Arbeiten meines vorletzten, (des ersten) Muzot-Winters: als einen Versuch, irgendwie Leben und Tod in einer ubergro?en Freude, die ohne Namen bleibt, zusammenzufassen und alles, was hier geschieht, so auszusprechen, da? es sich feiern la?t, wie eine Vorfreude, um des Zitterns, um der Erwartung, um des Geheimnisses willen.

Amen! Und so knieen wir wieder nebeneinander, liebe Mama, und erkennen die eine Quelle des Segens, und bitten, gesegnet zu sein. Dein alter Rene. (27) Das Reich des Geistes, von dem Rilke in den Elegien spricht, bildet die Grundlage allen Menschseins. Plan? Aus ihm leben die Kulturen, die der Mensch seit seinem Hervortreten aus der Evolution in Vers und Stein, Bild und Flotenlied geschaffen hat.

Gerade die moderne Welt macht uns in der Vielfalt der Kulturen bewusst, was Kultur im eigentlichen Sinne ist: Ein Verwurzeltsein des Lebens im lebendigen Strom einer Uberlieferung, die sich in Essay jedem Leben neu spiegelt und in my career plan tausend Farben bricht. Texas Political Culture? Zum Wesen jeder Kultur gehort, dass sie der Vermittlung bedarf. Plan? Sie vererbt sich nicht genetisch von Generation zu Generation, sondern wird durch die Erziehung weitergegeben. Poetry About Betrayal? Der Acker der Kultur, von dem die Genesis spricht, will von jeder Generation neu bebaut und bewahrt werden. Die Philosophie Platons und Nietzsches, Goethes Faust und Thomas Manns Josephroman, die Welt der Symbole und die Musik von Bach sind wie alle gro?en Hervorbringungen des Geistes uns zur Uberlieferung anvertraut. My Career? In dieser padagogischen Aufgabe und Herausforderung stehen auch die Arbeit am kollektiven Gedachtnis, zu der jene Kulturwissenschaft auf ihre Weise einen Betrag leistet. Reproducing Quantitatively The Fragmentation Process Documented In Rock? Aus einem gemeinsamen Wort- und Schriftgedachtnis lebt auch unsere ihm gewidmete, Orte und Lander und Kontinente ubergreifende akademische Gemeinschaft, die kein Interesse vertritt als nur ihre humane Sache. (28)

Dies ist eine Aufnahme von Rilkes Grabstein, versetzt in die Berglandschaft des Wallis mit jenen Ziegen, denen der Tierfreund Rilke. 1. Plan? Vgl. Essay Truth Lies? dazu: Rudolf Kassner. My Career? Rilke. American? Gesammelte Erinnerungen 1926-1956. My Career? Hrsg. Poetry About? Von Klaus E. Bohnenkamp. Neske Verlag. Pfullingen 1976. My Career? S. Microscope? 42: In Rilkes Sprachschatz kommt und das scheint mir viel bedeutsamer als alles, was sonst uber ihn zu sagen ware das Wort Idee nicht vor; ich behaupte nun, dass statt dessen bei ihm der Engel steht. 2. Dazu: Ralph Freedman. Plan? Rainer Maria Rilke.

Der junge Dichter 1875-1906. Poetry About Betrayal? Insel Verlag. Frankfurt a. M. Plan? 2001. About? S. Plan? 215. 3. An Application Human Management? Rainer Maria Rilke. My Career? Brief vom 14. Reproducing Quantitatively And Realistically The Fragmentation Documented? Januar 1912 von Emil von Gebsattel. Materialien I. My Career? S. 47. Ibid. Interphase Microscope? Brief vom 20.

Januar 1912 an my career plan Lou Andreas-Salome. Quantitatively And Realistically The Fragmentation In Rock Cutting Experiments? Materialien I. S. 49. 4. Furstin Marie von Thurn und Taxis-Hohenlohe. My Career Plan? Erinnerungen an gothic Rainer Maria Rilke. Oldenbourg Verlag. Plan? Munchen-Berlin 1937. Quantitatively And Realistically Documented In Rock Cutting? S. Plan? 41. 5. So die bekannte Definition von Rudolf Otto.

Das Heilige. Texas? Uber das Irrationale in plan der Idee des Gottlichen und sein Verhaltnis zum Rationalen. Beck Verlag. Betrayal? Munchen 1987 (Erstauflage 1917). Plan? Fur Rudolf Otto ist die Erfahrung des Heiligen der Ursprung der Religion. Der Engel ist die bestimmende Erscheinung des Numinosen betont auch Romano Guardini.

Zu Rainer Maria Rilkes Deutung des Daseins. The Fragmentation Process Documented In Rock Cutting Experiments? Eine Interpretation der zweiten, achten und neunten Duineser Elegie. S.114. 6. My Career? Rainer Maria Rilke. Reproducing Process Documented In Rock Experiments? Brief vom 13. My Career Plan? November 1925 an american Witold Hurlewicz. Plan? In: Ulrich Fulleborn/ Manfred Engel (Hrsg.). Materialien zu Rainer Maria Rilkes Duineser Elegien. Quantitatively The Fragmentation Process Documented Experiments? Erster Band: Selbstzeugnisse.

Suhrkamp Verlag. Frankfurt a. M. My Career? 1980. S. Interphase Microscope? 319ff. 7. Vgl. dazu den Uberblick bei: Perdita Rosch. My Career? Die Hermeneutik des Boten. Poetry Betrayal? Der Engel als Denkfigur bei Paul Klee und Rainer Maria Rilke. Plan? Wilhelm Fink Verlag. Quantitatively Documented In Rock Cutting Experiments? Munchen 2009.

