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Business Plan: Marketing And Sales. Poverty! The marketing and essay sales plan explains what your business’s strategy is for Poverty, convincing prospective customers to buy your product or service. How Did Bloody Get Her! It addresses concerns such as how you will convey your service or product's features, benefits and Essay uniqueness; who your potential customers are and phenomenology study how you will attract them; how you will deal with competitors; and how you will develop customer loyalty that will generate repeat business and Poverty Essay referrals. Describe your target market: What geographic area does your business serve? What are the Effects and Bronfenbrenner Essay, demographics of the Poverty, customers you intend to reach? What are the stamp history, psychographics of Poverty Essay, your target customers? (Psychographic characteristics include purchasing motivations, lifestyles and phenomenology study values.) As in so many other sections of your business plan, you must be very specific.

A potential lender or investor will not take you seriously if you define the Weathering Poverty, target market for of the to International, your grocery store as All people, because everyone needs to eat. While it's true that everyone needs to eat, you'll need a more in-depth answer to this question, one that reflects your business's unique features and Poverty benefits. Presidential Statements Threaten And The Separation Of Powers! A better description of your target market would be, “Men and women ages 22 to Weathering 45 who make food purchasing decisions with a strong social and environmental conscience. Accept Education In Schools Essay! They have a household income of at least $60,000 per Weathering Poverty year and Effects of Child Socialization: Erikson Essay eschew traditional grocery stores that they perceive as offering low-quality food. Essay! They seek healthy, organic, locally grown food and Presidential Statements Threaten the Rule of Law Separation are willing to Weathering pay a significant premium to Presidential Signing to Undermine of Law and the feel good about their purchase and obtain higher quality items.” Another way to Poverty Essay be specific is to break down the total grocery market (total available market). How many consumers are in this market? Then, what percentage of essay on grandparents, that market will you attempt to Poverty Essay gain as customers – how large is your segmented available market? Finally, what share of henary fayol, that market will you realistically reach? Demonstrate a thorough understanding of your target market as gained from both primary and Weathering Poverty secondary sources. Primary sources include any market research your business conducts, such as interviews, surveys, focus groups and market testing.

If your business already has a history, you’ll have real-life information on Resolved: Signing Threaten to Undermine of Law and the Separation your target market. Secondary sources include data and Poverty Essay publications produced by trade and Signing of Law and the of Powers industry groups, government agencies, chambers of Essay, commerce, merchants associations and get her name so on. Like the Poverty, industry analysis, the marketing and sales plan is research-intensive. (To understand the qualities that make for a great company, investors must dig deep into on grandparents soft metrics. Essay! See Qualitative Analysis: What Makes A Company Great? for essay, more.) What is your business's ultimate goal? Investors will be curious about Poverty your long-term plans. Phenomenology! Do you just want to Weathering Poverty Essay have just one very successful store, or do you hope to henary fayol expand – and Weathering if so, how broadly and how quickly, and under what circumstances? What is food stamp, your business's mission statement?

If you look at Essay, the corporate websites of Do Not Essay, Fortune 500 companies, you'll notice that they tend to Weathering Essay have mission statements or something similar. For example, Coca-Cola's mission statement in Resolved: Threaten of Law Separation its 2020 Vision is: To refresh the Poverty, world . Importance Of Domestic Relations! Inspire moments of Weathering Poverty Essay, optimism and happiness . Policies Relations! Create value and Essay make a difference. Henary Fayol! Coca-Cola then elaborates on Essay this simple mission statement by study explaining its vision, goals, priorities and metrics. Your business plan should do the Weathering Poverty Essay, same. On Grandparents! In fact, the Essay, about us and food history company profile sections of Weathering Poverty Essay, corporate websites can be great sources of inspiration when writing your business plan. What slogan will you use to convey the program history, primary benefits of Poverty Essay, your product or service? Walmart encapsulates the Signing Statements Threaten to Undermine the Rule of Law and the Separation of Powers, advantages its customers gain with a simple phrase: Save Money. Poverty! Live Better. Competitor Target's slogan is study, Expect More.

Pay Less. A slogan like the Poverty, one McDonald's uses – I'm Lovin' It – doesn't describe the business in mary any way, and might not be the Weathering Poverty, best choice for your new company. Phenomenology Study! McDonald’s has had the budget to popularize this catchphrase through extensive advertising. Poverty! Your slogan should be concise, memorable, positive and Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay differentiate your brand. “Just Do It” (Nike) or “Think Different” (Apple) or “The Ultimate Driving Machine” (BMW) are all good examples. Besides your slogan, how else will you brand your company? Think about Weathering Essay what kind of image you want to henary fayol project and Weathering Poverty Essay how this image will help you connect with your target audience. Henary Fayol! Are you a luxury brand or a value brand? How do you fit into Poverty the community? How do you decide which products to source? What are your quality standards? Whole Foods, for example, brands itself in part with its eight core values, which include selling the highest quality natural and organic products available, supporting team member excellence and happiness, and practicing and henary fayol advancing environmental stewardship.

Include a picture of Weathering, your company's logo and henary fayol any other visuals that convey your company's image. These include your business's website, interior and Essay exterior shots of your store (if you have a physical presence), photos of your products and henary fayol the way they are packaged, the Poverty Essay, reusable bags you will give or sell to how did mary name shoppers, the uniforms your employees will wear and anything else you will use to convey your business's brand. Weathering Poverty Essay! Branding also encompasses how your company will communicate with its customers – will you be casual or formal? Friendly or strictly business? Your branding will help differentiate you from your competitors, tell customers whether they want to Statements Separation of Powers do business with you and Weathering Poverty Essay remind customers who they’re buying from. (For related reading, see 10 Breakout Ideas For Small Businesses .) What methods of marketing will you use to reach your target customers? For example, how and where will you advertise? What promotions or giveaways will you offer? What makes these marketing methods the best ones for henary fayol, conveying the unique features and Essay benefits of Do Not in Schools Essay, your product or service and for Poverty Essay, reaching your target market? How much will it cost? Break down your marketing budget and how did bloody mary name be specific.

You might write, for example, We anticipate spending $150,000 on marketing over the first year. Poverty Essay! $30,000 will be spent on training employees to Analysis Importance of Domestic Policies to International Relations be extremely knowledgeable about our products to Weathering Poverty increase customer confidence in of the of Domestic Policies Relations our brand and drive sales. Weathering Poverty! $40,000 will be spent on essay professional public relations services. $30,000 will be spent mailing two-page color flyers every week to Poverty customers who live within a five-mile radius of the phenomenology, store. Another $20,000 will go toward building, designing and Poverty hosting our website and food stamp program hiring professional writers and Essay editors for of Child Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner, our content marketing strategy. Finally, we will spend $30,000 on Poverty Essay social media campaigns on food stamp program Facebook, Twitter and Poverty Instagram.” Then, describe the Effects Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay, methods you will use to Weathering determine the effectiveness of Do Not Education Essay, your marketing strategies. Essay! For example, The color flyers will contain a coupon for $5 off a purchase of $50. Effects Of Child And Bronfenbrenner Essay! The number of customers that bring in the coupon will show us how many people read the flier and Weathering acted on the special offer. Program History! Or, for Poverty, your Facebook campaign, you could evaluate how many people follow and of Child Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner like your page, how often people post to Weathering Poverty it and the click-through rate on your ads. You will also need to Presidential to Undermine of Law project what return on Weathering Essay investment your marketing plan might realistically produce. Statements Threaten Of Law Separation! (If you have a promising business that needs a boost, you may be able to put your faith in these wealthy investors. See When Your Business Needs Money: Angel Investors .) Where do your potential customers currently obtain the product or service you are selling? What strengths and weaknesses do those businesses exhibit? How will you offer a superior product or service?

Don't commit the common mistake of claiming that your product or service is so unique that it has no competition. Let's say that currently, your potential customers are only Weathering Poverty able to obtain local foods by essay on grandparents shopping at Weathering Essay, the farmers market – which is only open for four hours, once a week – or through a community-sponsored agriculture (CSA) program, which makes people commit to buying a certain amount of produce each month, doesn't let them choose what they'll be eating and is only available six months of the henary fayol, year. As another alternative, some people drive 20 miles to the nearest big chain organic grocery store. Many people like shopping at the farmers market because they get to Weathering Poverty Essay meet the henary fayol, people who produce their food and interact with members of their community. Weathering Poverty Essay! Others like the history, CSA program because they no longer have to think about Poverty shopping for Effects of Child Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner, produce. And the big chain store offers a great selection. Poverty! However, your local foods grocery store will make local foods available every day of the week for 12 hours a day, from 9am to 9pm. People who cannot shop during farmers market hours represent an untapped market.

You can also steal market share from the Do Not Poor Essay, people who make the Weathering, long drive to Effects of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay the big chain organic grocery store by offering a much more convenient location. Poverty! Furthermore, you will offer a wider variety than is available through either the of the of Domestic to International, farmers market or the CSA program, and unlike the Weathering Poverty Essay, CSA program, your store will not require customers to commit to henary fayol spending a certain amount of money each month and Weathering Poverty will give them greater choice in the produce they eat. It will be available year-round, too. Of Child Socialization: Erikson! You will also host community events and Weathering Poverty Essay meet the farmer days to essay on grandparents foster the same sense of Poverty, community provided by stamp program farmers' markets and CSAs. Poverty! (Check out Effects Which Is Better: Dominance Or Innovation? ) You’ll also need to Poverty identify where your competitors have an Do Not Essay advantage over you. Poverty! The large chain organic grocery store, while far away, is Poor Education in Schools, twice as large as your store will be, has an Poverty established base of loyal customers and Analysis to International Relations has a marketing budget that you can’t touch. Poverty! A grocery store does not foster the same sense of community that a farmers market does and phenomenology study may not be able to Weathering Poverty Essay offer produce that has been picked the Presidential Signing Statements Threaten Separation, same day or eggs that were laid that morning.

Your store will also have significant overhead costs that the farmers market and Essay CSA do not. Another big point to henary fayol hit is Weathering Poverty Essay, how you will price your product or service. What will make this price appealing to consumers and food stamp history profitable to Weathering Essay your business? How does it compare to phenomenology study your competitors' pricing strategy? What profit margin do you anticipate on your major products? Include charts and graphs: you might depict monthly sales for the first year by Weathering Poverty Essay major product type or category using a bar graph, and program yearly sales by major product or category for the next three years using a table. Weathering Poverty Essay! (For more tips, check out Keeping A Small Business Afloat and 9 Tips For Growing A Successful Business .) What sales strategies will you use to Poor make your marketing plan pay off? The best marketing plan in Essay the world is on grandparents, worthless if you can't generate sales. If you send out Weathering flyers that get people to Accept Poor Education in Schools come to your store, what customers find when they arrive is Weathering Poverty, what will ultimately make or break your company.

How products are displayed, how your store is organized, how your employees behave, how much they know about the study, products and numerous other factors – all within your control – will comprise your sales strategy and should be discussed in your plan. Essentially, your marketing and sales plan describes how you will convey to Weathering Poverty Essay your customers what's in Effects of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner it for Weathering Poverty Essay, them and then get them to Presidential Statements Threaten to Undermine the Rule Separation of Powers actually purchase your product or service. While your marketing plan is a key document for Poverty, potential lenders and investors, it’s also a key tool in phenomenology your business's money-making strategy. Even if you weren't looking for Weathering Poverty Essay, financing, you would need a marketing plan. Study! Next, we’ll explain how to write your organizational and Weathering Poverty Essay operating plan.

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Get On the Bus: The Freedom Riders of 1961. A Freedom Bus in flames, six miles southwest of Anniston, Ala., May 14, 1961. (Birmingham Public Library) Oxford University Press hide caption. A Freedom Bus in flames, six miles southwest of Anniston, Ala., May 14, 1961. (Birmingham Public Library) Oxford University Press. Freedom Riders Jimmy McDonald, left, and Hank Thomas and regular passenger Roberta Holmes sit in front of the burned-out shell of a Freedom Bus on May 14, 1961. Oxford University Press hide caption.

Freedom Riders Jimmy McDonald, left, and Hank Thomas and Essay regular passenger Roberta Holmes sit in front of the burned-out shell of a Freedom Bus on henary fayol May 14, 1961. Oxford University Press. Ku Klux Klansmen beat black bystander George Webb in the Birmingham Trailways bus station, May 14, 1961. Essay. The man with his back to the camera (center right) is FBI undercover agent Gary Thomas Rowe. Oxford University Press hide caption. Ku Klux Klansmen beat black bystander George Webb in the Birmingham Trailways bus station, May 14, 1961. The man with his back to Effects Essay the camera (center right) is Weathering FBI undercover agent Gary Thomas Rowe. Oxford University Press. Jim Peck, seated, talks with a Justice Dept. representative and Ben Cox on the freedom plane to New Orleans, May 15, 1961. Photo by Theodore Gaffney. Oxford University Press hide caption.

In 1961, the Threaten the Rule and the Separation of Powers Freedom Riders set out for the Deep South to defy Jim Crow laws and call for change. They were met by hatred and Weathering Essay violence — and local police often refused to intervene. But the Riders' efforts transformed the on grandparents civil rights movement. Raymond Arsenault is the author of Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice . Essay. The book details how volunteers — both black and Resolved: Presidential Statements Threaten to Undermine the Rule of Law and the of Powers white — traveled to Mississippi and Alabama to fight segregation in transit systems. Despite being backed by Weathering, recent federal rulings that it was unconstitutional to segregate bus riders, the Freedom Riders met with obstinate resistance — as in Birmingham and mary name Montgomery, where white supremacists attacked bus depots themselves. In Freedom Riders , Arsenault details how the first Freedom Rides developed, from the personal level to the legal maneuvering involved. His narrative touches on elements from the jails of Weathering Poverty Essay Alabama to the Kennedy White House. Arsenault is the John Hope Franklin Professor of Southern History and co-director of the Florida Studies Program at the University of phenomenology study South Florida in St. Petersburg. His previous writing includes Land of Sunshine,State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida and Crucible of Liberty: 200 Years of the Bill of Rights , which he edited.

Read an excerpt from Freedom Riders : We had most trouble, it turned into a struggle, Half way 'cross Alabam, And that 'hound broke down, and left us all stranded, In downtown Birmingham. Jim Farmer's unexpected departure placed a heavy burden on Jim Peck, who suddenly found himself in charge of the Freedom Ride. As Farmer left for the Atlanta airport, Peck could not help wondering if he would ever see his old friend again. They had been through a lot together — surviving the depths of the Cold War and CORE's lean years, not to mention the first ten days of the Freedom Ride. Now Peck had to go on alone, perhaps to glory, but more likely to an untimely rendezvous with violence, or even death.

When Peck phoned Fred Shuttlesworth, the Weathering Poverty outspoken pastor of Birmingham's Bethel Baptist Church and the leader of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, to give him the exact arrival times of the two Freedom Buses, the normally unflappable minister offered an food stamp program history, alarming picture of what the Freedom Riders could expect once they reached Birmingham. The city was alive with rumors that a white mob planned to greet the Riders at the downtown bus stations. Shuttlesworth was not privy to Weathering Essay FBI surveillance and did not know any of the essay details, but he urged Peck to Weathering Poverty be careful. Essay. Peck, trying to avoid a last-minute panic, relayed Shuttlesworth's warning to the group in a calm and matter-of-fact fashion. He also repeated Tom Gaither's warning about Anniston, a rest stop on the bus route to Birmingham. Poverty. But he quickly added that he had no reason to believe the Riders would encounter any serious trouble prior to study their arrival in downtown Birmingham. Barring any unforeseen problems, the four-hour ride would give them plenty of Essay time to essay prepare a properly nonviolent response to the waiting mob — if, in fact, the mob existed. Faced with staggered bus schedules, the two groups of Freedom Riders left Atlanta an hour apart.

The Greyhound group, with Joe Perkins in charge, was the Essay first to leave, at 11:00 A.M. Henary Fayol. The bus was more than half empty, unusual for the Atlanta-to-Birmingham run. Fourteen passengers were on board: five regular passengers, seven Freedom Riders — Genevieve Hughes, Bert Bigelow, Hank Thomas, Jimmy McDonald, Mae Frances Moultrie, Joe Perkins, Ed Blankenheim — and two journalists, Charlotte Devree and Weathering Poverty Essay Moses Newson. Of Child Erikson And Bronfenbrenner. Among the regular passengers were Roy Robinson, the Poverty Essay manager f the Atlanta Greyhound station, and two undercover plainclothes agents of the mary get her name Alabama Highway Patrol, Corporals Ell Cowling and Harry Sims. Both Cowling and Sims sat in the back of the bus, several rows behind the scattered Freedom Riders, who had no inkling of who these two seemingly innocuous white men actually were.

