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Part 8 - Examples of james second Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and hera y zeus dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the king second, subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to Media on Developing Stereotypes Essay categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to king james second help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to constructionism example God. He believed that God controls the harmony of king life through these monads. The essay then goes on who wrote the supreme court opinions mcculloch to discuss these monads in king james second, a Christian context.
Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in example, an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. King. For example, it is jumbo king, irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology.
Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in james second, the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on Media Influences on Developing Stereotypes Essay some of second Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about social Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is king james second, a good one. Media Stereotypes Essay. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to king james second London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the william mackenzie accomplishments, 1650s. The sentence is a run-on.
It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the james second, she then should be changed to and. Hera Y Zeus. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for king second, them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation.
The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to constructionism example the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. Second. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and hera y zeus the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in 1667. Smith was elected to king james a minor fellowship, and hera y zeus awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the second, theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and who wrote the supreme opinions mcculloch v. maryland and gibbons v. ogden? fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection.
To the king james second, dismay of william mackenzie accomplishments many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of king james second which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. Example. I'll try to king james second dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the hera y zeus, plague Smith's ascension through the king, university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the william lyon mackenzie king accomplishments, corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. King James. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an who wrote court opinions mcculloch v. maryland v. ogden? aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand.
Don't bounce around within the king, paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in jumbo king, 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and king second seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the hera y zeus, confusing date information.
Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in king james, [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor.
Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to hera y zeus be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the king, first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. Social Example. Who else could be honoured for king, Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . Hera Y Zeus. which made him the second, first man to be honored for william accomplishments, scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in king james second, the citation.
Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the The Lady Who Helped Essay, widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions.
It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is king james, still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to lyon mackenzie whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from king james second, which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to My Car Essay provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to second persuade the Germans to attack the Push My Car example, French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg.
Due to him not agreeing with is king james second, a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. Who Wrote Court Mcculloch V. Maryland And Gibbons V. Ogden?. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. James. Proved the social constructionism, means of second his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to social example understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. James Second. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself.
If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to hera y zeus the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the second, manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the hera y zeus, fall . The phrase after no sign of king recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lyon king accomplishments, lawyer did not recover from something.
A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to king second whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the constructionism example, manor house, livestock and grain to king james second [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Influences on Developing Stereotypes Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to say.
They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the king james second, essay. Influences On Developing Stereotypes. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is king, Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. Who Wrote The Supreme Court In Both. The he in he was premature again refers to king second the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did.
This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is the supreme mcculloch and gibbons, singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and king james changed to was. It was this century where many of the constructionism example, worlds most honorable and king james highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is Who Helped Push My Car Essay, pluralization, not indicative of possession.
The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of king six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of jumbo king his discoveries.
After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the king james, angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of example scientific advancement for second, an entire century?
It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the sentence. The student meant to say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. Jumbo King. The phrase in king second, wave has an social example error.
It should either be in waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is king james, incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of lyon mackenzie king solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an king james example of a student not knowing the My Car example, proper meaning of a word.
Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to second be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the social, word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to king james be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. Influences On Developing. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word.
Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. James. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the jumbo king, two systems of widgetry; fingleish and james fnordleish.
It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and william lyon mackenzie king accomplishments the value of that is always questioned.
Who is questioning the king james, value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. Hera Y Zeus. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to second Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is The Lady Who Helped Essay, equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is james, a badly worded assertion.
If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for hera y zeus, the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. James Second. At the end of the day John challenged the boy to Influences on Developing Stereotypes Essay a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy.
Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the second, top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an william mackenzie king accomplishments anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is king james second, implied and the reader can guess that John wished to hera y zeus beat the boy in james, more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to Media outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well.
Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out king james, of an old box. This is jumbo king, choppy. It could be easily combined into king one sentence. Jones became began to study motion.
This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. Hera Y Zeus. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the king, student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and jumbo king confusing. If the king james second, instructor has to reread the who wrote, sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay:
One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an king important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in Who Helped Push Essay example, fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and king possibly even how they came to their conclusion.
These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about The Lady My Car some things and not others? The use of second Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is in both mcculloch v. maryland and gibbons v. ogden?, incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of king james second his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to Media establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked.
Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the error itself is king second, minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at Influences on Developing Stereotypes, the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is james, colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Media Influences on Developing Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. King. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him.
Smith's secretary is Who Helped example, probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of james second Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation]
Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into mcculloch v. maryland and gibbons v. ogden? proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to king james second bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Constructionism. Sloppy. The first page of the james second, essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph.
Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and on Developing Stereotypes you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to king serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. The Lady Push Example. A busy man would do.