S. 151-220. My Career? Die Konstanzer Dissertation von Perdita Rosch ist die erste umfassende Untersuchung zur Figur des Engels als Denkfigur in Rilkes Werk. 8. Texas Political? Das Buch Tobias. My Career? Erzahlt und ausgelegt durch Zeichnungen und Radierungen Rembrandts. Truth Behind Lies? Wurttembergische Bibelanstalt. Stuttgart o.J. 9. Vgl. dazu den Brief Rilkes vom 15. My Career Plan? Januar 1922 an Truth Behind Lies Nanny Wunderly-Volkart. My Career? Zitiert in: Ulrich Fulleborn/ Manfred Engel (Hrsg.).

Materialien zu Rainer Maria Rilkes Duineser Elegien. Erster Band. S. Essay Lies? 226: denn ich brauche zwei Stucke aus den Apokryphen dringend, dringendst. 10. My Career? Hans Urs von Balthasar. Texas Culture? Herrlichkeit.

Eine theologische Asthetik. My Career? Band II.1: Klerikale Stile. Johannes Verlag. Einsiedeln 1969 (2. Parody? Auflage). S. 177. 15. My Career? Hugo Ball. Byzantinisches Christentum. Betrayal? Drei Heiligenleben. Duncker und Humblot Verlag.

Munchen und Leipzig 1927. Darin das Kapitel: Die Dionysische Hierarchie. My Career Plan? S. The Fragmentation Process In Rock Experiments? 192-247. Die Engel sind jene schonheitstrunkenen Geister, von denen die Gottheit in unmittelbarster Weise erkannt und gepriesen wird. (S. 236.) Das Mysterium ist beider Hierarchien Gegenstand; das Mysterium aber ist nur dem gefuhle, nicht der Berechnung zuganglich. My Career Plan? Die Liebe ist es, die alle Ratsel erschlie?t. Microscope? Sie ist es allein. In intimo cordi bonitatis exorta sunt lumina: im innersten Herzen der Gute ward die Erleuchtung geboren. (S. My Career? 247)

16. Interphase? Vgl. dazu: Friedrich Ohly. My Career Plan? Bemerkungen eines Philologen zur Memoria. In: Memoria. Interphase? Der geschichtliche Zeugniswert des liturgischen Gedenkens im Mittelalter. Wilhelm Fink Verlag. Munchen 1982.

S. My Career? 9-68. 17. Rainer Maria Rilke. An Application To Study Human Resource Management? Brief vom 28. My Career? Dezember 1921 an interphase die Mutter. Zweiter Band. My Career Plan? S. American Gothic? 498. 18. My Career Plan? Rainer Maria Rilke. Gothic? Brief vom 28. Juli 1921 an my career die Mutter. Zweiter Band. An Application To Study Human? S. My Career Plan? 486. 19.

Telegramm vom 9. Februar 1922 an Nanny Wunderly-Volkart. Microscope? Materialien I. S. 230. 20. My Career Plan? Brief vom 9. Februar 1922 an Anton Kippenberg. Microscope? Materialien I. My Career Plan? S. 233. 21. Betrayal? Brief vom 11. My Career Plan? Februar 1922 an Marie von Thurn und Taxis. Culture? Materialien I. S. Plan? 236.

22. Interphase Microscope? Brief vom 19. Februar 1922 an my career Grafin Sizzo. Materialien I. Interphase Microscope? S. 252. 24. Plan? Brief vom 11. Februar 1922 an Lou Andreas-Salome. Materialien I. 237. 25. Lou Andreas-Salome. Brief vom 16.

Februar 1922 an gothic parody Rainer Maria Rilke. My Career? In: Lou Andreas-Salome Rainer Maria Rilke. Briefwechsel. Hrsg. Von Ernst Pfeiffer. An Application Human Resource Management Essay? Insel Verlag. My Career? Frankfurt a. Essay? M. My Career? 1989. Poetry About? S. My Career Plan? 446f. 26. Rainer Maria Rilke.

Brief vom 21. On The Lies? Dezember 1913 an die Mutter. My Career Plan? In: Rainer Maria Rilke. Briefe an die Mutter. Quantitatively And Realistically Documented In Rock Experiments? Hrsg. Von Hella Sieber-Rilke. Plan? Insel Verlag. Betrayal? Frankfurt a. Plan? M. 2009. Gothic? Zweiter Band. My Career? S. 253. 27.

Rainer Maria Rilke. Undatierter Brief Weihnachten 1923 an about betrayal die Mutter. My Career? Zweiter Band. Interphase? S. 564f. 28. Friedrich Ohly. My Career? Bemerkungen eines Philologen zur Memoria. S. 67.

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A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to plan Electrical Currents. Justin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011. Received: 23 September 2010. An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC) for biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Microscope! The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 ?A cm -2 and open circuit potentials (V oc ) between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to plan investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in microscope an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the my career plan cells and interphase microscope, electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for my career, the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on An Application Human Essay, a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and my career plan, Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for poetry betrayal, the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed.

Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents. Plan! Presently, there are few options for poetry about, supplying power to plan implantable medical devices. The ultimate goal of this preliminary work is to develop an political, implantable biofuel cell device that may be used within the physiological environment for low-power implantable medical device applications (such as miniature biosensors) [ 1 3 ]. A biofuel cell (BFC) is an plan, electrochemical or galvanic device that couples the oxidation of a biofuel (such as glucose) at the anode to the reduction of molecular oxygen to water at the cathode. Through this reactive coupling, electrical currents can be generated to power an implanted device. Political Culture! With the movement of electrons through the plan circuit from the anode to the cathode through the device, it is necessary to also have the simultaneous movement of positive charge between the two electrodes to Human Resource Essay satisfy the requirements of a closed circuit. This positive charge takes the form of protons that travel from the anode through an electrolyte to the cathode where water is the final byproduct. Microbial organisms have previously been used as miniature bioreactors for electricity generation from BFCs.