Following the orders of Floyd Mann, the director of the Alabama Highway Patrol, Cowling carried a hidden microphone designed to eavesdrop on the Riders. Unsure of the Freedom Ride's itinerary, Mann — and Governor John Patterson — wanted Cowling to gather information on Essay the Riders and their plans. During the phenomenology ninety-minute trip to Tallapoosa, the last stop in Georgia, on Highway 78, none of the passengers said very much, other than a few words of nervous small talk. Around one o'clock the bus crossed the Alabama line and followed the road in a southwesterly arc to Heflin, a small country town on the edge of the Talladega National Forest. Poverty. After a brief rest stop in Heflin, the Greyhound continued west through De Armanville and Oxford before turning north on Highway 21 toward Anniston. The largest city in Calhoun County and the Rule of Law and the Separation the second largest in east-central Alabama, Anniston as a no-nonsense army town that depended on Poverty nearby Fort McClellan and a sprawling ordnance depot for much of its livelihood.

Known for its hard-edged race relations, Anniston boasted a relatively large black population (approximately 30 percent in 1961), a well-established NAACP branch, and food history some of the most aggressive and violent Klansmen in Alabama. Just south of Poverty Essay Anniston, the driver of a southbound Greyhound motioned to the driver of the Freedom Riders' bus, O. T. Effects Of Child Erikson Essay. Jones, to pull over to the side of the road. Poverty Essay. A white man then ran across the road and yelled to mary get her Jones through the window: There's an angry and unruly crowd gathered at Anniston. There's a rumor that some people on this bus are going to Essay stage a sit-in. The terminal has been closed. Be careful. With this message the essay Riders' worst fears seemed to Weathering Poverty be confirmed, but Joe Perkins — hoping that the henary fayol warning was a bluff, or at least an exaggeration — urged the driver to keep going. A minute or two later, as the bus passed the city limits, several of the Riders couldn't help but notice that Anniston's sidewalks were lined with people, an unusual sight on a Sunday afternoon in a Deep South town. It seemed that everyone in the town was out to greet us, Genevieve Hughes later commented.

Amazingly enough, Hank Thomas did not recall seeing anyone on Essay the streets. He did remember the strange feeling that he and the other Riders experienced as the study bus eased into the station parking lot just after 1:00 P.M. The station was locked shut, and there was silence — and then suddenly, as if out of nowhere, a screaming mob led by Anniston Klan leader William Chappell rushed the bus. Thomas thought he heard Jones encourage the attackers with a sly greeting. Essay. Well, boys, here they are, the essay on grandparents driver reportedly said with a smirk. Weathering Poverty. I brought you some niggers and henary fayol nigger-lovers. But it all happened so fast that no one was quite sure who was saying what to whom.

As the crowd of about fifty surrounded the bus, an Poverty, eighteen-year-old Klansman and ex-convict named Roger Couch stretched out on the pavement in front of the bus to block any attempt to leave, while the rest — carrying metal pipes, clubs, and chains — milled around menacingly, some screaming, Dirty Communists and Sieg heil! There was no sign of any police, even though Herman Glass, the manager of the Anniston Greyhound station, had warned local officials earlier in the day that a potentially violent mob had gathered around the station. After the driver opened the door, Cowling and Sims hurried. to the front to prevent anyone from on grandparents, entering. Leaning on the door lever, the Poverty two unarmed investigators managed to study close the door and seal the bus, but they could not stop several of the Weathering Essay most frenzied attackers from Statements Threaten the Rule and the Separation of Powers, smashing windows, denting the Weathering Poverty Essay sides of the bus, and slashing tires. One man stood on the steps, yelling, and calling us cowards, Hughes noticed, but her attention soon turned to a second man who walked by the side of the bus, slipped a pistol from bloody, his pocket and stared at Essay, me for some minutes. When she heard a loud noise and shattering glass, she yelled, Duck, down everyone, thinking that a bullet had hit one of the windows. The projectile turned out to be a rock, but another assailant soon cracked the window above her seat with a fist full of brass knuckles. Joe Perkins's window later suffered a similar fate, as the siege continued for almost twenty minutes.

By the time the Anniston police arrived on the scene, the bus looked like it had been in on grandparents a serious collision. Swaggering through the crowd with billy clubs in hand, the police officers examined the broken windows and slashed tires but showed no interest in Poverty Essay arresting anyone. After a few minutes of friendly banter with members of the crowd, the officers suddenly cleared a path and of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner motioned for the bus to exit the parking lot. A police car escorted the battered Greyhound to the city limits but then turned back, once again leaving the bus to the mercy of the mob. A long line of Poverty cars and pickup trucks, plus one car carrying a news reporter and a photographer, had followed the police escort from the station and was ready to resume the assault. Once the food stamp program history entourage reached an isolated stretch of Highway 202 east of Bynum, two of the cars (one of which was driven by Roger Couch's older brother Jerome) raced around the Weathering Essay front of the stamp program bus and then slowed to Poverty Essay a crawl, forcing the bus driver to slow down. Trailing behind were thirty or forty cars and trucks jammed with shrieking whites. Many, like Chappell and the Couches, were Klansmen, though none wore hoods or robes. Some, having just come from essay, church, were dressed in Poverty Essay their Sunday best — coats and ties and polished shoes — and a few even had children with them. The whole scene was darkly surreal and food became even more so when a pair of Weathering Essay flat tires forced the bus driver to pull over to the side of the road in front of the Forsyth and Effects of Child Son grocery store six miles southwest of town, only a few hundred yards from the Weathering Poverty Anniston Army Depot.

Flinging open the door, the driver, with Robinson trailing close behind, ran into the grocery store and began calling local garages in what turned out to be a futile effort to find replacement tires for the bus. In the meantime, the passengers were left vulnerable to a swarm of onrushing vigilantes. Cowling had just enough time to retrieve his revolver from the baggage compartment before the mob surrounded the bus. The first to reach the Greyhound was a teenage boy who smashed a crowbar through one of the side windows. While one group of men and boys rocked the bus in a vain attempt to turn the vehicle on phenomenology its side, a second tried to enter through the front door. With gun in hand, Cowling stood in the doorway to block the Essay intruders, but he soon retreated, locking the door behind him. For the next twenty minutes Chappell and other Klansmen pounded on the bus demanding that the henary fayol Freedom Riders come out to take what was coming to them, but they stayed in their seats, even after the arrival of Weathering Essay two highway patrolmen. When neither patrolman made any effort to disperse the crowd, Cowling, Sims, and the Riders decided to stay put. Eventually, however, two members of the mob, Roger Couch and Cecil Goober Lewallyn, decided that they had waited long enough. After returning to of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay his car, which was parked a few yards behind the disabled Greyhound, Lewallyn suddenly ran toward the Weathering Poverty Essay bus and tossed a flaming bundle of rags through a broken window.

Within seconds the bundle exploded, sending dark gray smoke throughout the bus. At first, Genevieve Hughes, seated only a few feet away from the explosion, thought the bomb-thrower was just trying to scare the Freedom Riders with a smoke bomb, but as the Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner smoke got blacker and blacker and as flames began to engulf several of the upholstered seats, she realized that she and the other passengers were in serious trouble. Crouching down in Weathering Poverty Essay the middle of the bus, she screamed out, Is there any air up front? When no one answered, she began to panic. Oh, my God, they're going to burn us up! she yelled to the others, who were lost in a dense cloud of smoke. Making her way forward, she finally found an how did bloody mary get her, open window six rows from the front and thrust her head out, gasping for air. As she looked out, she saw the outstretched necks of Poverty Jimmy McDonald and Charlotte Devree, who had also found open windows.

Seconds later, all three squeezed through the windows and dropped to the ground. Still choking from the smoke and fumes, they staggered across the street. Gazing back at the burning bus, they feared that the other passengers were still trapped inside, but they soon caught sight of several passengers who had escaped through the front door on food stamp program history the other side. They were all lucky to be alive. Several members of the mob had pressed against the door screaming, Burn them alive and Fry the goddamn niggers, and the Freedom Riders had been all but doomed until an Weathering Poverty, exploding fuel tank convinced the mob that the Effects and Bronfenbrenner Essay whole bus was about to explode. As the frightened whites retreated, Cowling pried open the Weathering door, allowing the henary fayol rest of the choking passengers to Poverty escape. When Hank Thomas, the first Rider to exit the front of the henary fayol bus, crawled away from the doorway, a white man rushed toward him and Poverty Essay asked, Are you all okay?

Before Thomas could answer, the man's concerned look turned into a sneer as he struck the astonished student in the head with a baseball bat. Thomas fell to the ground and was barely conscious as the rest of the how did name exiting Riders spilled out onto Weathering Essay, the grass. By this time, several of the essay white families living in the surrounding Bynum neighborhood had formed a small crowd in front of the grocery store. Most of the onlookers remained safely in the background, but a few stepped forward to offer assistance to Weathering Poverty the Riders. One little girl, twelve-year-old Janie Miller, supplied the choking victims with water, filling and henary fayol refilling a five-gallon bucket while braving the insults and Weathering Poverty Essay taunts of Klansmen. Later ostracized and how did mary get her threatened for this act of kindness, she and her family found it impossible to remain in Anniston in the aftermath of the bus bombing. Even though city leaders were quick to condemn the bombing, there was little sympathy for Poverty the Riders among local whites. Indeed, while Miller was coming to the Riders' aid, some of henary fayol her neighbors were urging the marauding Klansmen on. At one point, with the Riders lying on the ground around the bus, coughing and bleeding, the mob surged forward. But Cowling's pistol, the Weathering Poverty Essay heat of the fire, and the acrid fumes wafting from the burning upholstery kept them away. Moments later a second fuel tank explosion drove them back even farther, and eventually a couple of henary fayol warning shots fired into the air by the highway patrolmen on the scene signaled that the would-be lynching party was over.

As the disappointed vigilantes slipped away, Cowling, Sims, and the patrolmen stood guard over the Riders, most of whom were lying or sitting in a daze a few yards from the burned-out shell of the bus. But no one in a position of authority showed any interest in identifying or arresting those responsible for the assault. No one wrote down the license numbers of the Klansmen's cars and pickup trucks, and no one seemed in Weathering Poverty any hurry to call an essay on grandparents, ambulance. Several of the Riders had inhaled smoke and fumes and were in serious need of medical attention, but it would be some time before any of them saw a doctor. One sympathetic white couple who lived nearby allowed Hughes to Weathering use their phone to call for an ambulance, and when no one answered, they drove her to the hospital. For the rest of the stricken Riders, getting to the hospital proved to be a bit more complicated. Presidential Signing Threaten To Undermine Of Powers. When the ambulance called by Weathering Essay, one of the state troopers finally arrived, the driver refused to transport any of the injured black Riders. After a few moments of awkward silence, the white Riders, already loaded into the ambulance, began to exit, insisting they could not leave their black friends behind. With this gesture — and a few stern words from Cowling — the driver's resolve weakened, and name before long the integrated band was on its way to Anniston Memorial Hospital. Unfortunately, the scene at Essay, the hospital offered the Riders little solace.

The first to arrive, Hughes found the henary fayol medical care in Anniston almost as frightening as the burning bus: There was no doctor at the hospital, only a nurse. They had me breathe pure oxygen but that only Weathering, burned my throat and did not relieve the coughing. I was burning hot and my clothes were a wet mess. After awhile Ed and Bert were brought in, choking.

We all lay on our beds and coughed. Finally a woman doctor came in — she had to look up smoke poisoning before treating us. They brought in the Negro man who had been in the back of the Socialization: Erikson bus with me. I pointed to him and Weathering Poverty told them to take care of Resolved: Signing Threaten Separation of Powers him. But they did not bring him into our emergency room. I understand that they did not do anything at all for Hank. Thirteen in all were brought in, and Poverty Essay three were admitted: Ed, the Negro man and of Child Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner Essay myself. They gave me a room and I slept. When I woke up the nurse asked me if I could talk with the FBI. The FBI man did not care about us, but only the Weathering Poverty Essay bombing . Hughes's general distrust of the FBI's attitude toward civil rights activists was clearly warranted, but — unbeknownst to her — the FBI agent on the scene had actually intervened on the Freedom Riders' behalf.

At his urging, the medical staff agreed to treat all of the injured passengers, black and Resolved: Signing the Rule and the white, though in Weathering the end they failed to do so. When the ambulance full of henary fayol Freedom Riders arrived at the hospital, a group of Klansmen made an unsuccessful attempt to block the entrance to the emergency room. Later, as the crowd outside the hospital grew to menacing proportions, hospital officials began to panic, especially after several Klansmen threatened to burn the building to the ground. With nightfall approaching and with no prospect of Weathering Poverty adequate police protection, the superintendent ordered the Riders to bloody get her name leave the hospital as soon as possible. Hughes and several other Riders were in no shape to Essay leave, but Joe Perkins, the leader of the Greyhound group, had no choice but to comply with the evacuation order. Struggling to conceal his rage, he told the Riders to be ready to leave in twenty minutes, though it actually took him well over an hour to arrange safe passage out of the of Child Erikson hospital. After both the Weathering state troopers and the local police refused to provide the Riders with transportation — or even an escort — Bert Bigelow called friends in henary fayol Washington in Poverty Essay a vain effort to get help from the federal government. A few minutes later Perkins placed a frantic call to Fred Shuttlesworth in Birmingham.

A native of the Alabama Black Belt, Shuttlesworth knew enough about henary fayol towns like Anniston to know that the Freedom Riders were in Poverty Essay serious danger. Mobilizing a fleet of eight cars, he planned to phenomenology study lead the rescue mission himself until his longtime bodyguard, Colonel Stone Buck Johnson, persuaded him to remain in Birmingham with the Trailways Riders, who had arrived in the city earlier in the afternoon. Weathering Essay. Just before the cars left for Anniston, Shuttlesworth reminded Johnson and the other volunteers that this was a nonviolent operation. Gentlemen, this is dangerous, he admitted, but. you mustn't carry any weapons. You must trust God and have faith. All of the Resolved: Presidential Threaten the Rule and the Separation deacons nodded in Poverty Essay assent, but as soon as they were safely out of henary fayol sight, several of the faithful pulled out shotguns from beneath their seats. Weathering Poverty. Checking triggers and ammunition, they made sure they would be able to defend themselves if the going got rough. While the henary fayol Riders waited for Weathering Poverty Shuttlesworth's deacons to make their way across the back roads of the Alabama hill country, the Anniston hospital superintendent grew impatient and reminded Perkins that the interracial group would not be allowed to spend the night in the hospital. Perhaps, he suggested with a wry smile, they could find refuge in the bus station.

Fortunately, the superintendent's mean-spirited suggestion became moot a few minutes later when the rescue mission pulled into the hospital parking lot. With the mary get her police holding back the jeering crowd, and with the deacons openly displaying their weapons, the weary but relieved Riders piled into the cars, which promptly drove off into Poverty, the gathering dusk. We walked right between those Ku Klux, Buck Johnson later recalled. Some of them had clubs. There were some deputies too. You couldn't tell the deputies from the Ku Klux. As the convoy raced toward Birmingham, the Riders peppered their rescuers with questions about the fate of the Trailways group. Perkins's conversation with Shuttlesworth earlier in the afternoon had revealed that the how did bloody mary name other bus had also run into Essay, trouble, but few details had been available. The deacons themselves knew only part of the on grandparents story, but even the Weathering Poverty barest outline was enough to henary fayol confirm the Riders' worst fears: The attack on the bus in Anniston could not be dismissed as the Poverty work of an essay on grandparents, unorganized mob. As the deacons described what had happened to the Trailways group, the true nature of the Riders' predicament came into focus: With the apparent connivance of law enforcement officials, the organized defenders of white supremacy in Alabama had decided to smash the Freedom Ride with violence, in effect announcing to Poverty Essay the world that they had no intention of letting the law, the U.S.

Constitution, or anything else interfere with the preservation of racial segregation in phenomenology their sovereign state. The Trailway Riders' ordeal began even before the group left Atlanta. As Peck and the other Riders waited in line to purchase their tickets, they couldn't help noticing that several regular passengers had disappeared from the line after being approached by a group of white men. The white men themselves — later identified as Alabama Klansmen — eventually boarded the Poverty bus, but only a handful of other regular passengers joined them. The Klansmen were beefy, rough-looking characters, mostly in their twenties or thirties, and their hulking presence gave the Riders an Essay, uneasy feeling as the bus pulled out.

There were seven Freedom Riders scattered throughout the bus: the Bergmans, Jim Peck, Charles Person, Herman Harris, Jerry Moore, and Ike Reynolds. Simeon Booker and his Jet magazine colleague, photographer Ted Gaffney, were also on board. Seated in the rear of the bus, the two journalists had a close-up view of the Poverty Essay entire harrowing journey from Atlanta to Birmingham. It was a frightening experience, Booker later reported, the worst encountered in almost 20 years of journalism. He was not exaggerating. Bloody Mary. The bus was barely out of the Poverty Atlanta terminal when the food stamp program history Klansmen began to make threatening remarks. You niggers will be taken care of once you get in Poverty Essay Alabama, one Klansman sneered. Once the bus passed the state line, the comments intensified, giving the Riders the distinct impression that something might be brewing in how did mary get her name Anniston. Arriving at Weathering, the Anniston Trailways station approximately an hour after the other Riders had pulled into the Greyhound station, Peck and the Trailways Riders looked around warily before leaving the bus.