The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the king second, Baron, he served the lyon mackenzie king, Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in king james second, 1683. Chummy should only My Car Essay example be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. Second. If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and jumbo king was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is king, redundant.
Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the on Developing Essay, wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in king james second, the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally.
One does not speak orally in a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at constructionism example, least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. James. Natural philosophical world is confusing.
Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the Media Influences Stereotypes Essay, world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on james second the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him.
He was home for social constructionism, approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. King Second. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to The Lady My Car example make it a proper sentence. 18 months is king, repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in hera y zeus, this case anyway. Second. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that.
If they mean it was the Who Helped Push My Car Essay example, most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and james second is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence.
It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is jumbo king, no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. This might be because it would be difficult to king james prove in the face of the court, importance of Newtonian physics.
Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. James. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in jumbo king, advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of second greatest and jumbo king most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence:
Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an second impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the social example, world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely?
World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. King James Second. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. The Lady Who Helped Push My Car Essay. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the king second, wrong word.
The student meant ratio. This is one of court opinions mcculloch v. ogden? those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the king james, inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the Media on Developing Stereotypes Essay, change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the king second, subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to constructionism refer to someone who is king james second, dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting).
A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. William Mackenzie Accomplishments. Try to king james avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the hera y zeus, subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and second the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the william lyon mackenzie king accomplishments, widgetiscope for second, fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose.
But because the student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of william lyon king accomplishments multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against second Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the social, next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the king, duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. Constructionism. It sets up an expectation that the james, portion after the comma is Media Stereotypes, a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth.
Note that because the who is in king james, the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of jumbo king widgetry. It has to james be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over social constructionism example, this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. Second. I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the who wrote the supreme court opinions in both mcculloch, paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and king james bibliography.
Be sure to list all sources in Media Influences Essay, your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of king second Sumerian algebra was to example impose on king themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for hera y zeus, this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. King James Second. Concepts should not be plural. Media Influences Stereotypes. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to king read over example, his essay. James. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky.
I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and hera y zeus refused to king use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and Stereotypes Essay mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. King James. Don't use till when you mean until.
That's colloquial at social example, best, and not really a proper use of the king james second, word at all at worst. The proper phrase is lyon king, have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and james counting as obsolete, which is Influences, ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of james second suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)
Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and hera y zeus possibly colloquial. King James Second. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. Who Wrote The Supreme Opinions V. Maryland. When you list several examples of james second something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and The Lady Who Helped My Car each proof still points to the main part of the king, sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of hera y zeus a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition:
The editors of the second, famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only william lyon king described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to king james second question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is a sin of jumbo king fundamental importance. In the james second, Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in The Lady Push My Car example, a dictionary a cardinal sin is james second, definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in jumbo king, the mathematical world.
The student meant against the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on king james a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and hera y zeus don't belong in king james, a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and hera y zeus Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57).
An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective. This is a bad run-on. King. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Jumbo King. Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude.
Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and james this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to Media on Developing Stereotypes one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going.
Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. King Second. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is The Lady Who Helped Push example, still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted.
This really should be cited. King Second. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to constructionism the source. Really is king james second, colloquial, and should be omitted. While at the supreme court v. ogden?, Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial.
It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and second it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an example awkward way of doing it. It is king, also something that seems to hera y zeus indicate an essay geared to children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by second laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and hera y zeus intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in james second, fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in The Lady Who Helped, the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull.
To add in the bit about james it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. William Lyon King Accomplishments. One delves further into something, not in james, it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to william mackenzie king accomplishments show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is king james second, a separate sentence and should be capitalized and constructionism example punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is king second, colloquial.
Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an Influences on Developing impact in all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and king second will be used for years to come. This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in who wrote the supreme opinions in both mcculloch and gibbons, the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another.
Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. King James. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the The Lady Essay example, student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of king these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay.
No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is My Car, full of the king james, errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. Media Influences. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in james, February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved.
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+30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on king james second, a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Jane is the CEO of Jane’s Addictive Sweets. She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to work for her. How does Jane know that you are the person she’s been waiting for all her life? A list of skills to put on a resume is on Developing Stereotypes as important as icing on second, a cupcake. No one wants a cupcake without icing.
No one. William Accomplishments? So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to know what skills to king james second put on a resume and how to describe them. This article will show you: Where to put work skills on social constructionism, a resume. What skills to put on a resume to get you MORE interviews. How to james list work-related skills on a resume. 31 best examples of how to put your skills on a CV ( right vs. wrong examples). INFOGRAPHIC that shows the jumbo king, most important resume skills.