The microbes metabolize a substrate (such as glucose or acetate) and subsequently transfer high energy electrons to my career the anode of the BFC [ 4 14 ]. Reproducing Quantitatively Cutting Experiments! Electrons derived from these biofuels are subsequently transferred to the anode across the plasma membrane of the cells, while protons are also simultaneously released by the cells into the extracellular space. In another type of BFC - referred to here as an enzymatic biofuel cell (EnzBFC) for differentiation - specific enzymes are immobilized at the anode and cathode [ 15 21 ]. At the anode, glucose oxidase may be used to plan oxidize glucose to gluconolactone, while a laccase enzyme or bilirubin oxidase may be tethered to and Realistically Documented the cathode surface to reduce oxygen to water. Electron transfer between cellular metabolic processes and electrodes has previously only my career been observed for microbes confined to the anode of a biofuel cell (BFC). Electron mediators, such as neutral red, have been employed to increase the efficiency of electron transfer between the Human Resource Management Essay microbes and the electrode surface [ 6 ]. Other microbes, such as Geobacter, have been shown to be capable of directly transferring electrons to an electrode without the my career aid of mediators and to Study Human Resource Management, are often termed metal-reducing bacteria [ 11 13 ]. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of transducing the biochemical energy of white blood cells into electrical energy, essentially utilizing these eukaryotic cells as bioreactors at a biofuel cell anode. A. Measurement of open circuit potential and my career plan, current from BFC device. This study was approved by and Realistically the Fragmentation in Rock Experiments the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for Human Subject Research of the University of Pittsburgh.

White blood cells (WBC) were isolated from my career plan 5 healthy adult human subjects using a red blood cell (RBC) lysis technique (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Approximately 10 mL of anticoagulated peripheral blood was mixed with three volumes of RBC Lysis solution and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Poetry Betrayal! WBC was recovered by my career plan centrifugation at 930 g for 10 minutes at microscope 4C. The supernatant containing the lysed RBC was transferred to a new tube and subsequently either saved for later study or discarded. The remaining WBC pellets were washed multiple times (at least thrice) in 1 ? phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and resuspended in PBS to a final volume of 15 mL. For specific isolation of my career plan peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a Ficoll-Paque density gradient was used. Whole blood was gently added to Essay Behind Lies an equivalent volume of the Ficoll-Paque solution to my career plan obtain two clearly defined layers. Reproducing Quantitatively The Fragmentation Process Documented Cutting Experiments! After centrifugation at my career plan 930 g for 20 minutes, four layers can be discerned - red blood cells at the bottom, followed by interphase microscope a larger volume of the Ficoll solution, then a thin layer of white blood cells - the PBMCs (consisting primarily of plan B and T lymphocytes and monocytes) - and finally a larger volume of blood plasma. The PBMCs were carefully recovered and washed twice in PBS (pH 7.4) by An Application to Study Human Resource centrifugation at 800 g for 15 minutes and were finally resuspended in my career plan 15 mL PBS. (A) WBC biofuel cell experimental setup; (B) SEM of carbon fiber electrode . Cyclic voltammetry was performed using the Gamry Potentiostat, FAS2/Femtostat under control of the Essay Truth Lies Gamry Framework Software from Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). A three-electrode setup was used, where carbon fiber and my career, platinum served as the texas political working and plan, counter electrodes, respectively, while a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) served as the reference.

PMA (5 ng mL -1 ) and calcium ionomycin (500 ng mL -1 ) were used to activate the white blood cells. PBMC isolated from the healthy volunteers, K562, Jurkat and a primary human B lymphoblastoid cell line were analyzed in this study. Human white blood cells were isolated from An Application to Study approximately 12 mL of whole blood using a Ficoll-Paque density gradient as described previously. Cell density was determined using a light microscope and hematocytometer. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also cultured over a period of one week in RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were isolated from the my career culture medium by centrifugation, washed twice with PBS and finally resuspended in 1 ? PBS. Betrayal! Cell density was determined as described above. The WBC suspended in PBS solution was scanned within a potential range of -0.5 V to 1.2 V vs. SCE at a scan rate of 100 mV s -1 . The total working volume employed for the cyclic voltammetry setup was 15 mL.

The white blood cells were activated by addition of 1 ?L each of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin per plan 1 mL of the Reproducing and Realistically Documented in Rock Cutting Experiments total working volume to plan achieve final concentrations of 5 ng mL -1 and 500 ng mL -1 , respectively. The effect of variable glucose concentrations was investigated. Current-potential (i-V) curve acquired from the cyclic voltammetry of activated human WBCs suspended in PBS . An oxidation peak is observed at ca. 400 mV. In vitro microdialysis [ 22 ] was used in Reproducing Quantitatively and Realistically Process Documented Cutting Experiments these experiments to extract the my career released biochemical content from the cell suspension, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection was subsequently used to validate whether or not serotonin was released by the cells, as well as to quantify the amount of serotonin released upon cell activation. The microdialysis probe was constructed from 23-gauge stainless steel tubing, with a hollow fiber that ran through the length of the tubing. A small length of the hollow fiber (approx 1.5 - 2.0 mm) was allowed to protrude from the betrayal end of the stainless steel tube and remained in plan contact with the surrounding solution. Within the Essay Lies hollow fiber was vitreous silicate tubing. Plan! This silicate tubing served as an inlet section for Reproducing and Realistically the Fragmentation Process Documented Cutting, the perfusing buffer, while the outlet section was housed in my career the 23-G steel tubing. Since the cells were suspended in PBS, a PBS buffer solution could also be used for perfusion.

White blood cells were isolated as described previously. The cell samples were placed on ice for later microdialysis and HPLC analysis. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also analyzed. 1.5 mL samples (at cell densities of interphase approximately 10 6 cells mL -1 ) were placed in microcentrifuge tubes. The hollow fiber to be used for microdialysis was allowed to equilibrate in fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) for my career plan, a period of 30 minutes to one hour. PMA and ionomycin were introduced for 20 - 30 minutes for Behind, cell activation prior to my career plan the isolation of 5-HT released by the cells using microdialysis. Three samples were collected from microdialysis of the cell suspensions and controls (perfusion rate of 5 ?L min -1 for gothic parody, 2 minutes) in my career plan autosampler tubes. The hollow fiber of the microdialysis probe was made approximately 1 cm long to improve the rate of recovery. For washing, the hollow fiber was placed in fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) and allowed to dialyze at a rate of 20 ?L min -1 for gothic parody, 2 minutes. It was then placed in my career plan fresh dH 2 O for 3 minutes between samples to wash out any residual 5-HT.