The waiting room was eerily quiet, and several whites looked away as the unwelcome visitors walked up to the lunch counter. After purchasing a few sandwiches, the Riders walked back to the bus. Later, while waiting nervously to leave, they heard an ambulance siren but didn't think much of it until the bus driver, John Olan Patterson, who had been talking to several Anniston police officers, vaulted up the steps. Flanked by eight hoodlums, as Peck later called them, Patterson gave them the news about the Greyhound riot. We have received word that a bus has been burned to the ground and passengers are being carried to the hospital by the carloads, he declared, with no hint of compassion or regret. A mob is waiting for our bus and will do the same to us unless we get these niggers off the henary fayol front seats. His bus wasn't going anywhere until the black Freedom Riders retreated to the back of the bus where they belonged. After a few moments of silence, one of the Weathering Poverty Essay Riders reminded Patterson that they were interstate passengers who had the right to sit wherever they pleased.

Shaking his head in disgust, he exited the bus without a word. But one of the white hoodlums soon answered for him: Niggers get back. You ain't up north. You're in Alabama, and niggers ain't nothing here. Essay. To prove his point, he suddenly lunged toward Person, punching him in the face. A second Klansman then struck Harris, who was sitting next to Person in Weathering the front section of the bus.

Both black Freedom Riders adhered to Gandhian discipline and refused to fight back, but this only encouraged their attackers. Dragging the defenseless students into the aisle, the Klansmen started pummeling them with their fists and kicking them again and name again. At this point Peck and Walter Bergman rushed forward from the Poverty back to object. As soon as Peck reached the front, one of the attackers turned on him, striking a blow that sent the frail, middle-aged activist reeling across two rows of how did name seats. Within seconds Bergman, the oldest of the Freedom Riders at sixty-one, suffered a similar blow, falling to the floor with a thud.

As blood spurted from their faces, both men tried to shield themselves from further attack, but the Klansmen, enraged by the white Riders' attempt to protect their nigger collaborators, proceeded to pound them into a bloody mass. While a pair of Weathering Poverty Klansmen lifted Peck's head, others punched him in the face until he lost consciousness. By this time Bergman was out cold on the floor, but one frenzied assailant continued to how did get her stomp on his chest. When Frances Bergman begged the Klansman to stop beating her husband, he ignored her plea and called her a nigger lover. Weathering Essay. Fortunately, one of the other Klansmen — realizing that the essay defenseless Freedom Rider was about to be killed — eventually called a halt to the beating. Don't kill him, he said coolly, making sure that no one on the bus mistook self-interested restraint for compassion. Although Walter Bergman's motionless body blocked the aisle, several Klansmen managed to drag Person and Harris, both barely conscious, to the back of the bus, draping them over the passengers sitting in the backseat. A few seconds later, they did the same to Peck and Bergman, creating a pile of bleeding and bruised humanity that left the rest of the passengers in a momentary state of shock. Content with their brutal handiwork, the Klansmen then sat down in the middle of the bus to block any further attempts to violate the color line. At this point a black woman riding as a regular passenger begged to be let off the bus, but the Klansmen forced her to stay.

Shut up, you black bitch, one of them snarled. Weathering Poverty Essay. Ain't nobody but whites sitting up here. And them nigger lovers . . . can just sit back there with their nigger friends. Moments later, Patterson, who had left during the melee, returned to the bus, accompanied by bloody mary, a police officer. After surveying the Poverty scene, both men appeared satisfied with the restoration of Jim Crow seating arrangements. Turning toward the how did bloody Klansmen, the police officer grinned and assured them that Alabama justice was on Weathering Essay their side: Don't worry about essay on grandparents no lawsuits. I ain't seen a thing. The officer then exited the Poverty Essay bus and study motioned to Patterson to head out onto the highway.

Realizing that there was a mob waiting on the main road to Birmingham, the driver kept to the back roads as he headed west. When none of the Klansmen objected to this detour, the Freedom Riders were puzzled but relieved, thinking that perhaps there were limits to the savagery of the segregationists after all, even in the wilds of eastern Alabama. What they did not know, of course, was that the Klansmen were simply saving them for the welcoming party already gathering in the shadows of downtown Birmingham. During the Weathering next two hours, as the bus rolled toward Birmingham, the Klansmen continued to taunt and torment the Riders. One man brandished a pistol, a second threatened the Riders with a steel pipe, and three others served as sentries, blocking access to the middle and front sections of the bus. As Booker recalled the scene, one of the sentries was a pop-eyed fellow who kept taunting: 'Just tell Bobby [Kennedy] and we'll do him in, too.' When one of the Klansmen approached Booker threateningly, the journalist nervously handed him a copy of Jet that featured an advance story on CORE's sponsorship of the Freedom Ride. Over the bloody get her next few minutes, as the Essay article was passed from to Undermine and the, Klansman to Klansman, the atmosphere became increasingly tense. Weathering Poverty. I'd like to choke all of them, one Klansman confessed, while others assured the Riders that they would get what was coming to them when they arrived in Birmingham.

By the time the bus reached the outskirts of the city, Peck and the other injured Riders had regained consciousness, but since the Klansmen would not allow any of the Riders to henary fayol leave their seats or talk among themselves, there was no opportunity for Peck to Essay prepare the group for the impending onslaught. He could only hope that each Rider would be able to draw upon some combination of inner strength and past experience, some reservoir of courage and responsibility that would sustain the program Freedom Ride and protect the viability and moral integrity of the nonviolent movement. Though battered and bleeding, and barely able to walk, Peck was determined to set an example for Poverty his fellow Freedom Riders. As the designated testers at the Birmingham stop, he and Person would be the first to confront the fully assembled power of Alabama segregationists. The terror-filled ride from Atlanta was a clear indication that they could expect some measure of violence in Birmingham, but at this point Peck and the other Trailways Riders had no detailed knowledge of what had happened to the Greyhound group in Anniston two hours earlier.

They thought they were prepared for the worst. In actuality, however, they had no reliable way of gauging what they were up against, no way of appreciating the full implications of of Child Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay challenging Alabama's segregationist institutions, and no inkling of how far Birmingham's ultra-segregationists would go to protect the Poverty sanctity of Jim Crow. This was not just the Deep South — it was Birmingham, where close collaboration between the Ku Klux Klan and law enforcement officials was a fact of life. The special agents in of Child and Bronfenbrenner the Birmingham FBI field office, as well as their superiors in Washington, possessed detailed information on this collaboration and could have warned the Freedom Riders. But they chose to remain silent. The dire consequences of the bureau's refusal to Poverty intervene were compounded by the active involvement of FBI informant Gary Thomas Rowe. In the final minutes before the Trailways group's arrival, Rowe helped ensure that the plot to welcome the Freedom Riders would actually be carried out. The plan called for Rowe and the other Klansmen to initiate the henary fayol attack at the Greyhound station, where the Weathering Poverty Essay first group of Freedom Riders was expected to arrive, but news of the Anniston bombing did not reach Birmingham until midafternoon, just minutes before the arrival of the Trailways bus. A frantic call from henary fayol, police headquarters to Rowe, who quickly spread the word, alerted the Klansmen waiting near the Greyhound station that a bus of Freedom Riders was about to Poverty arrive at the Trailways station, three blocks away. The welcoming committee had just enough time to history regroup at the Trailways station. Years later Rowe recalled the mad rush across downtown Birmingham: We made an astounding sight . . . men running and walking down the streets of Birmingham on Sunday afternoon carrying chains, sticks, and Poverty clubs.

Everything was deserted; no police officers were to be seen except one on essay a street corner. He stepped off and let us go by, and we barged into the bus station and took it over like an army of occupation. There were Klansmen in the waiting room, in the rest rooms, in the parking area. By the time Peck and company arrived, the Klansmen and their police allies were all in Poverty place, armed and ready to do what had to essay be done to protect the Southern way of life. Police dispatchers, following the agreed-upon plan, had cleared the target area: For the next fifteen minutes there would be no police presence in or near the Trailways station. The only exceptions were two plainclothes detectives who were in the crowd to monitor the situation and to make sure that the Klansmen left the Weathering Poverty station before the police arrived. Since it was Sunday, and Mother's Day, there were few bystanders, aside from a handful of news reporters who had been tipped off that something big was about to bloody mary get her name happen at the Trailways station. Despite the semisecret nature of the Weathering Poverty Essay operation, the organizers could not resist the temptation to let the outside world catch a glimpse of Alabama manhood in action. One of the reporters on hand was Howard K. Smith, a national correspondent for CBS News who was in Birmingham working on a television documentary titled Who Speaks for Birmingham?. Smith and his CBS colleagues were investigating New York Times columnist Harrison Salisbury's charges that Alabama's largest city was consumed by lawlessness and racial oppression.

Every channel of communication, every medium of mutual interest, every reasoned approach, every inch of middle ground, wrote Salisbury in April 1960, has been fragmented by the emotional dynamite of racism, reinforced by the whip, the razor, the gun, the bomb, the torch, the club, the knife, the mob, the Effects Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner police and many branches of the state's apparatus. After several days of interviews, Smith was still trying to decide if Salisbury's claims were exaggerated. A Louisiana native with considerable experience in the Deep South, Smith was more than intrigued when he received a Saturday night call from Dr. Edward R. Fields, the president of the ultra-conservative National States Rights Party (NSRP), an organization known to promote a virulent strain of white supremacist and anti-Semitic extremism. Essay. Identifying himself simply as Fields, the arch segregationist urged Smith to hang around the downtown bus stations if he wanted to see some real action. A gun-toting Birmingham chiropractor with close ties to the infamous Georgia extremist J. B. Stoner, Fields himself had every intention of taking part in the action. Along with Stoner, who had driven over from Atlanta for the occasion, and several other NSRP stalwarts, Fields showed up at the Greyhound station on Sunday afternoon armed and ready for the bloodletting — even though Klan leader Hubert Page warned him to stay away. Page and his police accomplices were having enough trouble controlling their own forces without having to worry about Fields and his crew of professional troublemakers. With Police Chief Jamie Moore out of the city and Connor lying low in an effort to distance himself from the impending violence, Detective Tom Cook was in charge of the operation, but Cook did not share Page's concern. When Rowe called Cook to complain that the NSRP was complicating the Klan's plans, the detective told him to relax. You boys should work together, Cook suggested.

Connor — who spent Sunday morning at food stamp program history, city hall, barely a stone's throw away from the Greyhound station — was probably the only man in Birmingham with the power to call the whole thing off. But he was not about to do so. Resisting the entreaties of several friends, including his Methodist pastor, John Rutland, who warned him that joining forces with the Klan was a big mistake, he cast his lot with the extremists. Poverty Essay. He knew that the welcoming party might backfire — that it could complicate the mayoral campaign of his political ally Art Hanes, that Birmingham might even become a second Little Rock, a city besieged by federal troops — but he simply could not bring himself to Presidential Signing Statements Threaten of Powers let the Freedom Riders off the hook. Poverty Essay. He had been waiting too long for an opportunity to confront the Yankee agitators on his own turf. It was time to let Earl Warren, the Kennedys, the Communists, and all the other meddling Southhaters know that the loyal sons of Alabama were ready to Effects Erikson and Bronfenbrenner fight and Weathering Poverty Essay die for white supremacy and how did get her name states' rights.

It was time for the blood to flow. At 4:15 on Sunday afternoon, Connor got all the blood he wanted — and then some. As soon as the bus pulled into the Trailways terminal, the Weathering Klansmen on board raced down the aisle to be near the front door. Following a few parting taunts — one man screamed, You damn Communists, why don't you go back to Russia. You're a shame to stamp program the white race — they hustled down the Weathering Essay steps and disappeared into the crowd. They had done their job; the rest was up to their Klan brethren, several of whom were waiting expectantly in front of the terminal. The Klansmen's hurried exit was a bit unnerving, but as Peck and the other Freedom Riders peered out at the crowd there was no sign of any weapons.

One by one, the Riders filed off the bus and onto the unloading platform, where they began to Socialization: retrieve their luggage. Although there were several rough-looking men standing a few feet from the platform, there was no clear indication that an Poverty, attack was imminent. After a few moments of phenomenology study hesitation, Peck and Person walked toward the white waiting room to begin testing the terminal's facilities. In his 1962 memoir, Peck recalled the intensity of the scene, especially his concern for the safety of his black colleague. I did not want to put Person in a position of being forced to proceed if he thought the situation was too dangerous, he remembered, but when I looked at him, he responded by saying simply, 'Let's go.' This bravery was not born of ignorance: Person had grown up in the Deep South; he had recently served sixteen days in jail for Poverty his part in food program the Atlanta sit-ins, and he had already been beaten up earlier in the day. Nevertheless, neither he nor Peck was fully prepared for what was about to happen. Moments after the Essay two Freedom Riders entered the waiting room and approached the whites-only lunch counter, one of the waiting Klansmen pointed to the cuts on Peck's face and the caked blood on his shirt and screamed out of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner that Person, who was walking in front of Peck, deserved to die for attacking a white man. At this point, Peck tried to explain that Person was not the man who had attacked him, adding: You'll have to kill me before you hurt him.

This blatant breach of racial solidarity only Weathering Poverty Essay, served to incite the crowd of Klansmen blocking their path. After an Eastview Klansman named Gene Reeves pushed Person toward the colored waiting room, the young black Freedom Rider gamely continued walking toward the white lunch counter but was unable to Effects of Child sidestep a second Klansman who shoved him up against a concrete wall. Standing nearby, NSRP leader Edward Fields pointed toward Peck and yelled: Get that son of a bitch. Several burly white men then began to Weathering Essay pummel Person with their fists, bloodying his face and Effects of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay mouth and dropping him to Weathering Poverty Essay his knees. When Peck rushed over to help Person to his feet, several Klansmen grabbed both men by the shoulders and how did bloody pushed them into a dimly lit corridor leading to a loading platform. Weathering Essay. In the essay corridor more than a dozen whites, some armed with lead or iron pipes and others with oversized key rings, pounced on the two Riders, punching and Weathering Poverty kicking them repeatedly. Food Stamp Program. Before long, the assault turned into Essay, a chaotic free-for-all with fists and arms. flying everywhere. In the ensuing confusion, Person managed to escape. Running into the street, he staggered onto a city bus and mary name eventually found his way to Fred Shuttlesworth's parsonage.

In the meantime Peck bore the brunt of the Weathering Poverty Essay attack, eventually losing consciousness and slumping to the floor in a pool of blood. The fracas had been moved to the back corridor in an effort to avoid the reporters and Presidential to Undermine the Rule news photographers roaming the white waiting room, but several newsmen, including Howard K. Smith, witnessed at least part of the Weathering Essay attack. Smith, who had only study, been in Birmingham for a few days, could hardly believe his eyes as the rampaging Klansmen and NSRP storm troopers swarmed over the two Freedom Riders. But he soon discovered that this was only the Weathering beginning of one of the food stamp bloodiest afternoons in Birmingham's history. While Peck and Person were being assaulted in Weathering Essay the corridor, the other Riders searched for a refuge. Food Stamp. Jerry Moore and Herman Harris avoided detection by losing themselves in the crowd and Poverty Essay slipping away just before the henary fayol assaults began. Frances Bergman, at her husband's insistence, boarded a city bus moments after their arrival, but Walter himself was unable to escape the mob's fury. Poverty. Still woozy from Resolved: Signing Threaten to Undermine and the, his earlier beating, with blood still caked on his clothing, he bravely followed Peck and Person into the white waiting room. After witnessing the initial assault on his two colleagues, he searched in vain for a policeman who could help them, but soon he too was knocked to the floor by an enraged Klansman.

When Simeon Booker entered the terminal a few seconds later, he saw the Poverty bloodied and defenseless professor crawling on his hands and henary fayol knees. Weathering Poverty Essay. Recoiling from the grisly scene, Booker retreated to the street, where he found a black cabdriver who agreed to whisk him and henary fayol Ted Gaffney away to safety. Others were less fortunate. Several white men attacked Ike Reynolds, kicking and stomping him before heaving his semiconscious body into a curbside trash bin. In the confusion, the mob also attacked a number of bystanders misidentified as Freedom Riders. One of the victims was actually a Klansman named L. B. Earle, who had the misfortune of coming out of the Weathering Poverty Essay men's room at the wrong time.

Attacked by fellow Klansmen who failed to recognize him, Earle suffered several deep head gashes and phenomenology study ended up in the hospital. Poverty Essay. Another victim of the mob, a twenty-nine-year-old black laborer named George Webb, was assaulted after he entered the essay baggage room with his fiancee, Mary Spicer, one of the regular passengers on Essay the freedom bus from Atlanta. The last person to leave the bus, Spicer was unaware of the stamp history melee inside the station until she and Webb encountered a group of pipewielding rioters in the baggage area. One of the men, undercover FBI informant Gary Thomas Rowe, told Spicer to get the hell out of here, and she escaped harm, running into Weathering Poverty Essay, the street for help. But Rowe and three others, including an food program, NSRP member, immediately surrounded Webb and proceeded to Poverty Essay pummel him with everything from their fists to a baseball bat. Essay On Grandparents. Webb fought back but was soon overwhelmed as several more white men joined in.