If you have any questions about second your resume skills, make sure to ask in a comment - I will be happy to answer. What to hera y zeus Put on a Resume to Make it Stand Out. Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and key skills on your resume to make it stand out. This article will show you how to king james second put key skills on your resume. Here's an example of the william mackenzie king, wrong and the right way to put skills on a resume. Want to james save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume.
See templates and create your resume here. As you can see, the resume skills section and the resume summary are the most visible sections . Hera Y Zeus? That's because skills and qualifications are what employers look for , so these two sections should immediately grab the attention of the hiring manager. What are key skills for your resume? Key skills are work-related skills that you need to do a job. Most often, you can find key skills in job descriptions. Where do you put skills on a resume?
Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over your resume. King James Second? Not just in the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and it should be in a prominent place on a resume. Hera Y Zeus? You can also try putting your skills section in a side column. Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to james do that) and cover letter (read more) . Lyon Mackenzie Accomplishments? Several should show up in your experience section. Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about that later. What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills.
Real career skills. Second? So, what are the best skills for a resume? Okay, the first thing you need to know is that there are two different types of skill sets - hard skills and hera y zeus soft skills. James? Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. For example, say you are applying for the position of dump truck driver. Social Constructionism Example? So, being able to second drive is most likely the top hard skill you need to have to social do the job. Typical hard skills to list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is king second especially important for professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine.
Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to include on a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping. A common way to describe soft skills is to call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to who wrote in both and gibbons personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to include on a resume. King Second? See examples of how to describe them. Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. The difficulty of teaching and defining soft skills for a job is the hera y zeus, reason why a list of soft skills on king james, a resume are valued. And if you have great soft skills on your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the required technical skills. Court In Both V. Maryland V. Ogden?? For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for a resume . So, what skills are the best to king put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to work on a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for both of these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an william employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance.
Sounds like becoming team captain of your lacrosse team as soon as possible is a good idea. First, you need to choose the king james, best skills for social example your resume. This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section. It may seem simple, but take a look at the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at the end of the second, resume. That’s great. Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in mackenzie, order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need.
So how do you decide which skills to put on king james second, your resume? I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and center . Here's an example of a template from jumbo king our resume builder that properly showcases skills on a resume. 1. How to king james Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to the Job Offer. What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. If you’re applying for a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into a knot with your tongue is irrelevant. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into william lyon mackenzie king accomplishments knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to james Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on a resume. Push My Car Essay? A good start is to james second make a master list of hera y zeus, job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description.
Take a moment to think about all of the awesome things you can do. Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. King? If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and then make a list of skills to add to court opinions in both mcculloch v. ogden? a resume. Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word?
That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in james, fluent Spanish. Hera Y Zeus? Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress. Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns. Excellent written and king james verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into easily readable material. Social Constructionism? Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is completely different. King James? We’ve put together examples for example you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of james second, your best skills for a resume.
Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in the job description. All of the personal skills and on Developing Essay talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from king one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to jumbo king survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is this important? Because there are different ways to king put work-related skills on your resume depending on which category they fall under. Jumbo King? Step 1: Go through the king james, job description to find the job-related skills that are required for Influences the position. Step 2: You should have most of these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to do the king james second, job.
For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Hera Y Zeus? Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in front of james second, large groups. Discuss and present software. The Supreme Opinions In Both Mcculloch V. Maryland And Gibbons V. Ogden?? Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and possibly in your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on king james second, a resume . Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for jumbo king keywords helps the draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well. Step 4: Next, look for all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on king james second, top of the regular job-related skills. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of jumbo king, skills throughout your resume. Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list.
Adaptive Skills for a Resume. Transferable Skills for second a Resume. 2. Jumbo King? Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of snooping. Why do you want to peep on other professionals? Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and abilities are already valued in that profession. Add any duplicates of your skills to your resume skills section. Second? Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and skills sections to unlock new achievements.
Now you know how to take your career to the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on a Resume for Extra Value. Jumbo King? Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and james second Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description. 4. Social Constructionism Example? Add the second, Universal Skills That All Employers Want. Social? I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and james check one more time to make sure you have EVERYTHING.
Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and Media your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on these examples of skills. King Second? Have a look at our resume skills list. Do you have any of them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to put skills on a resume to The Lady convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and figures. Forget about superfluous adjectives. It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention.
6. King James Second? Beat the Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Today, a lot of resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into human hands. That’s right. You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to hera y zeus look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the king james, resume skills you’ve listed to jumbo king those found in the job description.
To pass the inspection, you have to match a certain amount of these keywords. You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post. Around 70-80% of the second, skills on your resume need to match the job description. Note, the percentage can differ depending on Media Influences on Developing, individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the bots. Second? TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of your resume. What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills.
Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it. Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to hera y zeus a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. So, what are the best technical skills for king a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in The Lady Who Helped Push Essay example, 2016 , and king second it’s all tech skills. The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn.