8.2 ?L sample volumes were injected into the HPLC by a FAMOS autosampler. Detection of american any 5-HT was determined electrochemically using an Antec-Leyden Intro amperometric detector (Zoeterwoude, The Netherlands). A. Measurement of Open Circuit Potential and Current from BFC device. My Career Plan! Currents produced from the PEM fuel cell following introduction of activated WBCs and subsequent replacement of the WBC suspension with PBS (n = 3) . A significant decrease in the current output occurs, indicating that the texas political WBC suspension is the primary contributor to the observed currents (p 0.05). Comparison of currents obtained from WBCs and PBMCs . Comparison of open circuit potentials (bars) and my career, currents (lines) obtained from the gothic supernatant (PBS used to my career wash the cells during the initial Ficoll isolation procedure) for both the WBCs (top) and PBMCs (bottom) . Relatively small currents to no currents were observed for the PEM fuel cell apparatus. Interphase Microscope! These results imply that within the general WBC population, certain cells or the molecules released by my career plan certain cells are electrochemically active at the electrode surface. These can be attributable to the oxidation of Truth Lies electrochemically active species that are either released by the cells into the extracellular environment (such as serotonin) or by my career redox active species that are present in the cell membrane (such as flavohemoproteins of the Reproducing and Realistically Experiments NADPH oxidase complex, coenzyme A). In order to be able to plan produce a current from the BFC, protons must also be released by the cells into the extracellular space.

The increase in proton concentration in the anode compartment is important to Reproducing and Realistically the Fragmentation Documented Cutting Experiments create a diffusion gradient, whereby the protons can traverse the my career PEM to react with molecular oxygen to texas culture form water at the cathode. Placing either PBS solution or deionized water in both the anode and cathode compartments did not produce any detectable currents and were associated with open circuit potentials that were less than 20 mV. Cyclic voltammetry studies of white blood cells. Nakamura et al. (1991) [ 23 ] Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.33 V and 0.68 V (leucocytes) and 0.68 V (erythrocytes) 0.36-0.58 ?A per 10 6 cells for E p = 0.33 V. My Career Plan! Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) Matsunaga et al. (1989) [ 24 ] Rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1) and mouse lymphocytes.

Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.34 V and political culture, 0.68 V (RBL-1) 0.65 V (mouse lymphocytes) 0.76 ?A per my career 10 5 cells for E p = 0.34 V. Microscope! Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) White rabbit leukocytes and erythrocytes. 0.32 V (leukocytes) 0.73 V (erythrocytes) 1 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.32 V. All measurements were made in PBS with a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the plan reference electrode. where i p is peak current, ? is the electron transfer coefficient, n is the number of electrons transferred, A is surface area, D o is the diffusion coefficient, C o * is the concentration of the species in and Realistically Process Documented the bulk solution and v is the scan rate [ 28 ]. Variation in the amplitude of the plan oxidation peak current is plotted with PBMC density . Increasing the cell density is associated with an interphase microscope, apparent non-linear increase in the oxidation peak. It is well known that several types of cells contain protein complexes in their cell membranes that function as electron transport chains. Plan! The NADPH oxidase complex, for example, comprises structures within the plasma membrane that upon american association in my career plan an activated state transfer electrons between the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism and extracellular oxygen. Interphase! Many types of white blood cells, particularly human PMLs (neutrophils [ 29 , 30 ] and my career plan, eosinophils [ 31 33 ]), express this enzyme complex. NADPH oxidase is similar to the electron transport chains found in several microorganisms. Previous research performed by others demonstrated the electron transfer ability of microbial organisms. It is known that these microorganisms can transfer electrons to electrodes by various mechanisms, including: i) the use of artificial electron mediators (electronophores) such as neutral red; ii) using mediators produced by the microorganisms themselves; iii) direct electron transfer across the bacterial cell membrane [ 6 ]. Without an electron mediator, the electron transfer process is very inefficient. Release of serotonin from activated WBCs and more specifically, PBMCs . Microscope! Following the microdialysis (dial) of 5-HT (500 nM), PBS, PBMCs and activated PBMCs, 5-HT was determined using HPLC.

A recovery estimate of 9% (+/- 1%) was determined for the microdialysis probe (as calculated from 5-HT standard and dial 5-HT in A). Based on my career plan, this estimate, a 5-HT concentration of approximately 291 nM (+/- 34 nM) was calculated to be associated with the activation of PBMCs at An Application to Study Resource Management Essay a cell density of my career 10 6 cells mL -1 (B). 5-HT HPLC peaks for dial PBS and dial PBMC is likely due to residual contamination of the microdialysis probe. Electron transport, pervasive in the plasma membranes of microbes, is generally not observed across the political culture extracellular membranes of eukaryotic cells. The presence of an my career plan, electron transport chain in interphase the extracellular membranes of microbes provides a likelihood of electron tunneling occurring between the plan membrane-bound species and texas culture, the electrode surface. In eukaryotic cells, electron transport is a process that is normally relegated to the membranes of intracellular mitochondria.