Dozens of others looked on, some yelling, Kill the nigger. But moments later the assault was interrupted by Red Self, one of the plainclothes detectives on the scene, who grabbed Rowe by Poverty Essay, the shoulder and told him it was time to go. Get the boys out of here, he ordered. I'm ready to give the signal for the police to move in. During the allotted fifteen minutes, the violence had spread to the sidewalks and how did bloody get her streets surrounding the Trailways station, making it difficult to get the word to all of the Poverty Essay Klansmen and NSRP members involved in the riot. But by the time the police moved in to restore order, virtually all of the on grandparents rioters had left the area. Despite Self's warning, Rowe and those attacking Webb were among the Weathering last to leave. Socialization: Erikson And Bronfenbrenner. Goddamn it, Tom, Self finally screamed at Rowe, I told you to get out of here! They're on the way. Weathering. Rowe and.

several others, however, were preoccupied with Webb and how did bloody mary name continued the attack until a news photographer snapped a picture of Rowe and the other Klansmen. As soon as the Weathering flashbulb went off, they abandoned Webb and ran after the photographer, Tommy Langston of the Birmingham Post-Herald , who made it to the station parking lot before being caught. After one man grabbed Langston's camera and smashed it to Effects of Child Socialization: Essay the ground, Rowe and several others, including Eastview klavern leader Hubert Page, kicked and punched him and threatened to Weathering Essay beat him with the same pipes and of Child Essay baseball bats used on Webb. Weathering. In the meantime, Webb ran into the loading area, where he was recaptured by a pack of Klansmen led by Gene Reeves. With the stamp program police closing in, Webb, like Langston, was released after a few final licks, though by this time both men were bleeding profusely. Poverty Essay. Stumbling into essay on grandparents, the parking lot, Webb somehow managed to find the car where his terrified fiancee and aunt had been waiting. As they drove away to safety, Langston, whose life had suddenly become intertwined with the beating of a man whom he had never met, staggered down the street to the Post-Herald building, where he collapsed into the arms of Weathering a shocked colleague. Later in the afternoon, another Post-Herald photographer returned to the scene of the assault and retrieved Langston's broken camera, discovering to his and Langston's amazement that the roll of film inside was undamaged.

The graphic picture of the Webb beating that appeared on the front page of the on grandparents Post-Herald the next morning, though initially misidentified as a photograph of the attack on Peck, turned out to be one of the few pieces of documentary evidence to survive the riot. Immediately following the attack on Langston, Rowe and Page grabbed Birmingham News photographers Bud Gordon and Tom Lankford and promptly destroyed all of the unexposed film in their cameras. Neither photographer was beaten, but Clancy Lake, a reporter for Weathering Poverty Essay WAPI radio, was not so lucky. As Rowe and how did get her two other Eastview Klansmen, Billy Holt and Weathering Poverty Essay Ray Graves, walked toward the Greyhound station parking lot to study retrieve their cars, they spied Lake sitting in the front seat of his car broadcasting an Weathering Essay, eyewitness account of the riot. Convinced that Lake had a camera and had been taking photographs of the scene at the Trailways station, the Klansmen smashed the car's windows with a blackjack, ripped the microphone from the dashboard, and dragged the reporter onto the pavement. Although Lake noticed a passing police car and on grandparents screamed for help, the officer drove on, leaving him at the mercy of attackers.

At one point the three men pushed him into a wall, but after Holt swung at him with a pipe and missed, Lake bolted into the Trailways station, where he was relieved to discover that a squad of Weathering Essay police had just arrived. With the police on the scene, the gritty reporter was able to resume his broadcast via telephone, as Rowe and his companions called off the pursuit and once again headed toward their cars. Along the way, they encountered a smiling Bobby Shelton, who congratulated them for a job well done and of Child Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner offered them a ride to the Greyhound parking lot in his Cadillac. Upon their arrival, the Imperial Wizard and Poverty his passengers were shocked to discover several local black men writing down the essay on grandparents license plate numbers of the Klansmen's cars. Essay. Following a brief struggle — at least one of the how did overmatched blacks was in his mid-sixties — the Klansmen ripped up the Poverty Essay pages with the incriminating numbers before heading to Rowe's house for a victory celebration. Bloody Name. Arriving at the house around five o'clock, they stayed there only Weathering Essay, a few minutes before a phone call from Sergeant Tom Cook sent them back downtown to how did bloody mary intercept another bus full of Freedom Riders. The Greyhound freedom bus, having been burned in Anniston, never actually arrived, but Rowe and Page had too much blood lust to return home without getting some action. Wandering into a black neighborhood on the north side of downtown, they picked a fight with a group of young blacks who gave as good as they got. The battle put one Klansman in the hospital and left Rowe with a knife wound in the neck serious enough to require immediate attention from a doctor.

None of this, however, dampened the sense of Weathering Essay triumph among the Klansmen and their police collaborators. At a late-night meeting with Rowe, Red Self suggested that the shedding of a little blood was a small price to pay for what they had accomplished. After weeks of anticipation and careful planning, they had done exactly what they set out to do. Carried out in broad daylight, the assault on the Freedom Riders had turned a bus station into a war zone, and get her the Klansmen involved had come away with only minor injuries and little likelihood of criminal prosecution. In the coming days and weeks, the publication of Langston's photograph would be a source of concern for those who were identifiable as Webb's attackers — and for Rowe's FBI handlers, who were furious that one of their informants had allowed himself to be captured on Essay film during a criminal assault.

But as Self and phenomenology study Rowe congratulated each other in the waning hours of Weathering Poverty Essay May 14, there was no reason to believe that anything had gone wrong. Backing up words with action, the white supremacists of the Eastview klavern and their allies had demonstrated in no uncertain terms that they were ready to use any means necessary to halt the Freedom Rides. The late-afternoon scene at the Trailways station testified to the success of the operation. Within twenty minutes of the Freedom Riders' arrival, the mob had vanished, leaving surprisingly little evidence of the riot and few witnesses with a clear sense of food history what had just happened. When Peck regained consciousness a few minutes after the assault, he was alone in the corridor. Excerpted from Freedom Riders by Raymond Arsenault.

Copyright © 2005 by Raymond Arsenault. Excerpted by permission of Oxford University Press. Weathering Poverty. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher .

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Writing the A2 Art Personal Study: examples, help and guidance. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This article has been written for CIE A Level Art students who are working on their A2 Art Personal Study. It focuses purely on Weathering Essay how to write the text of the Study; a previous article outlines how to come up with a good topic; a future article will address the illustrations and program history presentation methods. The Personal Study is an area of uncertainty for many A Level Art students. Weathering Poverty Essay. It differs from projects that are usually completed within high school Art programmes, as it involves a substantial written component (maximum 3,500 words) – something which can intimidate students, especially if they are unfamiliar with how to critically analyse an artwork, make informed judgements and write personal evaluations. With few examples of quality Personal Studies available, it can be difficult to know what is expected and of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner how to begin. This article aims to ease this uncertainty and to make the Personal Study a more easily understood Component. This is the cover page of an A* Personal Study by Nikau Hindin, exploring the topic: ‘Identity, Consumerism, Popular Culture: How Composition Conveys a Message’.

The project analyses artwork by New Zealand artist Kelsy Taratoa. The Personal Study should be comprised of informed personal views – that is, views that are supported and shaped by an in-depth understanding of the issues discussed. Before starting the Weathering Poverty project, students should conduct thorough background research, selecting and essay recording information from second-hand sources (such as books, websites and Poverty Essay other publications) and first-hand sources (interviews with artists, studio visits / gallery visits etc). How Did Get Her. Interviews with artists should be planned thoroughly, after preliminary second-hand research has been completed (as findings from Weathering research will suggest important issues to discuss with the artist). Students are often uncertain about how to phrase questions, so sample questions have been included below (the exact questions asked will depend on the topic and focus of the study): Please talk me through the Resolved: Statements Threaten to Undermine Separation process you follow when designing your paintings. Do you work instinctively, directly onto the canvas, or are your works pre-planned, using sketches and photographs? What influences your choice of colour? I am interested particularly in the colours used in Essay [insert name of stamp program history painting/s]. Could you explain your thought process behind the use of colour in this work, particularly the [give example]?

I notice that your work has been described as [insert relevant comment from second-hand sources]. Do you agree with this statement? How do you respond to Weathering Poverty, this? I notice that [insert an aesthetic feature of their artwork i.e. ‘angular line’ or ‘organic form’] is essay on grandparents a dominant feature of your work. Is this strongly connected to the ideas that you are exploring? Have you used these elements deliberately? Can you show me work in progress or semi-complete artwork?

I would love to understand the process you go through and Weathering Poverty Essay how you apply media at how did bloody get her, different stages. Are there any tips you would give to someone who was attempting to emulate your painting style? Which artists have influenced your work? In what way has your work been shaped by others people, events or situations? 2. Weathering Poverty Essay. Evaluate and interpret research findings. Conducting research is henary fayol critical for creating an excellent Personal Study, however, it should be noted that submitting research on its own will not gain a student any marks. Photocopying, cutting and pasting or transcribing information from other sources is not acceptable. Examiners do not want to Weathering Essay, read long lists of facts or chronological sequences of bloody get her name events. They do not want long-winded technical processes or the Weathering inclusion of broad periods of art history; nor entire interviews with artists (interviews can be submitted as part of an Signing Threaten to Undermine and the of Powers, appendix if necessary). Students should not include an extensive artist biography (only brief and relevant details are needed) nor include vast passages of text that have been regurgitated from other sources. Instead, students must select the Weathering Poverty Essay information which is relevant and analyse this in detail, evaluating and interpreting findings in how did mary relation to the focus of their study . Research should be used to Weathering Poverty Essay, help form intelligent, knowledgeable, personal responses : to explain, justify or support the viewpoints, judgements and conclusions that are presented.

Evidence of research might be demonstrated, for example, through the use of carefully chosen quotes (to support or contrast the student’s own ideas) or through the inclusion of correct terminology and henary fayol background knowledge to communicate an in-depth understanding of relevant issues. Evidence might also be indicated photographically, with images depicting first-hand meetings between the student and artist/s. This Personal Study by CIE A2 Level Art and Design student Alice Ham, from ACG Parnell College, shows a cleverly selected quote alongside images by New Zealand charcoal artist Liam Gerrard. Alice was awarded full marks (100%) for this component (99% overall for Essay, A Level). A carefully composed Personal Study page for phenomenology, 9704 CIE Art and Design. 3. Structure the Personal Study in a logical and clear manner. Before writing the Personal Study, students should plan the content, order and structure of their study thoroughly (often in conjunction with planning the layout of their project – this will discussed in more detail in Weathering a subsequent post). This should include headings and phenomenology subheadings of material discussed and rough diagrams indicating how this will be supported by images.

The proposed structure should then be checked and approved by a teacher, with recommendations and clear guidance given. While the Weathering structure of Resolved: Statements Threaten of Law each Personal Study will differ, depending on the topic chosen, every study should follow the basic format outlined below: Introduction . This is Weathering Poverty where students outline the food history purpose, focus or mission of their study. Poverty Essay. This may include question/s they are going to answer; themes they are going to explore; issues they hope to address etc. It should set the scene for phenomenology, the project and may include reasons for selecting a topic and an indication of how / why the topic is of personal relevance or interest to Poverty, the student. It is henary fayol important that the intentions of the project are clearly set out in this section, so that the remainder of the project can be structured accordingly. Body . This is the main part of the Personal Study and will need careful thought. It is usually organised into separate sections (which may be formal chapters, or simply different areas of a visual study), usually with individual headings and sometimes sub-headings. (I recommend wording headings so that they sum up the material contained – i.e. ‘ Analysis of Composition: [artwork title] ’ rather than ‘ Chapter 3 ’. This means that the examiner is able to see immediately that the student has covered a range of Poverty Essay appropriate areas). The sections should be ordered logically and address the focus of the project; they should NOT ramble haphazardly from one issue to food history, the next. High school Art students have a tendency to write without any preconceived order or structure, discussing issues spontaneously as they think of them. While this can be a suitable approach for more creative writing tasks – and can pulled off by Poverty Essay certain students – this strategy runs the henary fayol risk of creating a muddled and incoherent Personal Study.

Conclusion . This is where students summarise key points from the project, arrive at final conclusions and make considered personal judgements about Weathering, what has been learnt. This is one of the concluding paragraphs in a Personal Study by Nikau Hindin (who achieved 98% for CIE A Level Art while studying at ACG Parnell College), entitled ‘ Identity, Consumerism Popular Culture: How composition conveys a message ‘. The project was focused upon the analysis of artwork by New Zealand artist Kelcy Taratoa, with comparisons made with the work of American artist Bill Barminski: Taratoa’s use of composition helps convey his message concerning identity construction. The arrangement of elements is symbolic of an unconscious hierarchy within his paintings that forces the viewer to question and analyse them. The contents of the paintings can be identified, as they reflect New Zealand society. Taratoa’s use of colour is vibrant and modern, echoing the technological era we live in. Study. Barminski has a more dynamic and humorous approach to conveying his message. He mocks consumerism with his witty and Weathering blunt slogans and Presidential Threaten to Undermine the Rule of Powers replications of consumer products. While these two artists are very different, they both communicate their own attitudes about society.

Making a political statement through your paintings forces an audience to engage. Ultimately we want our art to be remembered and admired and I think if the message of Poverty Essay a painting is clear then the viewer is more likely to name, go away and think about Weathering, it. Paintings are a powerful tool to communicate a meaning that is deeper than the 2mm of paint on a canvas. Paintings are an artist’s voice. Bibliography / References / Acknowledgements . This should list any resources that students have used in stamp program their project, including books, websites, articles and videos. It might also include sources of first-hand information, such as museums, galleries or websites, as well as acknowledgements, thanking the artist for their time. While examiners are sympathetic towards a student whose first language is not English, a similar sympathy does not extend towards those who submit sloppy, poorly edited material. Just as it is Weathering Poverty Essay expected that a Coursework project should contain beautiful well-composed artwork, a Personal Study is expected to contain well-structured, well-edited material. Even if a student has chosen to produce a largely visual project, submitting a sequence of annotated images, the text should communicate with intention and the writing quality should match that achieved by Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay an A Level English student.

Poor grammar, spelling errors and Weathering ‘txt’ speak are inexcusable. As with any important written project, drafts should be rewritten and refined several times: chapters re-arranged; paragraphs and annotation reorganised; repetitive material, waffle and stamp program history unnecessary regurgitation eliminated. Teachers, parents and Weathering Essay friends can all be recruited to read through drafts, highlighting spelling errors and identifying areas where the writing is muddled. While the work must of course remain entirely that of the student, feedback from a fresh set of eyes is invaluable. A Personal Study should include an appropriate range of Art related terms and vocabulary. While the phenomenology exact words used will be dependent upon the nature and focus of the study, there are a number of Weathering Poverty Essay general Art-specific terms which students should be familiar with (these will be listed, with their definitions, in an upcoming article). Henary Fayol. Use of Weathering Poverty Essay appropriate vocabulary helps to fulfil the stamp history ‘Knowledge and Essay critical understanding’ assessment criteria. As the title indicates, a Personal Study must communicate distinctly personal opinions, insights, judgements and responses, demonstrating a clear engagement with the artwork studied. This excerpt from an 100% OCR A Level Art Personal Study by Yantra Scott entitled ‘ An investigation into gender roles in contemporary art ‘ illustrates this: I first encountered Sarah Lucas whist briskly strolling through the crowded rooms of the Tate.

Amongst oils and finely crafted sculpture my eyes were transfixed in a two-way glare with a slightly butch, totally intense woman, with eggs for t*ts. Ever since then I’ve been hooked. It is evident that Yantra not only essay on grandparents visited and viewed artwork in the flesh, but had a strong personal reaction to it. It could never be assumed that this segment had been reworded from a textbook: it is absolutely the words of Poverty a passionate high school Art student. Although Yantra uses coarse language within her study (something which should be emulated with caution) this project is an exceptional example of an intelligent and personal response to a topic. (More of program Yantra’s work, as well as the Weathering Poverty Essay entire text of her study, can be read in full on the great Julia Stubbs’ website). Similarly, this quote from an 88% OCR A2 Art Personal Study (one of the examples given in the OCR A2 Art Exemplar Work – Personal Study document) shows a personal response integrated within the analysis of stamp program history Damien Hurst’s work, illustrated below.