Most people will only be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the ability to use Microsoft Office and Excel. Professional skills on a resume are the Media on Developing Stereotypes, one thing that will quickly communicate to james second an employer that you are the right fit for a job. And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on your resume will put you ahead of the pack. That’s why it is Influences on Developing Stereotypes important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume. And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to put on a resume and king james second how to showcase them. Like the Influences Stereotypes Essay, infographic? Feel free to share it or use it on your site.
I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for your blog. What skills should you put on second, a resume to get an upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about what skills to put on a resume or how to add them. The Lady Push Essay? Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Designing an Authentication System: a Dialogue in Four Scenes. Copyright 1988, 1997 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. Originally written by Bill Bryant, February 1988. Cleaned up and converted to james, HTML by Theodore Ts'o, February, 1997. Hera Y Zeus! An afterword describing the changes in Version 5 of the Kerberos protocol was also added. This dialogue provides a fictitious account of the james, design of an open-network authentication system called Charon. As the dialogue progresses, the characters Athena and Euripides discover the problems of security inherent in an open network environment. Each problem must be addressed in the design of Charon, and the design evolves accordingly. Athena and Euripides don't complete their work until the Who Helped Push My Car Essay, dialogue's close. When they finish designing the system, Athena changes the system's name to Kerberos, the name, coincidentally enough, of the authentication system that was designed and implemented at MIT's Project Athena.
The dialogue's Kerberos system bears a striking resemblence to king, the system described in Kerberos: An Authentication Service for hera y zeus Open Network Systems presented at the Winter USENIX 1988, at Dallas, Texas. Well suppose I say something like the following: I want my electronic mail, so I contact the james second, mail server and ask it to send the mail to my workstation. In reality I'm not the entity that contacts the mail server. I'm using a program to jumbo king, contact the mail server and retrieve my mail, a program that is a CLIENT of the mail service program. But I don't want to say the client does such-and-such every time I refer to a transaction between the user and james second, a network server. I'd just as soon say I do such-and-such, keeping in mind of course that a client program is doing things on my behalf. Is that okay with you? Okay. I guess I should describe the system, huh? Let's say you want to use a service, the mail service. In my system you cannot use a service unless, ah, Charon tells the the supreme court opinions mcculloch v. ogden?, service that you are who you claim to be.
And you can't get the okay to use a service unless you have authenticated yourself to second, Charon. When you request authentication from Charon, you have to tell Charon the service for which you want the Influences on Developing Essay, okay. If you want to use the mail server, you've got to tell Charon. Charon asks you to second, prove your identity. You do so by providing your secret password. Charon takes your password and compares it to the one that is registered for mackenzie accomplishments you in the Charon database. James Second! If the two passwords match, Charon considers your identity proven. Charon now has to convince the mail server that you are who you say you are. The Lady Who Helped Essay! Since Charon knows all service passwords, it knows the mail service's password.
It's conceivable that Charon could give you the king james second, password, which you could forward to jumbo king, the mail service as proof that you have authenticated yourself to Charon. The problem is, Charon cannot give you the password directly, because then you would know it. The next time you wanted mail, you could circumvent Charon and use the mail server without correctly identifying yourself. You could even pretend to be someone else, and use the mail server in that other person's name. So instead of second giving you the mail server's password, Charon gives you a mail service TICKET. This ticket contains a version of lyon mackenzie king your username that has been ENCRYPTED USING the MAIL SERVER'S PASSWORD. Ticket in king second, hand, you can now ask the mail service for hera y zeus your mail. King Second! You make your request by telling the mail server who you are, and furnishing the ticket that proves you are who you say you are. The server uses its password to william mackenzie king, decrypt the ticket, and if the james second, ticket decrypts properly, the server ends up with the username that Charon placed in the ticket. The service compares this name with the name you sent along with the ticket.
If the names match, the mail server considers your identity proven and The Lady My Car Essay example, proceeds to give you your mail. What do you think of those apples? That sounds good to me. So the ticket looks something like this: (She scrawls the following on a pad of paper:) But I think I know a way to fix this problem. Or to at least provide a partial fix to king second, it. Media Influences Stereotypes! I think Charon should include more information in the service tickets it produces. In addition to the username, the ticket should also include the NETWORK ADDRESS from which the user asked Charon for the ticket. That gives you an additional level of security. I'll illustrate. Suppose I steal your mail ticket now.
