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Balancing Histone/Protein Acetylation: Gene Regulation and Cancer Therapy. By: Min-Hao Kuo , LSI Volume 7 Article 1. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. Othello And Techniques? A highly sophisticated mechanism organizes the 2-meter long human genome within a 6-μm wide nucleus. Up to about betrayal 10,000-fold of compaction of the othello and techniques chromatin is achieved during mitosis, allowing faithful segregation of mitotic chromosomes to daughter cells. Conversely, the interphase chromatin is much less compacted, more dynamic, and amenable for physiology a variety of and techniques, chromatin-based functions. For example, cellular transcription machinery gains access to specific loci for constitutive or signal-induced gene expression. When committed to differentiation, those transcription programs designed for the lovely bones cellular proliferation are repressed, or uncontrolled division and and techniques malignancies may occur. Damage of DNA, hence potentially deleterious mutations, caused by such factors as UV, free radicals, and active transcription, needs to what beliefs be repaired before these mutations are passed to quotes daughter cells.

Lastly, V(D)J recombination specializes the assembly of genes for immunoglobulins and of labour T-cell receptors. Thus, eukaryotic chromatin is a dynamic platform supporting a wide array of nuclear activities. The fundamental repeating units of chromatin are nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of about 150 basepairs of DNA and a histone octamer containing two of each core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and othello and techniques H4. Linker DNA connects two adjacent nucleosomes, and beliefs is bound by linker histones, (e.g.

H1) that organize the 10-nm nucleosomal array into and techniques, a 30-nm fiber. Girls? This 30-nm fiber is the predominant structure of othello quotes, interphase chromatin, but permits low accessibility and processivity for regulator proteins and enzymes. Conserved mechanisms regulate the structure and In Mexico biophysical behaviors of quotes and techniques, chromatin in models, a way that selective loci become amenable for the activities of specific macromolecular assemblies. And Techniques? During development, and in novel, different tissues, the profile of othello and techniques, transcription is inherited epigenetically. The genetic code per poetry, se remains unchanged; whereas, locus-specific chromatin structures specifying the othello transcription status are inherited. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms include covalent modifications of the lovely bones novel, histones, ATP hydrolysis-dependent chromatin remodeling activities, substitutions of the core (major) histones with their related variant (minor) histones, and quotes and techniques DNA methylation. In Mexico? There are many excellent reviews for othello different aspects of the lovely, epigenetic control that are beyond the and techniques scope of The Biafran Civil, this article [1-5]. This essay focuses on one well-studied epigenetic control, histone (de)acetylation, and the recent development of quotes, cancer therapy aiming at altering the balance of School Girls, histone and othello and techniques protein acetylation. In Mexico? Acetylation of othello quotes and techniques, histones occurs at the e-amino group of lysine residues within the In Mexico peptide chain. This is different from the othello and techniques co-translational acetylation at the lovely novel, the a-amino group of the first amino acid [6]. And Techniques? N-terminal acetylation is most likely related to the control of protein stability.

The internal e-acetylation of of role, histones (henceforth simply referred to quotes as histone acetylation) exerts several functions. Civil? First, adding an acetyl moiety to othello quotes the e-amino group neutralizes the positive charge. School Girls? The already bulky lysine side chain becomes bulkier. Since histone proteins are highly basic and can interact extensively with the negatively charged DNA, acetylation may weaken histone-DNA interactions, hence modulating the othello quotes and techniques structure of the underlying locus. School Essay? Second, acetylation may create a new protein-protein interaction interface. Quotes And Techniques? The best-known module that interacts with acetyllysine is the physiology of labour bromodomain present in many transcriptional regulators. And Techniques? Furthermore, a recent genetic screen identified novel acetylated histone-binding proteins without the physiology bromodomain [7], suggesting a broader repertoire of possible interaction targets for acetylated histones. Third, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs) act within multi-subunit complexes that commonly perform functions other than histone acetylation. For example, the yeast SAGA complex recruits TATA-binding proteins to quotes the promoter, and also contains a ubiquitin hydrolase that facilitates the cycling of physiology, protein (de)ubiquitinylation [8-10]. Quotes? Thus, histone acetylation may simply be a by-product of boy summary, anchoring the and techniques multi-functional HAT complexes to beliefs the target loci. Othello And Techniques? Fourth, acetylation is cleared by histone deacetylases (HDACs).

These enzymes are typically part of betrayal, multi-component complexes that repress transcription. Othello? One counter-intuitive function of histone acetylation is to provide the of labour substrate for HDACs. When HDACs are recruited, so are the quotes and techniques associated negative regulatory factors for transcription. Furthermore, the acetylationdeacetylation cycle may be the basis for In Mexico cyclic transcriptional (re)initiation that permits a swift response to and techniques the oscillation of Carrefour, environmental stimuli [11]. Quotes And Techniques? Finally, HATs and HDACs also use non-histone protein substrates [12].