The glass is thick, so thick that it is intimidating. It is as if it is holding something terrible back. It makes you question the Essay formaldehyde and query, what if the essay on grandparents tank did break? The formaldehyde is not clear as I expected but is quite strongly coloured by a blue and green pigment. This colour is very clinical and Essay has the connotations of how did bloody get her a hospital… The musings about the tank breaking and the formaldehyde differing from expectations are clearly the Weathering individual thoughts of a high school art student. Some Comfort Gained from the Acceptance of the Inherent Lies in Everything 2006, Damien Hurst. Within the Personal Study, students must demonstrate an understanding of of Child Socialization: Erikson cultural context – an understanding that an artist does not create work in isolation, but rather creates work that is shaped and influenced by the circumstance/s they finds themselves in. This might mean that discussion of the influence of natural, social, political or cultural environments is appropriate, or that – as is more common – the influence of other artists is discussed, with comparisons made between artwork that has been created in similar or differing contexts.

‘One night in Mong Kok’ by Akif Hakan Celebi. The excerpt below is from a CIE A Level Art and Design Personal Study by Tirion Jenkins, of YMCA of Hong Kong Christian College. Titled ‘Alternative Fashion Photography’, her Personal Study was awarded Best in Hong Kong (2012) and includes analysis of ‘One night in Mong Kok’ by photographer Akif Hakan Celebi. Tirion demonstrates a clear understanding of the Weathering Poverty interrelationship between a photographer’s work and food stamp program the setting in which it was created. The setting itself creates an intoxicating atmosphere with the rows of fluorescent light bulbs and layers of luminous signs that form an endless maze of gaudy colours.

However, the Poverty setting does not overwhelm the two models who draw my eyes despite the signs above them. Food Stamp Program. They create the focal point of the image through the Poverty use of the rule of thirds as they are placed off-centre and through their quirky appearance which magnetises the Resolved: Presidential Signing and the of Powers eye towards them. They seem to belong to a different world to the passersby behind them with their flare of red hair and audacious choice of feathered flittered clothes. Akif has further crafted the Poverty image through the use of makeup as their chalk white faces further segregates and food stamp program emphasises their surreal doll-like appearances. …Akif’s pictures are reminiscent of Japanese cinema which he says he is so influenced by. Poverty. “I like…its writhed and crazy stories; I feel very close to study, that way of looking at the world.” This photograph is particularly mystical due to the vibrant and decorative bokeh of Hong Kong’s street lights in the background. The core of the A2 Art Personal Study is the in-depth analysis of selected artist works. Some of these artworks must be viewed in person, however it is common (and completely acceptable) for students to analyse work from a combination of primary and secondary sources. In the best studies, artworks are chosen specifically to facilitate the discussion of issues which are relevant to Essay, the study.

The advice in this section is particularly important and should be read closely by students who are hoping to achieve a high grade for their Personal Study. When analysing artwork, it is helpful to analyse the work in terms of composition, format, structure and visual elements (such as shape, line, texture, colour, space, tone) . Students might de-construct an Statements to Undermine, artwork and view it in terms of a single visual element and/or discuss how the visual elements interact, relate, contrast, balance and Weathering Essay connect with one another. Descriptions of bloody mary name important terms have been included below to Weathering, aid this process: Composition is the placement or organisation of visual elements within an artwork – the way these have been composed, combined or ‘put together’. Composition may be instinctual or the result of elaborate planning (or a combination of both). A ‘compositional device’ is an aspect of a composition which has a certain effect (such as the use of frames within frames, which might help create a sense of distance or space within an artwork). Format is the overall shape, size and orientation (portrait or landscape) of an artwork, i.e. whether a work is painted on a long, horizontal oblong canvas, or upon a vertically orientated A4 portrait board. Format can be influenced by practical considerations (i.e. the nature and shape of the object or scene depicted) as well as being an active decision by the artist to help communicate a particular meaning or idea. The structure of an artwork is the organisation of basic forms within a composition (this will be illustrated in henary fayol more detail in Weathering Essay the subsequent post focusing on imagery). Lines are a visual element that can direct a viewer’s gaze and of Child Essay create a visual path. These can direct attention to Poverty Essay, a focal point and create depth through perspective or horizon lines.

Different lines can create different effects: hard angular lines provoke a different response than soft, organic lines, for example. Repetition of lines can create a sense of movement or rhythm. Shape is a visual element that is created by the junction of lines or changes in tone: the perceived boundaries of Resolved: Presidential Signing Statements of Law and the form. Larger shapes can become dominant focal points within an artwork; similar shapes can be repeated to create balance and create unity / visual harmony. Shapes can be symbolic, i.e. Poverty. they can represent more complex forms and carry meaning. As with lines, the types of shapes used can communicate certain feelings – rigorous ordered shapes tend to food, create a different mood than irregular, free-flowing shapes. Shapes might also be used to Weathering Essay, create borders / frames and boundaries that connect, overlap or intersect, perhaps helping to draw viewers from the Resolved: Presidential Statements Threaten to Undermine Separation foreground / middle-ground to background.

Space – the Weathering Essay absence of form – is an often overlooked visual element. Described as being either positive (the space contained within the boundary of an object) or negative (the background space in and around an object), space can determine how busy and cluttered a painting is. A busy composition can overwhelm a viewer; a simple and sparse composition may appear boring. Careful integration of space is fundamental to any artwork. Form is a visual element that is henary fayol usually discussed more easily in relation to Poverty, three dimensional objects (as three-dimensional forms are usually described within two dimensional works in terms of shape, tone and line). How Did Get Her Name. Colour (or hue) is a visual element that is often discussed in combination with tone(how light or dark a colour appears). Colour can affect the mood of an artwork due to colour associations – i.e. blue might indicate sadness. Tone can help to communicate a sense of distance (items that are further away generally appear lighter – due to ‘atmospheric perspective’). Both tone and colour can be used to create contrast within an artwork, attracting the viewer’s attention and helping to create focal areas. Alternatively, both tone and colour can be used to create harmonious, peaceful non-contrasting areas. Use of light and shadow or warm and Poverty cool might also be an important area to discuss.

Texture can be real (the result of brush strokes, irregularities in henary fayol materials, and Poverty Essay the application of a range of materials) or implied…i.e. On Grandparents. a surface that is made to looktextured. As with the other visual elements, texture should be integrated so that it balances and becomes an aesthetically pleasing addition to an artwork. Surface qualities – along with other detailed areas and intricate patterns – are only able to be appreciated fully when viewed in Poverty Essay person. It should be noted here that students should not submit reams of text explaining how certain visual elements affect artworks in general, but rather use this knowledge to write informed analysis about the artworks in question. Here is another example by Nikau Hindin, discussing the use of line in paintings by phenomenology Kelcy Taratoa.

This text was accompanied by Weathering Essay diagrams illustrating the linear elements in the artwork. …Taratoa uses strong angular forms that create diagonal perspective lines. These lines are called ‘leading lines’ and direct us to henary fayol, the focal point of Weathering Poverty Essay this painting, which is how did bloody mary name a portrait of Poverty Taratoa. They also lead our eyes past him and essay make us look at the background. This helps to convey Taratoa’s message that one’s identity is linked to social circumstance, upbringing (background) and popular culture. Street markings form white lines and also draw our attention to Weathering, the focal point.

Street markings represent paths and therefore they may be paths to finding and constructing ones identity. They create a sense of movement and highlight the direction one’s eyes should travel within the painting. The street markings in ‘Episode 007’ are curvaceous which creates movement. How Did. The curvy lines mirror the organic forms of the superhero’s muscular body, creating a visual link. Weathering Essay. In ‘Episode 0010’ the repetition of line of the zebra crossing creates a sense of food program history rhythm and Weathering Essay leads us to the portrait of Taratoa in the left corner.

Horizontal lines are repeated in the background of the painting to unite separate parts of the painting. As well as the bloody aesthetic qualities discussed above, most students also include sections where they analyse artwork in terms of materials, processes, stylistic influences, techniques (use of media) . For some, this is the primary focus of the Personal Study. This might include analysis of the way an artist has applied paint to a canvas (mark-making, brush strokes), the sequence of Weathering building up layers of paint over stamp, a prepared ground, or the sequence of events involved in Weathering creating a graphic design: from conceptual sketches, development of ideas, construction in Photoshop, through to proofing, paper selection and final printing. It might involve discussion about the way a composition is planned and designed and then the various processes that are undertaken in its completion. It might include cultural contexts and stylistic influences from Presidential Signing the Rule and the Separation other artists. In any sections of the Personal Study which are dedicated to process and technique, it is important to Weathering Poverty Essay, note (as mentioned above) that the examiners do not want the regurgitation of long, technical processes, but rather would like to see personal observations about how processes effect and influence the phenomenology artwork that has been created. In all analysis of artwork, whether this involves discussion of composition, aesthetic qualities, cultural contexts, use of media, or approach to Essay, a theme, it is important that students move beyond simple observations and on grandparents add perceptive, personal insight.

For example, if a student notices that colour has been used to create strong contrast in certain areas of an artwork, they might follow this with a detailed and Poverty Essay thoughtful assumption about why this is the phenomenology case: for Weathering Poverty, example, perhaps the contrast was created deliberately to draw attention to a focal point in the artwork, helping the artist to help convey thematic ideas. These personal insights could be backed up by earlier research, confirmed or suggested by the artist, or might be educated assumptions made by henary fayol the student, based upon Poverty their own responses and personal interaction with the how did bloody mary artwork. Some final recommendations are included below: ‘Analysis of artwork’ does not mean ‘description of artwork’ . Analysis means taking an artwork apart (thinking about it in terms of individual elements, such as line, or colour or technique), analysing these individually and/or in terms of how they relate to one another, and making personal observations and judgements, connecting this to the theme or focus of the assignment. Saying “I like this” or “I don’t like this” without any further explanation or justification is not analysis . Writing should be carefully integrated with the images , so that it is clear which text relates to which images (this will be discussed more in the subsequent post).

Alice Ham, a Year 13 student at Weathering, ACG Parnell College (awarded 100% for her Personal Study) has produced some excellent analysis of artwork by Liam Gerrard: In most works (the exception usually applies to essay on grandparents, those done in commission) the focus of the piece is Poverty Essay centred, surrounded by empty space and henary fayol never grounded through shadow or the like. Weathering Poverty. This is another way in which Gerrard plays with commonly held opinions. Typically, a most aesthetically pleasing composition will follow the rule of food thirds – a well known ‘rule’ that correlates to the focus of Weathering Poverty artworks being offset within the composition, and the entire image being visually divided into 3 sections. Liam has little care for this standardised rule, yet his compositions are visually pleasing all the same. I believe this could be because of the negative space, there is no overcrowding and it allows the how did get her name viewer to focus on the subject. I also think this space is played upon in the display of the artwork.

Galleries in general will have white or very light coloured walls so as not to Essay, distract from what is on display. Presidential Signing The Rule And The Separation Of Powers. By placing these white canvases on the white walls, hung without obvious framing, the artwork is Essay allowed to ‘flow’ into the viewer’s world, there is no line of separation. Henary Fayol. This forces the viewer to Weathering Poverty, study Gerrard’s pieces, and Resolved: Presidential Signing Statements the Rule Separation of Powers perhaps consider the personal message they address for Weathering Poverty Essay, the viewer in everyday life. Analysis of artwork within an A Level Art Personal Study by Alice Ham. Some of the text above has been reproduced here to aid ease of reading: The expression on henary fayol the pig’s face is perhaps what would draw the viewer into this picture the most. It directly contradicts the gruesome depiction of decapitation and appears almost to be laughing.

This work like most of Weathering Gerrard’s others is a single object centred on a stark white background. The amount of empty space in this picture is very eye catching and directs the of Child Erikson viewer’s vision inwards, there is no chance of distraction by details in a menial part of the work. Once again Gerrard uses charcoal in Poverty Essay his personal style, leaving the artwork in black and white. This lack of colour is cold, it presents the reality of the grisly scene without the embellishment of colours. This does not allow the audience to be caught up in phenomenology what is ‘pretty’ but forces them to take in every details in it’s highly realistic, and perhaps disturbing, state. The shock factor of this piece is emphasised ten- fold by the sheer size. It cannot be realised until you view this piece in reality, but being dwarfed looking up into Weathering a pig’s head captured mid laugh brings upon on grandparents you a bizarre sense of fascination.

9. Weathering Poverty Essay. Explain the relationship to Coursework (if appropriate) As explained in the previous post about topic selection, it is no longer necessary that the Personal Study relate to of Child Erikson, a student’s Coursework project. Weathering Poverty Essay. If there is a strong relationship, however, students may wish to include a section in their Personal Study where relevant comparisons are made with their Coursework project. The maximum word count for Resolved: Signing Statements the Rule Separation of Powers, CIE Art Design Personal Studies is 3,500 words. This is a maximum and fewer words is more than appropriate (especially in primarily visual studies). If a student is slightly over the word count, this is unlikely to be an issue (it is rare that examiners would know your exact word count, as no-one is likely to count every word in a project from start to finish); however, if a student is significantly over the word limit, this is Weathering Poverty Essay obvious and a problem, running the risk that the examiners will run out of time (or enthusiasm) to read your project in its entirety. Almost all cases of word count breaches come from students who have attempted to bulk up their study with unnecessary information from Signing Statements Threaten of Law and the of Powers second-hand sources.

If you are encroaching the word limit, you should immediately ensure that you have not included supplementary research material or unnecessary information summarised from Weathering Poverty textbooks. If you are still battling with the word count and inclusion of Effects of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay material from second-hand sources is Weathering Essay not an henary fayol, issue, you should re-edit your project, eliminating waffle, and ensuring you communicate succinctly. I encourage teachers to locate and print the excerpts from Poverty Essay Personal Studies that are included in the 9704 Standards booklet on the CIE Teachers’ password protected site, which can be downloaded as a PDF document from the A Level Art Design page. This document is invaluable. Finally, we are actively looking for more examples of high achieving Personal Studies to share on the Student Art Guide.

If you or someone you know someone who excelled in this Component, please read our submission guidelines for essay, more information. If you found this information helpful, you may wish to read the Poverty previous article in this series: How to select a great A2 Art Personal Study Topic or our overview of the bloody name CIE A Level Art: Personal Study. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Weathering. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Resolved: Statements the Rule of Law and the Separation Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Weathering Poverty Essay Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.

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an essay on crticism ART CRITICISM AND FORMAL ANALYSIS OUTLINE. Poverty Essay? Defining Art Criticism. · Art criticism is responding to, interpreting meaning, and making critical judgments about specific works of art. · Art critics help viewers perceive, interpret, and judge artworks. · Critics tend to focus more on modern and contemporary art from cultures close to their own. · Art historians tend to study works made in cultures that are more distant in time and space. · When initially introduced to art criticism, many people associate negative connotations with the word criticism. A professional art critic may be. · a newspaper reporter assigned to the art beat, · a scholar writing for professional journals or texts, or. · an artist writing about other artists. · Written for the general public, includes reviews of art exhibitions in galleries and museums. · (Suggestions that journalistic criticism deals with art mainly to the extent that it is newsworthy.) Scholarly art criticism. · Written for food history, a more specialized art audience and appears in art journals. · Scholar-critics may be college and university professors or museum curators, often with particular knowledge about a style, period, medium, or artist. -Four levels of formal analysis, which you can use to explain a work of art: 1. Weathering Poverty Essay? Description = pure description of the object without value judgments, analysis, or interpretation. · It answers the question, What do you see? · The various elements that constitute a description include: a. Form of art whether architecture, sculpture, painting or one of the minor arts. b. Medium of work whether clay, stone, steel, paint, etc., and technique (tools used) c. Size and scale of work (relationship to person and/or frame and/or context) d. Elements or general shapes (architectural structural system) within the study composition, including building of post-lintel construction or painting with several figures lined up in a row; identification of objects. Weathering Poverty? e. Description of axis whether vertical, diagonal, horizontal, etc. Study? f. Description of line, including contour as soft, planar, jagged, etc.

g. Description of how line describes shape and space (volume); distinguish between lines of Essay, objects and lines of composition, e.g., thick, thin, variable, irregular, intermittent, indistinct, etc. h. Relationships between shapes, e.g., large and small, overlapping, etc. i. Description of color and color scheme = palette. j. Texture of surface or other comments about execution of work. k. Context of get her, object: original location and date. 2. Analysis = determining what the features suggest and deciding why the artist used such features to convey specific ideas. · It answers the Essay question, How did the artist do it? · The various elements that constitute analysis include: a. Henary Fayol? Determination of subject matter through naming iconographic elements, e.g., historical event, allegory, mythology, etc. b. Poverty Essay? Selection of most distinctive features or characteristics whether line, shape, color, texture, etc. c. Analysis of the principles of design or composition, e.g., stable, repetitious, rhythmic, unified, symmetrical, harmonious, geometric, varied, chaotic, horizontal or vertically oriented, etc. Henary Fayol? d. Discussion of how elements or structural system contribute to appearance of image or function. e. Analysis of Essay, use of light and role of color, e.g., contrasty, shadowy, illogical, warm, cool, symbolic, etc. f. Treatment of space and landscape, both real and illusionary (including use of perspective), e.g., compact, deep, shallow, naturalistic, random. g. Portrayal of movement and bloody get her how it is achieved. h. Effect of Weathering, particular medium(s) used. i. Your perceptions of balance, proportion and henary fayol scale (relationships of each part of the composition to the whole and to each other part) and Weathering your emotional. j. On Grandparents? Reaction to object or monument. 3. Interpretation = establishing the broader context for this type of art. · It answers the question, Why did the artist create it and what does it mean. · The various elements that constitute interpretation include: a. Main idea, overall meaning of the work. b. Interpretive Statement: Can I express what I think the artwork is Weathering Poverty Essay about in one sentence? c. Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the artwork supports my interpretation?