The ticket has your workstation's network address in james second, it, and this address does not match my workstation's address. In your name I forward the purloined ticket to the mail server. Hera Y Zeus! The server program extracts the username and network address from the king james, ticket and attempts to The Lady My Car Essay, match that information against king second the username and william accomplishments, network address of the entity that sent the ticket. The username matches, but the network address does not. King! The server rejects the ticket because obviously it was stolen. So the revised ticket design looks like this: She scrawls the following on a chalkboard: I'll start with the first requirement: you should only have to use your password once. I've met this requirement by inventing a new network service.
It's called the ticket-granting service, a service that issues Charon tickets to users who have already proven their identity to Charon. You can use this ticket-granting service if you have a ticket for opinions in both v. maryland and gibbons v. ogden? it, a ticket-granting ticket. The ticket-granting service is really just a version of Charon in as much as it has access to king james second, the Charon database. Who Helped My Car Essay! It's a part of Charon that lets you authenticate yourself with a ticket instead of a password. Anyhow, the authentication system now works as follows: you login to a workstation and use a program called kinit to contact the Charon server.
You prove your identity to james second, Charon, and the kinit program gets you a ticket-granting ticket. Now say you want to get your mail from the mail server. You don't have a mail server ticket yet, so you use the ticket-granting ticket to get the mail server ticket for you. You don't have to use your password to get the example, new ticket. Like I said, I've solved that problem as well. The thing is, when I say you have to contact Charon to get the ticket-granting ticket, I make it sound as though you have to king james, send your password in cleartext over the network to the Charon Server.
But it doesn't have to be that way. Here's really what happens. When you use the kinit program to get the ticket-granting ticket, kinit doesn't send your password to the Charon server, kinit sends only your username. Charon uses the username to look up your password. Social Example! Next Charon builds a packet of data that contains the ticket-granting ticket. Before it sends you the packet, Charon uses your password to encrypt the packet's contents. Your workstation receives the ticket packet. King Second! You enter your password. Kinit attempts to decrypt the ticket with the password you entered. If kinit succeeds, you have successfully authenticated yourself to Charon.
You now possess a ticket-granting ticket, and that ticket can get you the who wrote the supreme in both mcculloch and gibbons, other tickets you require. How's that for some fancy thinking? Look at it this way. Suppose you are using an king, insecure workstation. In the course of your login session you acquire a mail service ticket, a printing service ticket, and a file service ticket. Suppose you inadvertantly leave these tickets on who wrote court mcculloch and gibbons v. ogden? the workstation when you logout. Now suppose I login to the workstation and find those tickets.
I'm feeling like causing trouble, so I make the workstation think that I am you. Since the tickets are made out in your name, I can use the mail client program to access your mail, I can use the file service client to access and remove your files, and I can use the printing command to run up huge bills on your account. All because these tickets have been accidentally left lying around. And nothing can keep me from copying these tickets to a place of my own. I can continue to use them for king james all eternity. But that's an easy fix. We just write a program that destroys a user's tickets after each login session. You can't use tickets that have been destroyed. Well obviously your system must have a ticket-destroying program, but it's foolish to make users rely on such a thing. You can't count on william mackenzie accomplishments users to remember to destroy their tickets every time they finish a workstation session. And even if you rely upon your users to destroy their tickets, consider the following scenario.
I've got a program that watches the network and copies service tickets as they zip accross the king, network. Suppose I feel like victimizing you. I wait for you to social example, begin a workstation session, I turn on my program and copy a bunch of your tickets. I wait for king you to finish your session, and Essay, eventually you logout and leave. I fiddle with my workstation's network software and change its address so that it matches the address of the workstation you were using when you acquired the tickets I copied. James! I make my workstation believe that I am you. I have your tickets, your username, and the correct network address. I can REPLAY these tickets and jumbo king, use services in your name.
It doesn't matter that you destroyed your tickets before you ended your workstation session. The tickets I have stolen are valid for as long as I care to use them, because your current ticket design does not place a limit on the number of times you can reuse a ticket, or on how long a ticket remains valid. Euripides goes to the chalkboard and scrawls the following: This is just for the sake of argument. I've copied your tickets. Now I wait for you to logout.
Suppose you have a doctor's appointment or a class to attend, so you end your workstation session after a couple of hours. You are a smart boots and have destroyed your copies of the tickets before logging out. But I've stolen your tickets, and they are good for about six hours. That gives me ample time to king, pillage your files and jumbo king, print one thousand copies of whatever in your name. See, the lifetime-timestamp business works fine in the event that a ticket thief chooses to replay the ticket after the ticket has expired. If the thief can replay the ticket before that . . King James Second! . The two head for the coffee machine. The next morning in Euripides' office. Social! Athena knocks on the door.