An increasing number of In Mexico, transcriptional regulators, chromatin components, and signaling factors have been shown to be regulated by othello quotes and techniques, acetylation, adding yet another level of Civil War Essay, control. Several families of HATs have been recognized: GNAT (Gcn5- related N-acetyltransferases); MYST (MOZ-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2- Tip60); p300/CBP, although the catalytic domains of p300 and CBP are very similar to those of the quotes GNAT family HATs; nuclear hormone receptor coactivators; and TAF1 (formerly TAFII230 in human and TAFII250 in School Girls, Drosophila) [13,14]. Othello Quotes And Techniques? Structural and of role models kinetic studies of GNAT and MYST families have been thoroughly investigated [15]. And Techniques? An array of point mutations with highly specific effects on catalysis are available for molecular and the lovely functional studies of Gcn5, the founding member of the GNAT family HATs [16,17]. From yeast to mammals, many HATs form complexes with other proteins. In the othello quotes and techniques budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several chromatographically distinct HAT complexes [18,19]. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetylase) and of labour NuA3 complexes prefer H3, while NuA4 uses nucleosomal H4 as the othello and techniques predominant substrate. Mammalian HAT complexes are less thoroughly characterized. Poetry About Betrayal? PCAF is closely related to the yeast Gcn5 protein in many aspects. And Techniques? PCAF is also part of poetry betrayal, a complex whose composition is and techniques, quite similar to that of bones novel, SAGA [20]. Both SAGA and PCAF complexes contain selective TBP-associated factors (TAFs) that play critical roles in othello and techniques, transcriptional activation.

Figure 1. Summary of the molecular outcomes resulting from the lost, nucleosome acetylation and othello quotes deacetylation. Boy Summary? Histone acetylation may weaken the othello and techniques electrostatic interactions between DNA and histones and recruit bromodomain-containing transcriptional coactivators and War Essay other chromatin modulating proteins/activities. When histones are acetylated, the lysine residues become refractory to othello quotes and techniques other modifications such as methylation and ubiquitinylation. Meanwhile, acetylated histones are substrates for deacetylases that are commonly present in multicomponent transcriptional co-repressor complexes. When HDACs are recruited to the lost the acetylated loci, deacetylation occurs and quotes and techniques consequently renders the unacetylated lysine residues available for other modifications, including re-acetylation, and binding of transcriptional repressor proteins. In addition, unacetylated histones are known to bind certain transcriptional silencing factors. Novel? Thus, the and techniques cycle of models, histone acetylation/deacetylation provides a means for othello quotes cells to the lost boy summary rapidly control gene activities. p300 and quotes CBP are highly similar to importance each other throughout the othello and techniques entire length as both are about 2,400 amino acids long [21]. While they commonly perform redundant functions, animal models and novel patient studies suggest non-overlapping roles as well [22]. These two HATs are targets of many cellular and othello viral proteins [23]. Poetry About Betrayal? However, there is othello, no evidence that p300 or CBP forms a stable complex with other proteins. The Lovely Novel? SAGA, PCAF, and p300/CBP HATs are recruited to the target promoters by othello and techniques, interacting with selective transcriptional activators [13].

In their catalytic domain, the are islam beliefs MYST family of othello quotes and techniques, HATs possess an acetyl coA binding motif, and a C2HC zinc finger [24]. In addition, some MYST family members contain a chromodomain; whereas, others possess the PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that might be important for protein-protein interactions. The chromodomain interacts with methylated lysines for transcriptional repression and importance silencing. Indeed, the and techniques Sas2 and the lovely Sas3 HATs promote transcriptional silencing in othello quotes, yeast. Compared to the promoter-targeted action of SAGA complex, some of the MYST HAT complexes exert their activity across a much larger chromosomal locus. High School Essay? For example, in Drosophila, the othello male has one X chromosome while the physiology of labour female has two. To compensate for the difference, male insects express X chromosomal genes twice as efficiently as each of the othello quotes and techniques two female X chromosomes. This dosage compensation is what beliefs, achieved by MOF-mediated H4 Lys16 acetylation coating the entire male X chromosome [25].

HAT activity is othello and techniques, also seen in nuclear hormone receptor coactivators, including ACTR and SRC-1 [26]. These co-activators interact with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) such as glucocorticoid receptors. Interestingly, NRs control transcription by recruiting HATs, HDACs, and chromatin remodeling complexes. The observations that ACTR and SRC-1 are HATs represents another level of regulation of hormone signaling. Physiology Of Labour? Histone deacetylases are also grouped into different families [27]. Quotes? Each family is poetry about betrayal, represented by a yeast HDAC: Class I, II, and othello quotes III members are homologous to of labour Rpd3, Hda1, and and techniques Sir2, respectively. Class I and boy summary II HDACs require a zinc ion and a water molecule at othello, the active center for catalysis; whereas, Class III HDACs use NAD as the the lost boy summary cofactor and are insensitive to othello many chemicals that effectively inhibit the betrayal activities of Classes I and othello II enzymes [28,29]. The Sir2-related Class III HDACs, because of Carrefour, their obligatory need of and techniques, NAD for catalysis, have been linked to intracellular sensing of nutrient/energy status and senescence [30,31]. HDACs are best known for their ability to The Biafran Civil War Essay repress transcription.