4. Food Stamp Program History? Judgment: Judging a piece of work means giving it rank in relation to other works and of course considering a very important aspect of the visual arts; its originality. · Is it a good artwork? · Criteria: What criteria do I think are most appropriate for judging the artwork? · Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the artwork relates to each criterion? · Judgment: Based on the criteria and evidence, what is Weathering Essay my judgment about the quality of the henary fayol artwork? Barrett's Principles of Interpretation. 1. Artworks have aboutness and demand interpretation. 2. Interpretations are persuasive arguments. 3. Poverty Essay? Some interpretations are better than others. 4. Good interpretations of Resolved: Presidential the Rule of Law Separation of Powers, art tell more about the artwork than they tell about the critic. 5. Feelings are guides to interpretations. Weathering Poverty Essay? 6. There can be different, competing, and contradictory interpretations of the same artwork.

7. Interpretations are often based on a worldview. 8. Essay On Grandparents? Interpretations are not so much absolutely right, but more or less reasonable, convincing, enlightening, and informative. 9. Interpretations can be judged by coherence, correspondence, and inclusiveness. 10. An artwork is not necessarily about what the artist wanted it to be about. 11. A critic ought not to be the spokesperson for Poverty Essay, the artist.

12. Interpretations ought to present the work in its best rather than its weakest light. 13. The objects of Presidential Signing Threaten to Undermine the Rule Separation of Powers, interpretation are artworks, not artists. 14. All art is in part about the world in which it emerged. 15. All art is in part about other art. 16. Poverty Essay? No single interpretation is exhaustive of the meaning of an artwork.

17. The meanings of an Effects of Child Socialization: Erikson Essay, artwork may be different from its significance to Weathering Essay, the viewer. Interpretation is ultimately a communal endeavor, and the community is ultimately self- corrective. 18. How Did Bloody? Good interpretations invite us to see for ourselves and to continue on our own.

Barrett, Terry. (1994) Criticizing Art: Understanding the Contemporary. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company.

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Essay on Pedagogy, Knowledge and Society. Topic 2: A considerable amount of Weathering Poverty Essay work within the Resolved: of Powers Bernsteinian frame considers the relationship between the school and the home, or the ‘first’ and ‘second sites of acquisition’. Outline the Weathering Poverty central arguments made in Resolved: Presidential Statements Threaten to Undermine the Rule relation to how children are differently positioned for success at school. Drawing on the theoretical insights, and in relation to an institution where you work or with which you are familiar, describe how issues of students’ preparation for school manifest at the level of the school, and how the school does or doesn’t address these issues. About half your essay should focus on discussing the theory and half should focus on your application of the insights to an institution.

In this essay I look at theories of parents and education and the relationships between home and school. My focus is based on children who begin reading and writing since they would like to join others who appear to be gaining enrichment. Essay! In the sociology of schooling we have similar aims and found that we too had common interests. I have chosen the work of two good learners and Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner two weaker ones. In describing their work it allows us to see whether their writings are rich with meanings. Issues will be addressed within class discussions and parent meetings. Weathering Essay! More importantly, I examined how various theorists position the subject of their inquiry within the domains of power.

Also I follow links of the nature of theories, the framing of questions, different methodologies and what knowledge is in relation to how children are differently positioned for success at school. That will be a main goal of this work. At the beginning of the school year I familiarise myself with the social and cultural background of essay on grandparents each learner as well as the forms of authority and Poverty communication particular to each learner’s family. Drawing on observations of the working-class and phenomenology poor families in my class, learners are differently positioned for success at school. The disadvantaged families have plenty of time but little economic security whereas middle-class parents engage in a process of drawing out their children’s talents and skills. The working-class and poor families rely on the accomplishment of Essay natural growth in Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner which a child’s development unfolds spontaneously–as long as basic comfort, food and shelter are provided. Each of these approaches to childrearing brings benefits and drawbacks.

I found that pedagogies that define more visibly the relevant knowledge i.e. strong classification and pedagogies that inform learners in more detail of the performance expected of Weathering Essay them i.e. strong framing are more effective in allowing learners from disadvantaged social classes to succeed. From the child’s point of view, school looks different from either the educators’ or their parent’s point of food stamp program history view. Weathering Essay! One would say that each layer of meaning is segmented for henary fayol example educators differ in their ideologies of education, parents differ in their social class identities and learners differ in their interpretations of the Weathering experiences of schooling. Bernstein is driven by a sense of social justice and outrage at the continuing deformation of life chances by the pedagogic device. His theory shows how the language people use in their daily conversation reflect and shape assumptions of a certain social group. Essay! Relationships within the Essay social group affect the way that group uses language and the type of speech that is used. He argues that ‘a child’s semiotic interactions within the family – the site of primary socialization – will take subtly different forms depending on the social positioning of the speakers.’ (Bernstein 1971:p. 66 in Painter: Preparing for School) What are Schools for? Although educators play a vital role in initiating and sustaining classroom activities, they rely on of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay learners to contribute in substantial ways to the quality of Poverty order and accomplishing learning achievement.

It is when the educator lacks the skills in teaching the curriculum or when learners lack the ability to follow and fulfil the requirements, that social order is threatened. We find that the disciplines of knowledge run into difficulties and continue to produce a crisis for knowledge and its disciplines. According to Ball (1993) the craft element of an educator’s work has increased since the phenomenology study introduction of the National Curriculum and Poverty the imposition of national testing in schools. With the introduction of national testing related to Resolved: Signing Statements Threaten to Undermine of Law and the of Powers a national curriculum, parents are able to Poverty Essay scrutinize and contrast school test results. This raises the possibility of comparisons with educator performances. In the continued research process for curriculum integration the disciplines of knowledge is a useful collaborator. Resolved: Presidential Signing The Rule Of Law Separation Of Powers! The curriculum integration is a way of thinking about what schools are for, what are the sources of curriculum and the uses of the acquired knowledge. It is the search for Weathering Poverty self and social meaning. When we as educators act as facilitators to teach within the phenomenology framework of curriculum integration we firstly encourage our young learners to integrate learning experiences into ways of meaning so that their understanding of themselves and their world can be broadened. Secondly the learners engage themselves in looking for, acquiring and using the knowledge in Weathering Poverty an organic way. Knowledge is the context of interests, problems and issues relevant to daily life and lived experiences.

As human beings we know that life has limitless boundaries of the disciplines of knowledge and therefore a context uses knowledge in ways of making meanings that are integrated. An Empirical Research. Children are quick to differentiate what activities adults’ value by study, taking note of the amount of time they devote to them. Those children who have enjoyed reading a good story should be encouraged to share their experience with others. One way is to give a book review. The book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory published in 1964 and in celebrating its fiftieth anniversary in 2014, I decided to challenge my learners to read the book and write a report. I gave them some encouraging tips when reading the book.

‘ to keep their beady eyes open like Benny Bookworm. ‘ a few writing tools ‘ pencils, crayons and stacks of paper to Poverty jot down ideas. ‘ just start writing ‘ let the ideas flow. ‘ if you’re stuck read the book, chapter or relevant pages again. ‘ use a thesaurus and dictionary. I encouraged them that their writing should be purposeful and enjoyable expressing all their feelings. My chief concern was to provide the necessary amount of support to the learners without being over directive.

In general I provided quite specific guidelines for the main writing task and then gave extra ideas to encourage the learners to branch off in their other directions. ‘ To develop creative and critical thinking skills. ‘ To be able to organise their information in a logical manner. ‘ To produce a flow diagram in preparation for a longer piece of creative writing. ‘ Educator models an on grandparents example of Weathering Poverty Essay a flow diagram. ‘ Reading mom reads chapter 22 to food program history the class.

‘ Divide the Essay learners into groups of six at a table. ‘ Allocate each group a room that Mr Willy Wonka rushes by (Edible Marshmallow Pillows, Lickable Wallpaper for Babies’ Nurseries, Hot Ice Creams for food stamp history extremely Cold Days, Cows that give Chocolate-flavoured Milk). ‘ Groups also invent other rooms that could be in Weathering Mr. Willy Wonka’s factory and imagine incredible incidents that could take place there. ‘ Groups choose a leader who presents their ideas back to the class. ‘ Educator asks class to imagine that they are going to the factory and can choose which rooms to go in. ‘ Educator models an example of a flow diagram showing all the different outcomes that happen as the reader progresses through each room and makes different decisions.

‘ The children make their own A4 page flow diagram of all their different decisions and outcomes that could happen when they go into history, the different rooms. This flow diagram will be used to plan for Essay a longer piece of essay creative writing. Some outcomes could have a horrible end while others could have happier endings. Firstly, I will identify the Poverty Essay learning outcomes, namely the intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, verbal skills and attitudes to Effects Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner be acquired by individuals. Secondly, for each learning outcome, I will identify the Weathering Poverty Essay factors that make a difference to Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay instruction. These factors were based on models of Essay learning from cognitive psychology and how information is processed. The intrinsic factors are essentially concepts and skills acquired previously by the learners as well as mental processes used to develop new concepts and skills based on the recall of previous knowledge and skills. Extrinsic conditions of learning take the form of instruction designed for acquiring particular learning outcomes.

What fascinated me most was when the learners questioned life about cows and their origins. A brief biology discussion took place and in this instance the learners were provided with the opportunity to ways of thinking that could make them more enlightened citizens. The South African school curriculum before 1994 ignored evolution because it conflicted with the religious beliefs of the phenomenology government. Both curriculum statements emphasize the need to recognize alternative ways of Essay knowing, including faith-based and Resolved: Signing Threaten of Law indigenous knowledge systems. If I deny my learners meaningful access to higher-order concepts and ways of thinking, I will ‘endanger the Weathering Poverty social justice imperative which frames the entire National Curriculum Statement ( Dempster, E. Hugo, H.(2006) p. 108). Evans’ research indicates that by adopting an evolutionary explanation it will be related to natural history knowledge.

In order to answer their question: Where do cows come from? Learners were afforded the of Child Socialization: Erikson opportunity to achieve the necessary cognitive structures to adopt an evolutionary explanation. To their delight the learners successfully researched on www.livescience.com/28154. They read that cows that were brought to the Americas by explorer Christopher Columbus in Weathering Poverty Essay the year 1493 originated from two extinct wild beasts from India and and Bronfenbrenner Essay Europe. The available e-learning technologies at school and in the more affluent homes impact on learning outcomes. The more advantaged learners have an elaborated code and those from disadvantaged areas have a tendency towards a restricted code of language. I would agree with Bernstein that there are changes in Technology that bring about Poverty Essay new educational classes e.g. psycho-dynamics and henary fayol bio-genesis. By motivating learners to research one might only hope that they will pursue these scientific directions and not drop out of schooling.

My role as educator is to Poverty Essay manage the learning context and allow the learners to actively construct meaning by Presidential Threaten to Undermine the Rule of Law Separation of Powers, themselves. Poverty Essay! Competence pedagogy is phenomenology considered an invisible pedagogy since both the evaluative criteria and the control over pedagogy is implicit. How does experiences and forms of learning influence children? Babies take in sensory experiences from the world around them from the moment they are born. Their environment is a powerful influence on their behaviour patterns throughout their lives. Weathering Poverty! Genetics also have a powerful influence on their development, but their experiences are equally important.

The genetic code contains millions of information on how the brains of children might be pre-wired but it is the forms of learning and experiences that will ultimately shape how the brains of children grow and henary fayol develop. Some of the Weathering theories of psychology focus on the reasons why experiences are so important and how it shapes the behaviour of Presidential Statements Threaten of Law and the Separation of Powers children and their personalities. Three major theories that describe and explain how children learn are namely: ‘ Classical conditioning which is a type of learning whereby one is involved in making an association between a stimulus and a response. Children learn constantly by developing associations between things in their environment and Weathering Poverty the potential consequences thereof. In the Effects Socialization: Essay flow diagrams this was evident.

Children who are exposed to violence or grow up where there is a lack of their basic needs may portray poor academic results. For example in Learner Fatih’s background history: His parents are separated and in conflict with one another ‘ there is Weathering Poverty Essay a sense of a hostile environment. Relationships in henary fayol his home are emotionally bleak and he is rather withdrawn and solitary. ‘ Instrumental conditioning is a type of learning when the children’s behaviour is rewarded and the chances are that the same behaviour is likely to Weathering Poverty take place again in the future. When the behaviour is punished, it becomes less likely that it will happen again in study the future. For example, when a learner is rewarded for good writing achievements, a smiley face is stamped on Weathering Poverty Essay her worksheet so, she is more likely to repeat the same good writing skills later on.

Parents might take a child for a treat at Milky Lane or Mac Donald. ‘ Learning by observation: Children learn a great deal from just watching their parents, peers and mary siblings. Even the behaviours they see on television, video games they play and messages from the internet can impact their own thoughts and actions. Because this type of learning is so powerful, it is Weathering Essay important to check that children are watching the Presidential Signing Statements the Rule of Law right kind of behaviours. Both parents and educators by checking on the appropriate responses of children can be sure whether they are learning how to act responsibly. For example by modelling a good flow diagram of Cows that give Chocolate-flavoured Milk the Essay learners could work independently on their own writing diagrams and produce interesting stories.

Some children might receive enriched childhood experiences from parents who are responsible and attentive. These children most often are more secure and capable of coping with challenges. Other children might receive less attention since their parents have issues worrying about money, work situations or relationships. These experiences have a dramatic impact on children’s stages of mary name development. Poverty Essay! Children feel insecure and unable to cope with life’s challenges. Do schools reproduce existing social inequalities? School makes up an enormous part of a child’s life. Do educational systems provide equal opportunities for all children to achieve based on study their merits? Many believe that ‘Schools would be critical to a modern era where merit, talent and effort would replace privilege and inheritance as the most significant factor for Weathering Essay social and food stamp program occupational mobility.’ (Sadovnik, Cookson, Semel, 2006, p.20) Both educators and Poverty Essay peers play a major role in making up children’s experiences and henary fayol academics and learning also leave their mark on development.

Children with barriers to learning should receive quality interventions in order to allow them to overcome difficulties and achieve their full potential. Recent educational policy documents in South Africa emphasise a Quality Assurance model for professional education ‘No child shall be left behind. Weathering! One of the principles is that educational quality improvement must be at the centre of all efforts geared towards success. There are many different influences that can play a role in how a child grows and Statements Threaten and the the adult they eventually become. The culture that a child lives is another element that affects their growth. While Western cultures tend to focus more on Weathering individualism, Eastern cultures tend to focus more on collectivism meaning that the essay on grandparents needs of the community as a whole over the needs of each individual are greater.

These differences can lead to dramatic instances in how children are raised. Parents from Western cultures might stress the importance of their child developing a strong sense of self-esteem and independence, while parents from Eastern cultures might focus more on how their child can contribute to the family unit and to Weathering Essay society as a whole. No matter what the child’s surrounding culture might be, the strategies that parents use are designed to produce children who can meet the goals and expectations of the culture in which they live. Let’s look at two hypothetical examples of how culture can influence development. Child A is born in essay a hostile crime community in Poverty the townships where resources are scarce, while Child 2 is phenomenology born in a leafy suburb area to an affluent couple. Clearly, the first child is going to grow up with different expectations than the child raised in an upper-class environment. One aspect of Bernstein’s theory is the Weathering Poverty Essay claim that, ‘in families of higher socio economic status, patterns of parent-child linguistic interaction will, from the earliest years sensitize the study child to kinds of Weathering Poverty meanings relevant for later school learning ‘ for dealing with what has been termed ‘educational knowledge.” (Bernstein1971:p.66 in Painter: Preparing for School). During the early years Child A’s parents might focus on basic protection and survival needs such as providing warmth and on grandparents food. As the child grows older, teaching practical skills and helping the Weathering Poverty Essay child gain hands-on experience might become more important.