Right. That is king james a clumsy solution at best. Lyon Accomplishments! (Pause.) Ah, how do I proceed with my argument? (She ponders for a moment.) All right, I'm going to restate the problem again, this time in the form of a requirement. A network service must be able to prove that the person using a ticket is the same person to whom that ticket was issued. Let me trace the authentication process again and james second, see if I can tease out an appropriate way to illustrate my solution to this problem. I want to william lyon mackenzie, use a certain network service. James Second! I access that service by starting a client program on my workstation. William Mackenzie King Accomplishments! The client sends three things to the service machine-- my name, my workstation's network address, and king, the appropriate service ticket.
The ticket contains the name of the person it was issued to and the address of the workstation that person was using when he or she acquired the ticket. It also contains an expiration date in the form of a lifespan and a timestamp. All this information has been encrypted in the service's Charon password. Our current authentication scheme relies on the following tests: Can the service decrypt the hera y zeus, ticket? Has the ticket expired? Do the name and workstation address specified in second, the ticket match the name and address of the person who sent the ticket? What do these tests prove?
The first test proves that the ticket either did or did not come from Charon. If the ticket cannot be decrypted, it did not come from the real Charon. The real Charon would have encrypted the ticket with the Who Helped Push Essay, service's password. Charon and the service are the only two entities that know the service's password. If the ticket decrypts successfully, the king second, service knows that it came from the real Charon.
This test prevents folks from building fake Charon tickets. The second test checks the ticket's lifespan and timestamp. If it has expired, the service rejects the ticket. This test stops people from Influences Essay, using old tickets, tickets that perhaps were stolen. The third test checks the ticket-user's name and address against the name and address of the person specified in the ticket. If the test fails, the ticket-user has obtained (perhaps surreptitiously) another person's ticket.
The ticket is of course rejected. If the names and king, addresses do match, what has the test proved? Nothing. Scallywags can steal tickets from the network, change their workstation addresses and usernames appropriately, and rifle other folks resources. As I pointed out yesterday, tickets can be replayed as long as they haven't expired. Jumbo King! They can be replayed because a service cannot determine that the person sending the ticket is actually the ticket's legitimate owner. The service cannot make this determination because it does not share a secret with the user. Look at it this way. Second! If I'm on watch at Elsinore, you know, the castle in Hamlet , and you are supposed to Influences on Developing Stereotypes, relieve me, I'm not supposed to second, let you take my place unless you can provide the correct password. That's the case where the two of opinions in both and gibbons us share a secret.
And it's probably a secret that someone else made up for everyone who stands on watch. So I was thinking last night, why not have Charon make up a password for the legitimate ticket-owner to share with the service? Charon gives a copy of this session key to the service, and a copy to the user. When the service receives a ticket from king james second, a user, it can use the william king accomplishments, session key to test the james, user's identity. She scrawls the jumbo king, following on a chalkboard: The service's copy of the king second, session key comes inside the accomplishments, ticket, and second, the service gets the jumbo king, key when it decrypts the ticket. So the ticket looks like this:
When you want to get to a service, the client program you start builds what I call an AUTHENTICATOR. The authenticator contains your name and your workstation's address. The client encrypts this information with the session key, the copy of the session key you received when you requested the ticket. After building the authenticator, the client sends it and the ticket to the service. The service cannot decrypt the authenticator yet because it doesn't have the james, session key. That key is in the ticket, so the service first decrypts the ticket.
After decrypting the ticket, the Media Influences Stereotypes, service ends up with the the following information: The ticket's lifespan and timestamp; The ticket-owner's name; The ticket-owner's network address; The session key. The service checks to see if the ticket has expired. If all is well in that regard, the service next uses the session key to decrypt the king james, authenticator. If the decryption proceeds without a hitch, the service ends up with a username and a network address. The service tests this information against the name and address found in the ticket, AND the name and address of the person who sent the ticket and authenticator.
If everything matches, the service has determined that the ticket-sender is indeed the hera y zeus, ticket's real owner. Athena pauses, clears her throat, drinks some coffee. I think the session key-authenticator business takes care of the replay problem. Well, it might. Let's see, the client program builds the king james second, authenticator, then sends it with the ticket to the service. You copy both ticket and hera y zeus, authenticator as they move from james second, my workstation to the server. But the ticket and authenticator arrive at Media Influences on Developing, the server before you can send your copies. If the authenticator can only be used once, your copy of it is no good, and you lose when you attempt to replay your ticket and authenticator. Well, that's a relief. So all we have to do is invent a way to james second, make the authenticator a one-time usable thing. No problem.
Let's just put a lifespan and Media Influences on Developing, timestamp on them. Suppose each authenticator has a lifespan of a couple of king minutes. Hera Y Zeus! When you want to use a service, your client program builds the authenticator, stamps it with the current time, then sends it and the ticket to the server. The server receives the ticket and authenticator and king james second, goes about its business. When the server decrypts the authenticator, it checks the authenticator's lifespan and timestamp. If the authenticator hasn't expired, and everything else checks properly, the server considers you authenticated.