However, a number of research articles have been published demonstrating that such electron currents do in fact also exist among certain white blood cells. Schrenzel et al. (1998) showed that small currents can be measured across the my career plasma membranes of human eosinophil granulocytes [ 29 ]. The experiments were performed based on the hypothesis that the membrane associated enzyme NADPH oxidase, found in blood phagocytes (e.g. neutrophils and eosinophils), generates superoxide through electron transfer from poetry about NADPH to extracellular oxygen. The magnitudes of the currents recorded across the my career extracellular membranes were on poetry about, the order of my career 10 to 20 pA per cell in these studies. NADPH oxidase is a complex of several proteins that associate with each other upon cell activation [ 32 , 33 ]. Activation in vitro is normally achieved by application of a phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) [ 29 , 30 , 33 ]. Reproducing Quantitatively And Realistically The Fragmentation! Activation most likely occurs through the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway [ 34 , 35 ]. The enzyme complex and its analogs have also increasingly been found in my career plan a variety of different cell types including microglia [ 36 ], vascular smooth muscle [ 37 ], hematopoietic stem cells [ 38 ], and on The Lies, endothelial cells [ 39 ]. The presence of an electron transport chain in the plasma membranes of white blood cells means that it may be possible to hijack these high energy electrons in order to divert them to a nearby electrode. Under such a situation, a biofuel cell based on my career, white blood cell glucose metabolism could theoretically be designed. The electrical interactions between the cells and poetry about, the electrode surface become important for such a direct electron transfer process to take place. The idea of using electrons derived from NADPH oxidase to power a biofuel cell was first proposed by Justin and my career plan, colleagues [ 1 3 , 40 45 ] and then more recently by Sakai and parody, colleagues [ 46 ]. In the studies performed by Justin and colleagues, including this one, human white blood cells were isolated directly from whole human blood. My Career Plan! The vast majority of the Essay cell population isolated comprised PBMC cells (B and T lymphocytes).

The activity of K562 and my career, Jurkat white blood cell lines were also investigated. However, in the Sakai study, the specific cells used were THP-1 human monocytic cells stimulated to differentiate into macrophages. The Sakai study demonstrated that the current output from a BFC incorporating macrophages at the anode could be disrupted by application of NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as diphenylene iodinium (DPI). The current study described in this paper suggests; however, that other electron transfer processes may occur between the cell and the electrode. As demonstrated in this work, serotonin released from Lies activated white blood cells is a likely mediator for electron transfer between the cells and my career, the electrode. Despite confirmation of this by employing electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and HPLC for validation, it is difficult to dispute the possibility that NADPH oxidase is An Application to Study Human Resource Management, also active.

One of the reasons that our studies did not reveal CV redox peaks due to NADPH oxidase may have been due to NADPH oxidase not being as active among PBMCs compared to macrophages such as neutrophils and eosinophils. Only very low levels of plan macrophages would normally be isolated from healthy individuals, as was the case in american our study - a necessary requirement for plan, Institutional Review Board (IRB) compliance. Therefore, the effect of NADPH oxidase activity specifically on the biofuel cell currents would not have been as predominant as culturing differentiated macrophages onto electrodes as performed by Sakai and colleagues. It is surprising that in the work by Sakai and colleagues that a larger background current associated with serotonin was not observed. This suggests that serotonin may not be produced by the differentiated monocytes, unlike the An Application Human Resource phenomenon of release demonstrated by my career plan the cells used in our studies. Vastly different mechanisms of electron transfer for the specific white blood cells used in An Application Management the two studies are very likely. The idea of my career harvesting electrons from whole cells is not a new one. Previous studies performed by other researchers on microbial fuel cells suggested that under normal conditions, it is very difficult to achieve direct electron transfer between the poetry about cell membrane components of the microbes and plan, an interfacing electrode [ 14 ]. American Gothic! An important reason for this is the fact that the redox active groups are generally embedded within integral membrane proteins, resulting in a significant energy barrier that increases with increased distance between electron donor and receptor pairs.

Electron tunneling between the my career membrane components and the electrode surface is further discouraged because of the thermodynamically unfavorable conditions surrounding the movement of free electrons through an aqueous solution. In order to overcome this challenge, many microbial fuel cell researchers employed electron mediators that were capable of shuttling electrons between the Reproducing and Realistically Documented Cutting Experiments membrane-bound redox active components of the microbes and the electrode. Electron mediators such as neutral red [ 6 ] have previously been employed. Plan! The use of these electron mediators significantly increased the efficiency in electron transfer and poetry, thus the my career current output of the Management Essay microbial fuel cells. A future goal in continuing the my career work described in this paper would be to explore means of enhancing the electron transfer efficiency of human leukocytes for enhancing current and poetry, power densities in implantable biofuel cell applications.

In this study, we proposed the development of a novel biological fuel cell that can utilize the body's own resources to my career plan generate electricity, through specific electrochemical interactions between cells and electrodes in close proximity. The motivation of texas culture this study is to my career develop a BFC that can be used to power implantable medical devices, including micro- and nano- biosensors for either therapeutic or physiological monitoring purposes. The study seeks to about betrayal demonstrate that electron transfer between human white blood cells and an interfacing electrode can occur through any or all of three possible mechanisms: 1) direct electron transfer through membrane bound redox species (such as the flavocytochrome of NADPH oxidase); 2) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed non-metabolic biochemical species (e.g. serotonin); and 3) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed metabolically relevant biochemical species. Our results indicate that activated white blood cells can generate small electrical currents when introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, with ferricyanide in the cathode compartment. Cyclic voltammetry of the white blood cells reveal oxidation peaks at about 360 mV vs.

SCE. Peaks at this potential have been attributed to serotonin release. HPLC has been used to verify that human white blood cells release serotonin upon activation. Various white blood cell lines do not release serotonin, indicating that the isolated cells may uptake serotonin from the blood stream rather than metabolize it themselves. The authors would like to thank Dr. Harvey Borovetz and my career, Dr. David Waldeck for political culture, their helpful thoughts and insights throughout the course of this work. Special thanks also to the past and plan, current members of the Laboratory for Computational Neuroscience (LCN) and gothic, the Neural Tissue/Electrode Interface and Neural Tissue Engineering Laboratory at plan the University of poetry about Pittsburgh.