The flip side of the coin could be being shot down in gang violence or even attacked at school. Government or state-aided schools in all nine provinces of South Africa are dominated by disruptive school and classroom behaviours. The legacies of Apartheid, combined with disruptive student behaviour as well as the daunting uncertainties about curriculum reform continue to impact negatively on bloody mary get her name educator performances and learner achievements. Weathering Poverty! Ultimately it is a phenomenon that is referred to as the ‘collapse of a culture of teaching, learning and service’.Davenport:1980:349) . Because Child B’s parents worry less about basic needs, their focus will be more on lifestyle ‘purchasing the best toys and allowing their child to participate in Presidential Signing to Undermine of Law Separation the best play group might be paramount importance. As the child grows older, the parents might shift their focus to making sure their child is enrolled in the most respected schools and attains the best possible grades. Child B’s culture suggests that the ultimate goal is to go to university or college and one day get a prestigious job. This parent needs to be knowledgeable about the Weathering Poverty Essay way the school operates and its ideology of education. Stamp Program! This is done by visiting school-organized meetings, receiving gleaning impressions from their children, contextual clues from the work brought home and talking with other parents. Bernstein’s Sources of consensus and disaffection in education (1975) considers the relation between the family and school in accordance with the two orders of meaning, namely the instrumental and expressive. His concern is how the school grants learners access to other ‘styles of life and modes of social relationships’ (1975: 37). Studies on the effects of schooling show the constraint of social class background on achieving at Weathering Poverty, school.

However, classroom studies conducted within a Bernsteinian frame are also starting to how did bloody demonstrate how schools can make a difference through modes of pedagogic practice that interrupt the reproduction of educational inequality and lead to the success of all students (e.g. Morais, 2002; Rose, 2004). Such pedagogies are mostly characterised by strong framing over external selection and evaluation criteria and weak framing over pacing and teacher-pupil relations (as summarised by Muller Gamble, in press). Gamble and Hoadley in Positioning the regulative support the significance of strong framing over the evaluative criteria. However their information does not allow that only personal social relations between transmitters and acquirers make possible an entry of working class learners into Weathering Poverty, the verticality of school knowledge. The aim is to question the possible inductive proficiency of positional modes of control. These claims would need rigorous empirical examination so they base this assertion on a general acknowledgement of shifts in the way Bernstein conceptualises the regulative (Singh, 2002; Davis, 2005; Muller, 2006) and Bernstein’s earlier work which connects these shifts to corresponding changes in empirical referent e.g. the home, school, curriculum and in the classroom.

This leads us to comprehend why is it that personal and positional control relations that are derived from early socio-linguistic thesis have become the standard interpretation of hierarchy in the classroom even though there are other versions of the regulative at school level and curriculum as outlined in the pedagogic device. Conceptions of regulative discourse. The expressive order of the how did bloody mary school refers to behavioural activities such as conduct, character and mannerisms and its function is ‘to bind the Essay school together as a distinct moral collectivity’ (Gamble Hoadley (1975: 38-39). The conceptualizing of the moral is Durkheimian and Bernstein draws particularly on Moral Education (2002). Following this line, Bernstein’s Sources of consensus and disaffection in education (1975) considers the relation between the family and school in program the understanding and Poverty Essay acceptance of the henary fayol instrumental and expressive order. His concern is with the role of the school in giving learners an access to other lifestyles of social relationships. Regardless of the function of the family, the school is an Poverty Essay independent force in Resolved: Presidential to Undermine the Rule and the of Powers defining the role of the pupil. At school the child is exposed to Essay rituals, assemblies, authority relations, stratification and procedures for learning.

The conduct, character and manner can modify the learner’s role even though this has been initially shaped by the family lifestyles. There are seven grades at our school and each one elaborated and of Child Erikson dramatised on topics such as punctuality, bullying and Essay pollution at various assemblies. Food History! Drama groups are invited to the school where they dramatise on topics such as The Read Family and the focus on Weathering Essay books. Therefore the history consensual rituals under the expressive order facilitate learners to be detached from the family and attached to school ultimately towards verticality. Bernstein argues that the function of consensual rituals is to ‘facilitate the transmission and internalization of the expressive order of the school, create consensus, revivify the Weathering Poverty Essay social order within the individual, deepen respect for and impersonalise authority relations’ (Gamble Hoadley 1975: 65). The reason why Bernstein’s theories are so relevant and important is because he presents education as a social right and not as a privilege. Bernstein raises the challenge.

how people can live together in so-called knowledgeable societies, in which symbolic control and social production and reproduction are synonymous with power and control.p.1. With measures of accountability transmitted under the School Improvement Accountability Frameworks, the study school and Weathering Poverty their educators are legally charged with their tasks. Bernstein’s model of mary get her transmission context (2000) allows a description of the political context within the Weathering Essay written discourses of government policies. How Did Get Her Name! It also demonstrates that power and control is differentially distributed between the transmitter and acquirer in the pursuit to create text that is contextually suitable. familiar with the social and ethnic background of Weathering Poverty Essay each. 4178505 Illustrations ?? Quentin Blake.

EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND CURRICULUM THEORY. Curriculum documents that create achievement objectives in relation to levels of schooling endeavour to establish norms and standards for what learners should know and be able to do at different levels. Essay! These one size-fits-all ladders of outcomes are abstract and are in disrespect of research analysts since they suggest that a child’s literacy development is anything but linear, rather highly context specific. With documents such as these in Poverty Essay place, the potential is henary fayol always there for the outcomes to become into Weathering, standards against which pupils would be measured. The Grade 3 Literacy results improved from 57.7% in 2012 to 61.1% in 2013. The results are used to measure the educators and schools performances and are published in the form of tables. At our school we engaged in of Child Socialization: Essay a number of activities to improve our results. These included new teaching strategies based on the ANA and Language results. A ‘buddy system’ was created which included both learners that were excelling and struggling in order to assist one another.

In New Zealand this potential has been realised by a mixture of political furtiveness and governmental bullying. Curriculum levels were used to develop standards of achievement that were required to be reached at Weathering Poverty Essay, the end of the school year in reading and writing. These were introduced despite the educators complaining about too much assessments and Effects of Child Erikson Essay not enough teaching time. In South Africa there are major interruptions due to the many public and school holidays. Learners come back with unruly behaviour, disrupting the school programme and Essay many are late due to extended holidays.

The work that has been taught is somehow forgotten. Some schools are still refusing to co-operate due to too much red tape, crime, poverty and mary name sickness. There is no quick fix when it comes to improving quality education. The Western Cape Education Department is remaining positive since annual systemic language test results make allowances to evaluate the reasons for any decreases and to formulate new strategies to improve on the results. Schools are visited by District staff for a joint analysis of their results with the senior managers. Weathering! Each school is asked to submit improvement targets determined by principals in consultation with the relevant district office. Defining the Curriculum: To Bob Lingard an issue of importance to educators and researchers is the way education policies are shaping and developing the hegemony of standards in education policy discourse.

One of the most powerful elements of policy is the Resolved: Presidential Signing Statements and the Separation of Powers high-stakes assessment. Lingard (2012) advocates that sociological attention be paid to the message systems of schooling which are the curriculum, pedagogies, and Weathering Poverty evaluation. His study analysis shows how developments reduce the concern of social justice in education, deny the impact of growing inequalities y on learners’ education and Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay school performance . In so doing focus the gaze of policy unremittingly on Weathering Essay teachers is focussed on in a myopic, decontextualised way. The paper will conclude by arguing the need to rethink a socially just mode of educational accountability and the ways to move towards its achievement. Children are quick to differentiate what activities adults’ value by Presidential Statements the Rule of Law and the of Powers, taking note of the amount of time they devote to them. Those children who have enjoyed a reading a good story should be encoued to share their experience with others. One way is to Weathering give a book review.

English is a difficult language with lots of phenomenology study exceptions to common rules. Just when learners are taught to add an Poverty Essay ‘s’ to make a word plural or to add ‘ed’ to make the past tense of a verb, they have to start learning that there are many exceptions to program the rules. These are reflected in their writings. One big reason learners make spelling mistakes is because they’re not hearing the words correctly. There’s a slight difference in pronunciation as well. Changing tenses in the middle of a paragraph. What it sounds like: ‘A boy named Charlie Bucket live in a small house there were five people who lived in the house.’ This grammar mistake is actually more common in writing than it is verbally, although it occurs in Weathering Poverty Essay both cases. Many times learners simply don’t keep track of what tense they started with when telling a story and switch halfway through. How to fix it: When the learner is finished writing, repeat the sentences that didn’t sound quite right.

Ask her to listen to see if she can grasp how it doesn’t sound right. If she’s unable to hear it, reframe the Effects Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner sentence with the Weathering Essay correct tense and give an explanation how each tense should be used. Parents spend a lot time prompting children to use the study personal pronoun ‘I’ when the word ‘me’ is used in a singular sentence. Often children will overemphasize this correction and think it means that every time they refer to themselves they must use the word ‘I.’ Marking Students’ Written Work with Correction Codes. I use a correction code when marking written work so that the learner can do some self-correction. Poverty Essay! The table below shows some possibilities of symbols. Mark Error Indicated. / A word is missing.

/ Start a new sentence. // Start a new paragraph. Gr Grammar error. Sp Spelling error. P Punctuation error. Wo Wrong word order. Mark Error Indicated. I do this by circling the error and giving it a short “code.” This page will be a “cheat-sheet” for my grammar codes.

Learners can check to find out what the codes mean and get instruction on how to fix the problem. A most common mistake that I find in writing. It is a type of run-on or fused sentence. It is the use of a comma between two independent clauses. I use this code when two sentences are next to each other with no punctuation or when the sentences are written so long and unwieldy and sounds clumsy. In order to pass the quality test for stamp program your book review, follow the below mentioned guidelines: 1. Mention the name of the book, the author and your personal quality rating of the book. 2. The ‘Personal Quality Rating’ is a score that you give to Weathering Poverty Essay the book on food program history a scale of 0 to 7 based on your personal liking ordisliking of the book. 0 is bad and 7 is great! 3. Ensure that your book review is between 80 to 100 words. A review that is less is likely to be too short for readers to Essay achieve any valuable insight from it.

4. In the Summary section give a small brief of the story or plot of the book. Essay On Grandparents! Make this brief and Weathering Poverty Essay please do not reveal the entire plot. Keep the suspense alive for the next reader of your book or you will kill your reader’s interest in reading the book. 5. Lastly, mention your personal feedback to the book. This is the part that makes your review so exciting. KeepK Keep an eye on grammar and spellings while writing. Bernstein defines the on grandparents Curriculum as the principle by which units of time and its contents are brought into special relationship with each other. He defines Classification as the measure of boundary preservation between the contents. A subjects-based curriculum which Bernstein called a collection type has strong classification, whereas a theme-based curriculum he called an integrated type and Essay therefore has weak classification. Framing was defined as ‘the degree of control teacher and pupil possess over the selection, organisation and pacing of the knowledge transmitted and received in the pedagogical relationship’ (1971, p. 46).

Bernstein’s most significant contribution to henary fayol curriculum theory was in two areas. The. first was his identification of curriculum control in Poverty Essay relation to power. For example, he. contends that only a select few lea Teachers were found to allocate much more. instructional time and effort to grammar and vocabulary than to other language skill. components. A number of factors were found to phenomenology influence teachers’ practices: washback, culture of teaching, inadequate time, students’ low English levels, and lack. of equipment and materials.

What is significant is the suggestion that standards-based reforms have the potential to transform pedagogical practice in a positive way. An example is by encouraging the Poverty Essay uptake of a communicative Competence model of the second-language instruction, in this case Afrikaans. However, such improvements cannot occur without an equivalent restructuring in the learners’ examination system. Additionally, other educator-related and contextual problems need to be addressed. such as empowerment for these learners to create new actualities as part. of the understanding that knowledge is permeable and provisional. significant contribution was his explanation (or perhpas advocacy) for phenomenology study a move to Weathering Essay the. J. Pandya, D. Wyse B. Doecke Editorial: English teachers’ work in an era of standardisation. English Teaching: Practice and Critique 3. institutionalisation of weak classification and framing through integrated codes, particularly at secondary level. The main reasons offered for the move to on grandparents weak.

classification and framing were recognition that higher levels of thinking were. increasingly differentiated; that more flexibility was required in the labour force; the. need for more egalitarian education; and Poverty Essay the need to make sense of major societal. problems related to power and control. I suggest that the movement away from collection to integrated codes symbolises that. there is a crisis in society’s basic classifications and frames, and therefore a crisis in. its structures and power and principles of control.

The movements from this point of. view represent an attempt to declassify and so alter power structures and principles of. control; in so doing to unfreeze the structuring of knowledge and to change the. boundaries of consciousness. Effects Of Child Socialization: And Bronfenbrenner! From this point of view integrated codes are symptoms. of a moral crisis rather that the terminal state of an education system. (p. 67) Movement to integrated codes stem from a technological source. Movement away from collection to integrated codes symbolises a crisis in Weathering society’s basic classifications and frames therefore a crisis in its structures of power and principles of history control. The movement attempts to declassify and Essay alter power structures and principles of Resolved: Presidential Statements to Undermine the Rule and the Separation control and in so doing unfreezes how knowledge is structured and changes the Weathering Poverty boundaries of consciousness.

Young pg 67 Integrated codes are symptoms of a moral crisis rather than the on grandparents terminal state of an educational system. The knowledge of orientations to meanings of these nine year old learners was remarkable. After reading and assessing their delightful reviews I selected two excellent samples and two weaker writing samples. ‘The key to pedagogic practice is Poverty Essay continuous evaluation’ (B. Signing Statements Of Law And The Of Powers! Bernstein ’96:50) Sociologists have developed an analytic framework for researching stories based on the relationship of institutional discourses on the one hand and everyday happenings on the other. Weathering! The goal is the sociological understanding of formal and mary get her name lived texts of experience that shows the practices, production and communication of happenings.

In evaluating the learners’ results I found that it was challenging for learners to recall the story and make decisions based on stories with meaning, than to recall loads of data. This is one reason why narratives are so powerful. Humans read meaning into data and create stories, even where this is unnecessary. Poverty! In narrative investigation one applies the usual methodical checks for validity and reliability in how data is collected, analyzed, and Resolved: Threaten and the Separation presented. Several criteria for assessing the Poverty Essay validity of narrative research is proposed, including the objective characteristic, the emotional characteristic, the social/moral characteristic and the clarity of the story.

Partnership activities that involve educators, parents and stamp history learners engage, guide, strengthen and encourage learners so that they create their own success. The overarching theme is that groups empower the Weathering Essay schooling of children and provide individual learners the resources and motivational frameworks to choose successful strategies. Through good design of programs and practices, the human and social resources that we want to result from school and family partnerships can be produced. The answer lies at what level the essay on grandparents institution is which invests opportunities and resources and at which level the individual learner is Weathering Poverty who must benefit from that investment through his or her own efforts. People involved with Schools are responsible for designing inclusive strategies for partnerships. Food History! Below a model depicts six types of involvement that educators could use to achieve those goals. Main Types of Family Involvement. The Role of parents and their responsibilities Basic structures of support for health safety, food, shelter, parenting skills and Essay child minding, family activities to support children learning.

The Role of the school is to communicate effectively with families about various activities and learner progress From School to stamp history home. From Home to school. Parental Involvement at school Reading moms, Sports Committees, Feeding scheme,Tuckshop, Uniform and Weathering Essay Lost Property. Family involvement in henary fayol learning activities at home Skills to pass the grade, help on homework, National Curriculum. Participation in decisions, leadership, and school sponsorship School Governing Body; Pupils, Parents Teachers’ Support Group, Collaborations and Interactions with the Community. Links to enable the community to contribute towards the school, learners and their families. Links to Essay enable school, learners and history families to Weathering Essay contribute to the community e.g. reading at the Children’s Homes. The strong programs of partnership include all aspects of these types and they are not shown hierarchically. The above model also aims at what parents can do to support the efforts of phenomenology their children through information focussed on by the school. Both parents and educators have a large stake in the children’s success.

No one would disagree but conceptualizing and putting into operation the links between the home and school is an enormous task. In lots of ways policymakers, practitioners and researchers who have explicit ideas about the Poverty rights, roles and responsibilities of participants in education have described programs as well as practices that augment parental involvement in school-related programs. These links that are constructed between practices and outcomes for the various stakeholders are essential. These works are highly realistic and forms alternatives to existing relationships between home and of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner school. In dissimilarity, other scholars read the communications of parents and educators to shed light on the underlying extent of power and ideology. Rather than leading straight to policies or practices, they present ways of problematizing the status quo that can entail new ways of thinking. In Assessment practice I used AFL and it made engaging with the young learners so much easier. My learners love it and more importantly, they learn more efficiently! The acronym AFL stands for Weathering Essay Assessment for Learning which is a set of techniques that help educators and learners to assess progress while learning and make the necessary adjustments. Food History! Learners become aware of what, why and most importantly HOW to learn in order to become successful. They take responsibility for their learning.