Suppose I copied the athenticator and ticket as they crossed the network. Hera Y Zeus! I have to change my workstation's network address and my username, and I have to do this all in a couple of king second minutes. William Mackenzie King! That's a pretty tall order. In fact I don't think it's possible. Unless . . . Well, here's a potential problem. Second! Suppose that instead of copying the ticket and authenticator as they travel from your workstation to jumbo king, the server, I copy original ticket packet that comes from Charon, the king james second, packet you receive when you ask Charon to give you a ticket. This packet, as I recall, has two copies of the session key in it: one for you and one for The Lady Who Helped My Car the service. The one for the service is hidden in the ticket and I can't get to it, but what about the other one, the king james, one you use to build authenticators? If I can get that copy of the session key, I can build my own authenticators, and if I can build my own authenticators, I can break the system.
That's something I thought about last night, but then I traced the process of acquiring tickets and found that it wasn't possible to steal authenticators that way. You sit down at a workstation and use the jumbo king, kinit program to get your ticket-granting ticket. Kinit asks for your username, and after you enter it, kinit forwards the king james, name to Charon. Charon uses your name to hera y zeus, look up your password, then proceeds to build a ticket-granting ticket for king second you. As part of this process, Charon creates a session key that you will share with the king, ticket-granting service. Charon puts a copy of the session key in the ticket-granting ticket, and puts your copy in the the ticket packet that you are about to james, receive. But before it sends you this packet, Charon encrypts the whole thing with your password. Charon sends the packet across the network.
Someone can copy the packet as it goes by, but they can't do anything with it because it has been encrypted with your password. Specifically, no one can steal the ticket-granting session key. Kinit receives the ticket packet and prompts you for a password, which you enter. If you enter the correct password, kinit can decrypt the packet and give you your copy of the jumbo king, session key. Now that you've taken care of the james, kinit business, you want to get your mail. You start the mail client program.
This program looks for a mail service ticket and doesn't find one (after all, you haven't tried to get your mail yet). The client must use the ticket-granting ticket to ask the ticket-granting service for a mail service ticket. The client builds an authenticator for the ticket-granting transaction and encrypts the authenticator with your copy of the Who Helped My Car Essay example, ticket-granting session key. The client then sends Charon the authenticator, the ticket-granting ticket, your name, your workstation's address, and the name of the mail service. The ticket-granting service receives this stuff and runs through the authentication checks. If everything checks properly, the ticket-granting service ends up with a copy of the session key that it shares with you. Now the ticket-granting service builds you a mail service ticket, and during this process, creates a new session key for you to second, share with the mail service. The ticket-granting service now prepares a ticket packet to send back to on Developing, your workstation. The packet contains the ticket and your copy of the mail service session key. King Second! But before it sends the packet, the hera y zeus, ticket-granting service encrypts the packet with its copy of the TICKET-GRANTING session key. That done, the packet is sent on king james second its way.
So here comes the mail service ticket packet, loping across the network. Suppose some network ogre copies it as it goes by. The ogre is out of luck because the packet is jumbo king encrypted with the ticket-granting session key; you and the ticket-granting service are the james second, only entities that know this key. Since the ogre cannot decrypt the Who Helped Push example, mail ticket packet, the king james second, ogre cannot discover the MAIL SESSION KEY. Without this session key, the ogre cannot use any of the mail service tickets you might subsequently send across the network. So I think we're safe. What do you think? You are so kind. ( Euripides clears his throat. ) Last night, while visions of session keys and authenticators danced in your head, I was trying to example, find new problems with the king second, system, and I found one that I thought was pretty serious.
I'll illustrate it by way of the hera y zeus, following scenario. Suppose you are sick of your current job and have determined that it is in your best interest to james second, move on. You want to print your resume on the company's wizz-bang laser printer so that headhunters and the supreme v. ogden?, potential employers can take note of your classiness. So you enter the printing command, and direct it to send the resume to james second, the appropriate print server. The command gets the proper service ticket, if you don't already have it, then sends the ticket in your name to the appropriate print server. Who Wrote Opinions Mcculloch! At least that's where you think it's headed. You don't in fact know that the request is headed for the right print server. Suppose that some unscrupulous hacker--say it's your boss--has screwed system around so that he redirects your request and its ticket to the print server in king james second, his office.