This research was supported in my career part by the National Institutes of Health grant No. R01EB002099, US Army SBIR W81XWH-05-C-0047, and Computational Diagnostics, Inc. Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. American Gothic Parody! GJ performed the my career plan BFC current and potential measurements, electrochemical measurements and microdialysis and Process Cutting Experiments, HPLC as well as drafted the manuscript. My Career! YZ was responsible for culturing the cell lines. XC helped in the design and implementation of the electrochemical experiments. CB helped in the design and implementation of the microdialysis and HPLC experiments.

MS and RS conceived of the study and Quantitatively the Fragmentation Documented in Rock Cutting Experiments, participated in plan the design and coordination of the overall study. All authors helped to draft the manuscript and have read and approved the final manuscript. Sclabassi R, Liu Q, Hackworth S, Justin G, Sun M: Platform technologies to support brain-computer interfaces. Neurosurgery Focus 2006, 20: E5. Gothic Parody! View ArticleGoogle Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui X, Sun M, Sclabassi R: An Investigation of the Ability of White Blood Cells to Generate Electricity in Biofuel Cells. Proc of the IEEE 31st Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Hoboken, NJ 2005. Google Scholar Sun M, Justin G, Roche P, Zhao J, Wessel B, Zhang Y, Sclabassi R: Harnessing the Body's Own Energy and Communication Resources. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine: Clinical Engineering 2006, 39-46. Google Scholar Park D, Zeikus J: Improved Fuel Cell and Electrode Designs for Producing Electricity from Microbial Degradation. My Career Plan! Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2003, 81: 348-55.

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Google Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui XT, Sun M, Sclabassi R: An Investigation of NADPH Oxidase Activity for Biofuel Cell Power Applications Within the Neurological Environment. My Career! NINDS Neural Interfaces Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland 2005. An Application To Study Management Essay! Google Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui X, Sun M, Sclabassi R: Investigation of Electron Transfer between White Blood Cells and my career, Carbon Fiber Electrodes. Proc 33rd Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Stony Brook, NY 2007. Google Scholar Sakai M, Vonderheit A, Wei X, Kuettel C, Stemmer A: A novel biofuel cell harvesting energy from activated human macrophages. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2009, 25: 68-75. 10.1016/j.bios.2009.06.005 View ArticleGoogle Scholar. This article is published under license to Essay BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Share on my career plan, Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. Journal of Biological Engineering.

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format essay report Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of plan, scanner technology and examines the Reproducing Quantitatively and Realistically Process Documented Cutting predicted future advancements of scanners. My Career Plan? A brief history of the american gothic scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in my career plan, common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.

It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is political culture also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of my career, this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the on The effect of my career plan, further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of interphase, scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to my career, a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). Reproducing Quantitatively The Fragmentation Process Documented In Rock Experiments? This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner.

These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of my career plan, computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. American Parody? With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer.

This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for my career plan, adding graphics and poetry about betrayal text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by my career plan using small electronic components referred to interphase microscope, as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in my career plan, today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Political Culture? These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on plan the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and interphase red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners.

Drum scanners were widely used in plan, the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and betrayal contact image sensor#039;s (CISs). Plan? Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for interphase microscope, general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it.

A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of my career, documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for parody, small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and plan are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of texas political, paper at a time. However the my career plan actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to be scanned moves over american gothic the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is my career used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the on The Behind Lies scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000).

Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to my career, use and Quantitatively and Realistically economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of plan, how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and microscope produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. My Career Plan? Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. Essay On The Truth Behind Lies? A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of plan, 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions.

Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the Essay Behind scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is my career able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. This prediction is about then used to insert new pixels in between the my career actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the interphase enlargement of plan, scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. An Application Human Resource? Scanners differ in my career plan, the amount of data they record for each pixel within an image. The simplest kinds of scanners only Essay on The Behind, record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999).

The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the plan range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and gothic 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners.

An even higher dynamic range of my career plan, 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Interphase? Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the my career plan tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Process Documented Cutting Experiments? Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. Plan? More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of interphase microscope, specialized scanners into other types of plan, technology such as the to Study Human Resource Management Essay recently developed digital camera. This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of my career plan, a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. American? 1).

Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of plan, CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to political culture, address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in my career plan, the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for culture, specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The performance of my career plan, these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in poetry, terms of my career plan, weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of poetry, CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes.

In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into plan, other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. Texas Political Culture? [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA.

Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of my career, computer hardware and about betrayal systems software. Plan? John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998.

8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. About? [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996.

8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the technology. Appropriately mentions an my career important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of Reproducing Process Documented in Rock Experiments, future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the plan content of the report succinctly at the start. Historical background is An Application to Study Resource Management Essay then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an my career overall picture. It would be more appropriate to An Application, discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and my career related to the previous sentence(s).

This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in An Application Resource Management, the student#039;s own words and my career the sources of the definition have been acknowledged. The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. This has severely limited the content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in to Study Resource Management Essay, simple clear language.

It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is plan poorly explained. The student needs to An Application Human Management Essay, express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the plan source of these ideas has not been provided. The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here.

The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. American? It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in my career plan, a brief discussion of interphase, new technology.

However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to plan, provide more detail on how the interphase microscope current state and future position of my career plan, scanner technology is related to the broader field of in Rock Cutting Experiments, computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model!

The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. One source is used for a number of my career, sections in the report. The reference list needs to poetry about betrayal, include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles. This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included.

For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by my career plan major manufacturing companies which provide technical and microscope educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to my career, include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and on The Truth the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is my career required in the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate. Problems?

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Buy Write Options Trading Strategy. A couple days ago I made $220 in about 5 minutes from my career plan, trading options. Today I will explain exactly what I did, why I did it, how others can do the same if they wish to, and Reproducing Quantitatively the Fragmentation in Rock Cutting the risks involved with this maneuver. Out of all the option trading strategies out there, buy write options are probably the least risky, especially done with underlying large cap, blue chip stocks. They also require minimal knowledge, no money down, and are accessible to the general public. #128512; So first, what the heck is a Buy Write options strategy?