One of the magical AFL techniques is another acronym: WALT could be a robot and her name means What Are we Learning Today? Her job is to ask learners questions at the start and Essay end of the lesson instead of Signing Statements Threaten giving them a theme. The questions always start with Can you’ and Weathering Poverty refer to what we want the Effects Socialization: Erikson learners to be able to do at the end of the lesson. My learners and I love WALT because since we started using this magical technique the learners stopped having this kind of Weathering Poverty Essay dialogue with their parents: Mom: So what did you learn in your Literacy class today? Child: Umm, nothing! Instead they say: ‘We learnt 10 new words from program chapter 22 , we listened to Poverty Essay each others’ dialogue about Charlie and Mr Wonka and I completed the gaps!’ One cannot ignore the structure of a system, including the Hierarchy or roles that people play ‘ administrators, educators, support staff and henary fayol non-support staff, parents and of course the learners ‘ classroom and school design, various types of Weathering Poverty schools and henary fayol how the curriculum is structured. Nor can we ignore the school’s environment, which consists of groups, organisations, other institutions and even the Weathering global society outside the school, all of which influence school functions. At whatever level we study the how did get her name educational system of a society, processes are at work. These are the Essay action parts of the system, bringing the structures alive.

Teaching, learning, communicating and decision making as well as those activities that socialize and stratify students into larger life roles are the dynamic parts of the food stamp educational system. Education and other institutions are interdependent in a society. Change in one brings about the change in others. The family’s attitude towards education will definitely affect the child’s experiences of the school. Unfortunately most theoretical perspectives have limitations and most research studies focus on only parts of the whole system. The open systems perspective looks at the educational system as a whole integrated and dynamic entity. The figure below refers to the common characteristics of educational settings: Bernstein, B. (1975) Sources of consensus and disaffection in Essay education. Class, codes and control, volume 3. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Bernstein, B. (1971).

A socio-linguistic approach to socialisation: with some reference to educability. Class, codes and food stamp program control, volume 3. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Charlot, B. (2009). School and pupils’ work. Educational Sciences Journal, 10, pp.

87 ‘ 94. Cherry K. Experience and Development.How Experience influences Child Development. Evans E.M. (2000). The emergence of beliefs about the Weathering Poverty Essay origins of species in school-age children. Merrill’Palmer Quarterly 46, 221’254.

Grignon, C. (2010) Linguistic handicap, special handicap and intellectual handicap. In Frandji, D. Vitale, P. Presidential Signing Statements Threaten To Undermine The Rule Of Law And The Separation! (eds) Knowledge, Pedagogy Society: International perspectives on Basil Bernstein’s sociology of education. Abingdon, Routledge. Holland, J. (1981). Social class and changes in orientations to meaning, Sociology, 15, pp.

1 ‘ 18. Painter, C. (1999) Preparing for school: developing a semantic style for educational knowledge. In F. Christie (Ed.),Pedagogy and the shaping of consciousness (pp. 1 -9). London New York: Continuum. Young, M. (2007). What is schooling for?

In Daniels, H., Lauder, H., and Porter, J. (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Education, Routledge. Edith R. Dempster and Wayne Hugo Introducing the concept of evolution into South African schools South African Journal of Science 102, March/April 2006 Science Education. Davenport. T.R.H. 1980 South Africa. A Modern History. 2nd edition. Johannesburg: Mcmillan South Africa (Publishers) (Pty.) Ltd. Search our thousands of essays:

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to Poverty a high level in our area of stamp program expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and Weathering Poverty you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to phenomenology study us by a student in order to Weathering help you with your studies.

This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in essay on grandparents your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay on Pedagogy, Knowledge and Society . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-pedagogy-knowledge-society/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - Management strategies on learner discipline 27-05-17 - The challenges of trilingual education in Kazakhstan 24-05-17 - Motivation and speaking skills 03-05-17 - Academic libraries 25-04-17 - Clinical education 18-02-17 - Instructional Simulation 21-12-16 - Motivation of teachers - Teaching foreign languages in Romania – the rank of the ESL 11-11-16 - ETHICS FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (LIS) PROFESSIONALS 26-08-16 - INITIATING IMPROVISATION (USED AND UNUSED MATERIAL) WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ART EDUCATION PRACTICE.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sure, you might know the theory behind what a college essay is supposed to Weathering sound and look like. But just like reading a description of the Golden Gate Bridge pales in comparison to food stamp seeing it in person, there’s no replacement for Weathering seeing actual college essays written by students just like you. Well, almost like you – they’ve since gotten into college. But where do you find good sources for reading sample college essays?

How can you make sure that these resources will actually strengthen and improve your writing? And what is the best way to use the essay college essay examples that you do find? In this article, I’ll go over the best books and websites for finding essays, I’ll point out Weathering Poverty, a few to avoid, and I’ll explain how to make the most out of other people’s essays while avoiding common pitfalls. Why Look At College Essay Examples? There are some very good reasons for wanting to check out how other people have handled the college admissions essay. First, because you'll be able to get a better sense of Resolved: Statements Threaten the Rule Separation of Powers what colleges are looking for, you will necessarily broaden your own topic brainstorming past your first, easiest, and most c liched i deas . It's one thing to hear that a completely mundane topic is Weathering way better than one focusing on your greatest sports moment. But once you see other students writing about a family meal, or an phenomenology, obsession with a particular board game, or a love of Weathering Poverty cultivating cacti, you'll be convinced to find your essay in the small moments of your life. Second, you'll see how your life and writing compares to that of bloody mary your peers . The great diversity of voices, topics, tones, points of view will show you just how many things you could possibly write about, and how to keep the essay connected to Poverty your personality and your voice. Finally, if you really do have a good story to tell about something that gets written about a lot, like divorce, pet death, a community service trip, or winning the big game, you can get ideas for how to approach a potentially lackluster essay topic in a novel and Statements to Undermine of Law and the Separation of Powers, striking way . What Makes A Good Sample College Essay Resource? First, the basics.

A source is only as good as its content, so make sure you're reading college essays that worked, from people who actually got into the schools they applied to Poverty . Signing Statements To Undermine Of Law Separation Of Powers! Also, it's best to focus on new essays (not older than 10-15 years), so you are reading what has worked in the most recent past, rather than seeing outdated ideas and historical perspectives. Next, what you really want is Weathering Essay diversity in voice and perspective . Make sure the essays featured come from many different kinds of students: either from Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner, applicants to both top and lower-tier schools; or from students with different ethnic, economic, and Weathering Poverty, racial backgrounds; or from writers using both formal and more experimental essay techniques. Finally, the best sources of admission essays will feature explanatory material . This will give each essay some kind of food context: commentary on what makes the essay good, explanations of the Essay drafting process, or, at least, biographical information about students. Stamp History! Without commentary or context, it’s hard to know what you’re supposed to Weathering Poverty Essay learn from the essays you read. Looking at henary fayol a bunch of identical koi isn't the Weathering best way to learn about freshwater fish varieties. Where to Find Great College Essay Examples. Here are my recommendations for excellent resources, as well as some warnings about of Child Socialization:, resources that I think you should avoid. College Essays Collected in Books. I've taken a look at many of the books that collect college essays, so here are my recommendations. I've divided them into three categories:

Excellent – meaning having really diverse essays or very helpful commentary on each essay, or both Worthwhile – meaning either a helpful collection of essays without a lot of context or commentary, or some great advice but a narrow selection of essays geared toward one particular type of Weathering Poverty Essay school Don't Bother – not useful either as a source of college essays or as a source of henary fayol essay-writing advice and explanations. Also, please note that although I’ve listed the Amazon prices for all the Weathering Essay books, you should definitely check your school and public library for copies before buying them. And even if your library doesn't have a copy, ask them to request one either from another library in the same system or even from the of Child Socialization: Essay Library of Congress through interlibrary loan. Written by Janine W. Robinson, who blogs about college essays at Poverty EssayHell, this book features great sample essays. But it's Robinson's precise and clear explanations of how to use a narrative style in your essay to tell a story about your life that make the book really outstanding.

Through long and detailed commentary on each essay, Robinson shows why narrative is exactly the kind of structure that works best for personal essays. On Grandparents! You can check out Weathering Poverty, sample sections from the book on her blog. The book retails for $10 new on Amazon. Harry Bauld used to be an admissions officer at Brown, so he certainly knows what he is talking about when he writes about how and food history, why to avoid cliches and explains how to find and keep your specific voice . Bauld demonstrates his points with sample essays, showing how they go from first to final draft. The book is easy to read, uses humor to make points, and his advice will carry over into your college writing as well. It is Poverty $12.50 new on Amazon, but there are much cheaper used copies available there as well. This compilation features college admissions essays written by seniors from Berkeley High School (which is not affiliated with UC Berkeley). Effects Of Child Socialization: And Bronfenbrenner Essay! Because the Weathering city of Berkeley is economically, racially, and ethnically very diverse, these essays are about many different interests, perspectives, and experiences, and are written in Effects Essay, many different styles and tones . Although there is no commentary for the essays, this collection is Weathering Poverty a great way to get a sense of the broad array of essay possibilities. Also, because many of the students from Berkeley High apply to UC schools, this collection separates out UC application essay packages. (If you are interested in UC, also check out food stamp program, our own guide to writing excellent UC essays!) This book is currently $15 on Amazon.

Edited by the staff of the Weathering Essay Harvard Crimson, this is a great collection of essays from a not particularly diverse group of students. It is very useful to see how the very top students approach the college essay, as long as their best effort neither intimidates nor stymies you. The contextual material is excellent, with helpful explanations of what makes each essay work well. This book retails for $12 new on Amazon, with much cheaper used copies also available. This Princeton Review guide is stamp history mostly distinguished by its introductory material, which has detailed interviews with many different colleges at many different tiers about what role essays play in college applications, what kind of mistakes are okay, and what to Weathering Essay write and stamp, not to write about. The sample essays themselves come without commentary, but each features a very short bio of the student, including test scores, GPA, a list of colleges where the person applied, and Weathering Poverty, a list of colleges where the how did mary get her name person got in. Poverty Essay! Right now, it's $11.50 new on henary fayol Amazon, but there are cheaper used copies as well. This collection of of college essays that worked, edited by Gen and Kelly Tanabe, has somewhat spare, but insightful, commentary explaining what each essay does well and what it could have done better . Weathering Poverty Essay! It also includes an interview with an admissions officer explaining how essays are used in admissions decisions and some comments from students about the writing process. The link above is to a downloadable PDF file. If you like the Tanabes' approach (they are the authors of the previous book), then you will find this one useful as well.

The narrow diversity of food history essay content and the style of commentary (thoughtful, but not particularly detailed or expansive) is very similar. It's priced at $13.25 new on Amazon with some used options as well. The Fiske of the title is Edward Fiske, who used to be the Education editor of the Weathering Poverty NY Times, and who therefore has some experience with what colleges want from phenomenology, their applicants. The book itself features an Weathering Essay, introduction with some helpful essay-writing tips, a diverse selection of essays built around narrative, but unfortunately has very little commentary to go with each essay . It retails for food stamp $12.50 new on Amazon, with cheaper used options available. Although there's almost no commentary or discussion of what makes these essays work, this book is a reasonably good collection of essays from Weathering Essay, students who are now enrolled at Ivy and phenomenology study, other top-tier schools. What's particularly appealing about this college essay compilation is how very new these essays are: all are from students who became freshmen in 2015 . The book is $14 new on Weathering Poverty Essay Amazon. I'd recommend not spending your time on any of the editions of this collection. The essays are decades old in some cases, the topics are cliched and boring, and there is little to no commentary to make any of them useful. I'll split my recommendations here into worthwhile and don't bother categories. There aren't any truly great collections of sample college essays online.

Individual College Websites. There are many essays published online by the various colleges where these students now go. This means these essays are guaranteed to be real, authentic, and to have worked on someone's application . Some of the Presidential Threaten to Undermine Separation of Powers essays even come with brief commentary by admissions officers about what makes them great. (The link will take you to our list of over 130 essays from more than 15 different colleges.) Teen Ink Magazine. Teen Ink publishes all sorts of writing by teens, including college admission essays, which are split off into their own section on Essay the site. The essays necessary feature a wide range of experiences and perspectives, so this is a great place to get a broad sense of what other students are writing about. The essays don't have any context except comment sections that run the gamut from generic “this is henary fayol good” comments to some insight. Readers also get a chance to Weathering Essay vote on which essays are featured as #1, #2, etc., which may be misleading because readers of Teen Ink aren't admissions officers. Watch out for paid websites like AdmitSee, CollegeMapper, and Acceptional, which claim to essay on grandparents give you access to Weathering Poverty Essay college essays for a monthly or fixed fee. Because of the paywall, there's no way to verify the stamp history quality of the essays these sites have.

Also, there are enough books that you could borrow from your library that you don’t need to pay monthly fees to these places. Finally, I would particularly stay away from AdmidSee, which uses Amazon reviews for other essay resources as a marketing platform. Frogs piggybacking on Weathering each other? Super cute. Food! A company piggybacking its advertising onto book reviews?

Really not cute at Weathering Poverty Essay all. The Best Ways To Use College Admission Essay Samples. So now that you've rounded up a bunch of sample college essays, what should you do with them? Here are some tips for phenomenology study your next steps. When Should You Read Essay Examples? I'd advise waiting until after you've done some brainstorming of your own before you start immersing yourself in other people's work and Weathering Poverty Essay, ideas. (If you're not sure how to brainstorm, check out our guide to coming up with great college essay topics.)

This way, you can use other people’s essays to think about different possibilities for writing about essay, your own topic. Weathering Poverty Essay! For example, looking at how other people tackled their life experience can show you: how to of Child Erikson Essay focus on a different detail in your own story how to change the insight you want to draw from your story how to Poverty think about different ways to start and end your narrative. What Can Good College Essays Teach You? There are both broad and specific learning opportunities to Effects of Child Socialization: Erikson Essay be found in reading other people's work. Broadly speaking, seeing how other people are approaching the problem of writing a college essay can jog your own creative process. Likewise, reading a diversity of Weathering Poverty thoughts and voices will show you that even the most normal and boring seeming experiences be made into riveting essays. More specifically, if you find essays from applicants to henary fayol your target school, you can get some sense of the level of sophistication they expect to see from your writing. Finally, good context and Weathering Poverty Essay, commentary on the essays can show you how they are put together and what makes them work. You can then put this advice to use when rewriting your essay later.

Of course, being surrounded by other people's work, especially when some of that work is food stamp much better than what you think you can manage, has its share of temptations. So what do you need to guard against when looking at sample essays? Plagiarism. This one is basic and obvious. Do not copy these sample essays! Admissions officers have seen them all, read them all, memorized them all – you will not get away with it. Copying and mimicry.

Think of Weathering Poverty this as a softer kind of plagiarism. Even if you really like someone else’s style, don’t borrow it. On Grandparents! Even if someone’s life sounds more exciting than yours, don’t steal a piece of it for your own essay. Why? Because if you don’t sound like yourself, it will be visible to an experienced reader (and guess what, admissions officers are very experienced readers). Also, if you’re writing about experiences that aren't yours, your unfamiliarity will show through the lack of believable details. Let this hand-in-the-alligator's-mouth image pop up in your brain every time you think about Essay, stealing someone else's work. Resources for henary fayol Essay Writing Advice.

In researching this article, I came across books and websites that don't necessarily feature a lot of sample essays, but that give really excellent advice on writing your own college essay. Weathering Poverty! I strongly recommend you spend some time checking them out. Essay Hell blog. Phenomenology Study! This great resource is written by Janine Anderson Robinson, an English teacher and a journalist, whose book Heavenly Essays I recommended above. The blog posts feature lots and lots of well-explained, detailed, easy to Poverty understand advice about how to write your essay, and are broken down into Statements of Law easy to understand, bite-sized nuggets of usefulness.

Slate 's Getting In podcast. Weathering Poverty! The entire series is an how did, interesting look at Weathering the college application process, with useful tips and explanations about all aspects what seniors are going through. History! Check out Episode 2: The Essay, in which a student gets feedback in real time on Poverty Essay their essay from a former Princeton director of admissions and a panel of experts talk about essay dos and don’ts. The episode is how did bloody name 26 minutes long. This is Weathering Poverty incredibly concise and excellent explanation of what not to do and what to avoid when writing your personal statement. It's short, sweet, to the point, and is praised to the skies by legendary Princeton admissions dean Fred Hargadon.

Currently $12 new on Amazon. Look at college essay examples to name broaden your own topic brainstorming and Weathering Essay, get ideas for food stamp history fixing lackluster topics. Look for resources with diverse and recent essays, from many different kinds of students and with explanatory material that explains what makes each essay good. Look at essay samples after you’ve generated some of Weathering Poverty Essay your own ideas to food stamp program think about different possibilities for writing about your own topic. Seeing how other people are approaching the problem of writing a college essay can jog your creative process. Avoid both actual plagiarism and Weathering, “borrowing”: don’t use someone else’s style, voice, or life experiences as your own.

Or maybe you're interested in the University of California? Check out Resolved: Signing Statements Threaten the Rule and the Separation of Powers, our complete guide to the UC personal statements. Thinking about taking the SAT one last time, or prepping for your first run at it? Read our ultimate guide to studying for the SAT and make sure you're as prepared as possible. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in Weathering, the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on essay on grandparents to major in Weathering Poverty Essay, English at food Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia.

She is passionate about Poverty Essay, improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on phenomenology study your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Poverty Essay Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in stamp program history, a variety of other topics!

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