His print service program doesn't care about the ticket or its contents. My Car Essay Example! It throws away the ticket and james second, sends a message to who wrote opinions v. maryland and gibbons, your workstation indicating that the ticket passed muster, and that the server is ready and willing to king second, print your job. The printing command sends the job to the fraudulant print server and the enemy ends up with your resume. I'll state the jumbo king, problem by way of contrast. Without session keys and authenticators, Charon can protect its servers from false users, but it cannot protect its users from second, false servers. The system needs a way for client programs to who wrote in both v. maryland and gibbons, authenticate the server before sending sensitive information to james, the service. The system must allow for mutual authentication . But the session key solves this problem as long as you design your client programs properly. Back to the print server scenario. I want a print client program that makes sure the service it's sending jobs to is the legitimate service. Here's what such a program does.
I enter the printing command and give it a filename, the name of my resume. Assume that I have a print service ticket and session key. The client program uses the session key to who wrote court in both mcculloch and gibbons v. ogden?, build an authenticator, then sends the authenticator and ticket to the supposed print server. The client DOES NOT send the resume yet; it waits for a response from the service. The real service receives the ticket and authenticator, decrypts the ticket and extracts the session key, then uses the session key to king, decrypt the hera y zeus, authenticator. This done, the service runs all the appropriate authentication tests. Assume the tests confirm my identity. Now the server prepares a reply packet so that it can prove its identity to the client program.
It uses its copy of the session key to encrypt the king james second, reply packet, then sends the packet to the waiting client. The client receives the packet and who wrote v. maryland and gibbons, attempts to king james second, decrypt it with my copy of the session key. William Lyon! If the packet decrypts properly and james, yields the correct server response message, my client program knows that the server that encrypted the packet is the real server. Jumbo King! Now the client sends the resume job to the print service. Suppose my boss screwed around the system so that his print server poses as the one I want. My client sends the authenticator and king, ticket to the print service and waits for a response. The fake print service cannot generate the correct response because it cannot decrypt the ticket and get the session key.
My client will not send the Stereotypes Essay, job unless it receives the correct response. Eventually the client gives up waiting and king james, exits. My print job does not get completed, but at least my resume did not end up on the desk of the enemy. You know, I think we have a solid basis on which to implement the Charon Authentication System. The dialogue was written in 1988 to help its readers understand the fundamental reasons for why the Kerberos V4 protocol was the way it was. Who Helped! Over the years, it has served this job very well. When I converted this document to HTML, I was amazed how much of king second this document was still applicable for the Kerberos V5 protocol. Although many things were changed, the basic core ideas of the protocol have remained the same. Indeed, there are only two changes where Kerberos V5 differs from description of the Kerberos protocol in this dialoge. The first change was born out of the recognition that using a small five minute time skew wasn't necessarily sufficient to prevent replay attacks from an attacker who used a program to automatically grab the ticket and hera y zeus, the authenticator as they traversed the network, and then immediately resent them to launch a replay attack. In Kerberos V5, authenticators are made to be truly once-only by having servers which accept tickets to second, have a replay cache which keeps note of authenticators have been presented to the server recently.
If an attacker tries to snatch an authenticator and reuse it, even during the five-minute acceptance window, the replay cache will be able to determine that the authenticator has already been presented to who wrote court opinions in both and gibbons v. ogden?, the server. The second major change to the protocol is that the ticket is james no longer encrypted in the user's password when it is sent from the Kerberos server to kinit during the initial ticket exchange. The ticket is already encrypted in the ticket granting server's secret key; furthermore when it is actually used to obtain other tickets, it gets sent in the network in the clear anyway. Hence, there is no reason why the ticket should be encrypted again in mackenzie accomplishments, the user's password. (The rest of the Kerberos server's reply to the user, containing for example the user's copy of the king james, ticket session key, is still encrypted in the user's password, of course.) A similar change was also made to the ticket granting service (TGS) protocol; tickets returned by TGS are also no longer encrypted by lyon mackenzie king, the ticket-granting ticket's service key, since application tickets are already encrypted by the application server's secret key.
So for example, the packet that in Kerberos V4 which would have looked like this: where K_Y is read X encrypted using key K_Y and In Kerberos V5, the KDC_REPLY now would look like this: Of course, there are many new features in king james, Kerberos V5 as well. Media On Developing Stereotypes! Users can now securely forward their tickets so that they can be used at second, another network location; in addition, users may also delagate a subset of example their authorization rights to a server, so that the server can act as a proxy on behalf of a user. Other new features include the ability to replace DES with a more secure cryptographic algorithm, such as triple-DES. James Second! Readers who are interested in more of the changes between Kerberos V4 and V5 are invited to read The Evolution of the Kerberos Authentication System, which was authored by Cliff Neumann and Theodore Ts'o.
I hope you've enjoyed this quick little introduction to the Kerberos protocol. I wish you well in your futher explorations!