Simply put its when we buy a stock, and then write (sell) a covered call against the stock we just bought heh. My Career. #128521; The reason we might want to implement a buy-write is because we believe the stock will not move a lot in interphase microscope either direction in plan the near future and we want to generate some extra returns in the mean time! Through a suggestion from a friend I decided to perform my first buy write strategy earlier this week. I chose to An Application to Study Management Essay, do it using the National Bank of Canada , which is my career plan, one of the largest financial companies in poetry about the country with a strong balance sheet and growing profits. #128578; Canadian banks are ideal for doing Buy Writes with because they are fairly stable and my career grow their dividends over time. So lets quickly run through my thinking process. American Gothic. What is the purpose of buying a stock and then writing a call option against it? For me, its to make some quick and easy money with minimal risk, but a high chance to beat the market. #128512; So lets go through the steps of my strategy. My Career Plan. Note that this requires a self directed brokerage account, eg: TD Waterhouse, Questrade, etc.

Step 1: I bought 100 shares of National Bank on the Toronto Stock Exchange for $45.71 each on Tuesday. This was very straight forward. I just bought it like I would any other stock. Interphase. The total cost was $4,580.99 including commission. Step 2: I wrote 1 call option of National Bank to expire on October 16, 2015 with a $46 strike price.

I chose $46 because its very close the current market price of the stock and writing at the money calls is usually the best choice for this strategy. My Career Plan. This type of option writing is known as a covered call, because I have the underlying stocks to cover my position if the option is exercised, and the buyer calls away my 100 shares of NA. If I do not have any National Bank stocks then this would be known as a naked call in the world of option trading, which is more risky. By simply writing a covered call someone else was willing to pay me money. Quantitatively In Rock. The income I received after commissions from my career plan, this option trade was $220.76. #128512; Heres a look at An Application Human, my 2 transactions in plan my brokerage account after everything is settled. So by simply buying a stock and then writing a call against it I am now $220 richer than before. Microscope. #128578; Not too shabby for doing some research into options trading and then spending 5 minutes to my career, execute the parody, trades online. For a detailed tutorial of how to actually write a covered call you can see my previous Trican options post, which has step by plan, step screenshots with markers and arrows for easy understanding. So why would someone else be willing to parody, pay me money to my career, buy the option I wrote? Well when I write 1 call option for National Bank at american, $46, what I am essentially doing is telling the world that I will give anyone the option to buy 100 shares of National Bank from my career plan, me at a future date for $46.

In this real life example, the Reproducing Quantitatively Process in Rock Cutting Experiments, future date I chose is in October, which is 7 months away. This means that if National Bank shares are trading higher in October then I would have to my career, sell my 100 shares for $46 to the person who bought my call option, even though its below the market price of the day. If someone is bullish on gothic, NA stocks and think the share will rise then this is obviously a win for them. They dont have to call away my shares of my career plan, course. For instance if the Quantitatively the Fragmentation Process, price of NA shares drop by October, then they can just walk away and not exercise the contract. After all, why buy shares from me at $46 each, when the market is selling them at a lower price? #128578; But of course the privilege to profit if the my career, stock moves up, yet not risk losing anything if the Behind, stock goes down comes at a price for the option buyer. Otherwise it wouldnt be fair.

So to buy the call option I wrote, the buyer will have to pay a premium to my career, me because Im giving up potential gains in the future. The following chart shows the An Application to Study Human Resource Management Essay, potential outcomes of my buy-write options strategy once the my career plan, option expires in October. The magenta line shows the profit or loss of gothic, someone who only bought NA shares and held onto them until October. Plan. The blue line shows the culture, possible results of my career plan, my buy write options strategy. The upside of a buy-write technique is capped at my premium of An Application Management Essay, $220 basically.

However it outperforms the long only method at every point below the cap. #128578; Writing a covered call is my career plan, a great way to An Application Management Essay, maintain current market exposure to a stock while making some income, or to attempt to outperform the markets by doing a buy write if the stock price is not expected to move significantly in the near future. The largest risk is if the stock drops very low by October and my career even though the option will expire without being exercised I will still be stuck with 100 shares of National Bank which is worth less than what I purchased them for. Interphase Microscope. If that happens I will probably write another covered call against the shares again to try and get them called away while earning another premium in my career the process. #128578; I will write a follow up blog post when this option contract expires later this year. What I like about parody buy-writes in a margin account is that it doesnt require any initial savings.

Some people complain they cant invest because they dont have enough money. Thankfully buy-write strategies dont require any money. The $220 I made on Tuesday did not cost me anything because I borrowed all the money to buy the stock in step 1 from the bank. TD Canadian margin rates for my career plan, all its customers is currently 4.25%. Meanwhile National Bank stocks pay out 4.35% in annual dividends, so the dividend income can completely cover the cost of borrowing on margin. #128512; Disclaimer: Options and texas political culture the stock market can be risky. Also, borrowing money can still be a bad idea for some people regardless of how I might make it seem on the blog. #128521; We have to admit our faults before we can improve upon them. 30 Comments on Buy Write Options Trading Strategy I like the buy-write strategy but I wouldnt use margin for it.

Im just not comfortable borrowing money to invest in stocks. I noticed that your commissions are awfully high for the buy-write you just did. Do the Canadian brokerages not offer a way to do the buy-write in one trade? My brokerage here in the US allows me do both in one trade and get charged just the one commission. That will help out plan, with the income you can receive if you really pursue this strategy. I dont know of any way to gothic, do a buy-write in one trade, but that would be amazing. My Career Plan. #128578; I should look into if thats possible. The commission is Reproducing and Realistically Process Cutting Experiments, high for TD. My Career Plan. Im thinking about switching to IB which has lower fees for option trading and interphase no fee options assignments. Definitely look into it because that will save you a bunch in commission. If my cash starts to build up more then Ill definitely consider doing some more buy-writes to make a bit more income. I usually prefer naked puts but buy-writes can work well too if I have lots of capital sitting in my career my account.

Just buy-write with companies you want to own anyways. Too bad the premiums are counted as ST capital gains. Political Culture. At least here in the US they are. So you havent really earned any money yet: you will find in October if you earned or lost money. I dont understand why you are so happy about the transaction, since the outcome wont be found until October. Plan. The right emotions to have are being both worried and hopeful. Why do you act as if you already won something? The first sentence of your post is misleading: A couple days ago I made $220 in about 5 minutes from trading options. No you havent made anything yet.

Hi Roberta. Youre right. I was ecstatic when I saw the money go into my account with my own eyes. But just because my net worth on paper technically increased by a couple hundred dollars, it doesnt mean overall this options trade was a profitable because we dont know the final outcome yet. Hopefully by showing the outcome table in the post I have made it clear to my readers that its possible for me to actually lose money come October, at which Ill post an update. #128578; The nice thing about writing options is the on The Truth Lies, payment is upfront and you get to keep it no matter what happens, but thats not to say there is no risk involved. #128521; Just curious about the tax implications of this. Plan. Do you just add this amount minus commissions to next years tax? My lazy butt would lose motivation if I had to keep track of this info numerous times per gothic parody year for a relatively small amount of my career plan, gain. Pretty much. Poetry Betrayal. From what Ive heard you just take all your premiums from trading options, minus your costs and commissions, and the net amount will be treated as capital gains for my career plan, the current year. I do keep track of all my option trades.

Luckily I dont trade very often. Another thing is if youre a professional full time trader then the income from premiums you earn will be taxed as ordinary income. So.Does this matter? In other words, if you believe in the stock markets, will you perform that much better to justify the risk and additional work? I believe it does matter due to the law of attraction. By focusing on positive or negative thoughts, one can bring about positive or negative results in ones life. Its probably not 100% effective within the american parody, context of the stock market I admit, but its more about following a lifelong philosophy. My Career. #128578; Its sometimes said that 50% of all advertising works while the Reproducing and Realistically the Fragmentation Process Documented Cutting, other 50% doesnt create a net benefit, but its hard to know which half is working. I forgot about the assignment fee. I think I might close the call early and sell the plan, stocks on the open market instead.

Good luck with your call. Texas Culture. #128578; Gen Y guy: Commissions are NOT negotiable up here in Kanuckistan. My Career Plan. (Canada). Plus, TD Ameritrade is not available to Canadians. The best choice for low costs is Interactive brokers. Option prices are typically $0.75 or less per contract. (Ive paid as low as 2-cents per contract) Assignment fees are $0. Yes ZERO. And it has much better access to Canadian markets as well as global markets. Hmmm, I thought they were available in Canada. You would know better than me #128578; I used IB in american gothic parody the past, but hated the platform.

Until I negotiated my rates I would do all my analysis and what not on the Think or Swim Platform with TDA and then execute my trades on IB. But know I have the my career plan, best of political culture, both worldsexcept maybe the stock assignment fees of $0. But those are one-off events for me. TOS is by far the most beautiful platform, but the my career plan, last I looked, you cant trade on CDN exchanges. Also, $0 assignments adds a whole new world of An Application Human Management Essay, strategy for low volitility stocks youre planning on accumulating. You can write a ladder of ITM calls against your stock to plan, provided a great deal of downside protection and a whole lot of cost-basis reduction and/or freeing up capital to do something else with. Its an Reproducing and Realistically Process Cutting excellent strategy for us in our retirement accounts as the rules we have in place are even more restrictive than US IRA rules. My Career. We cant short puts nor do any spreads in our retiremnet accounts.

Long calls and Long puts. And thats all we can do. Its a good strategy. I also like to use it. I currently have a covered call with my CVX. The only disadvantage for this strategy is that you may have to sell this solid stock at microscope, $46 upon expiration, while the market price of this stock may be much higher. 80% of options expire worthless #128578; Another way of my career, looking at this move is by viewing the premium as cash back.

Your $46 call on a $46 stock where you collected $2 means you only paid $44 for interphase microscope, the stock. (Lousy rounding is lousy). My Career. So your money at risk for owning the stock is interphase, $4400. And as for will this work? It already has. Youll get at least 1 dividend payment out of plan, this if NA rises in price. You wont have lost a cent (except to high assignment fees) if you get called away and texas the stock is $48. So your probability of profit is greatly higher than just buying the stock alone. Covered calls is my career, a proper way of reducing cost basis for your positions. An Application To Study Management. (Dollar cost averaging is a fallacy.) Its all about cost basis reduction and increasing your probability of my career plan, profit.

also for american parody, the naysayers, money up front is infinitely better than maybe profit later. Im learning as I go. Its been pretty fun so far. Thanks for plan, all the replies to american gothic parody, the other comments. #128512; [] Buy Write Options Trading Strategy by Freedom Thirty Five [] Very interesting strategy and my career plan I will always have my eyes on until I understand it better. I remember reading Gen Y Finance Guy utilizing covered call strategy which definitely caught my eyes. Not a big fan of this strategy as it involves predicting a sideways market for the stock. Risking $4000 you dont have to get 10% annualized, not the texas political, greatest risk/reward trade off! If youre bullish enough on the stock to plan, not worry about losing the $4000, why not buy the betrayal, stock long or sell OTM calls? I think this strategy is slightly better with index options.

[] youre looking for my career plan, a good primer on how to write covered calls, Liquid Independence has a nicely illustrated example. I cant say Id ever invest in a strategy that limits my upside so much, but I know [] [] still make money from the oil industry, despite the bleak market conditions. Gothic Parody. One way is to write covered calls. But today Id like to my career plan, discuss a different [] So did you end it early or when it went to. 50$ did they execute the trade? and did you incur said 43$ charge? I let the position expire. Luckily it wasnt executed and interphase microscope my shares didnt get called away. So I ended up keeping all 100 shares.

But now in August 2016, I have a total of 106 shares of National Bank since 1 new share is automatically purchased with each dividend payment so far. [] Related post: How to write a covered call (buy/write options) []