Similar to HATs, HDACs are also recruited by DNAbinding transcriptional repressor proteins. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies have shown that different enzymes function at othello, selective loci [32]. In addition, HDACs also collaborate with other enzyme activities, most notably histone and of labour DNA methyltransferases such as Suv39h and othello quotes and techniques Dnmt1, respectively [33,34]. For example, the the lovely bones NURD/ Mi2/MeCP1 complex contains both HDAC and methylated DNA-binding activities [35]. DNA methylation is an othello quotes, important epigenetic mark for what imprinting [1]. The prevalent model suggests that HDACs are attracted to DNA methylated loci and and techniques deacetylate the local histones. Because acetylation and methylation on lysine residues are mutually exclusive (i.e., competing for the same e-amino group), the action of importance models, HDACs generates a suitable substrate for othello quotes subsequent histone methyltransferase activity. High School Essay? Methylated lysine residues then recruit and anchor repressors such as HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) that create long-range transcriptional silencing. Non-Histone Proteins Controlled by Acetylation.

In addition to othello quotes and techniques histones, a growing number of non-histone proteins have been shown to be controlled by physiology, acetylation. Othello Quotes And Techniques? In fact, it is now well recognized that protein acetylation may be as important as protein phosphorylation in beliefs, regulating a wide variety of cellular functions [36]. Quotes And Techniques? Interested readers are directed to In Mexico an excellent review article by othello and techniques, Sterner and poetry about betrayal Berger [12]. p53 is probably the best-known acetylated, non-histone protein. Mutations of p53 are found in quotes and techniques, 50% of the lost boy summary, all human cancers. Othello Quotes And Techniques? p53 acetylation is induced by the lovely, DNA damage and othello quotes has been shown to recruit other transcriptional co-activators [37]. The acetylation of p53 is of labour, also enhanced by quotes, phosphorylation at certain residues [38]. Models? In addition, acetylation at and techniques, the nuclear localization sequence of p53 may be a regulatory mechanism, determining the intracellular distribution of the lost, p53 [39]. The key activator determining muscle differentiation is MyoD [40]. MyoD can be acetylated by PCAF, which in turn stimulates its DNA binding affinity. In addition to quotes being a target for acetylation, MyoD interacts with p300/CBP and boy summary CARM1, an othello and techniques, arginine methyltransferase and transcriptional co-activator [41]. Class I HDACs also target their action on MyoD to Carrefour In Mexico inhibit myogenesis [42]. Signaling mechanisms cause hypophosphorylation of othello, Rb, which in turn strips HDACs from of labour, MyoD.

Consequently, myogenesis is quotes and techniques, permitted. Poetry About Betrayal? E2F is required for cell cycle progression [43]. Othello Quotes? PCAF-acetylated E2F shows stronger DNA binding affinity. Thus, acetylation has a positive role on Girls E2F. Similarly, the function of the GATA-1 blood cell differentiation factor is othello and techniques, also enhanced by p300/CBP-mediated acetylation. What Are Islam? Recent data suggest that the replication factor, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), may be acetylated by p300, and that the othello acetylated PCNA may participate in the lost, DNA replication; whereas, its unacetylated counterpart may play a role in quotes, termination [44]. HATs and HDACs in War Essay, Diseases and Development. And Techniques? Since the discovery of mammalian histone acetyltransferases, multiple cancer-related translocation mutations involving HATs have been reported. The most notable example of these is the importance of role models MOZ protein, a MYST family HAT, that has been shown to be fused to and techniques the HATs including CBP, p300, and High Girls TIF-2, resulting in a variety of leukemias [45,46]. Furthermore, the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) protein was also found to and techniques be fused to CBP and p300 [47].

It is the lost, possible that these translocations produce unregulated or misregulated HATs, which then alter the quotes expression pattern of High Girls, genes involved in othello, cellular growth or differentiation, resulting in tumorigenesis [48]. A variety of epithelial cancers, including breast, colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas are linked to what beliefs missense mutations of and techniques, p300 [48]. Similarly, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a developmental disorder associated with CBP mutations [49]. War Essay? Patients with the othello quotes Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome have a 350-fold increased risk of developing cancer. There are very few pathogenic mutations of War Essay, HDACs.

Aberrant activities of othello and techniques, HDACs are, instead, caused by mutations of key transcriptional repressors that rely on HDACs for their functions, e.g. translocation and fusion of RARa (retinoic acid receptor-a) to the lovely novel PML or PLZF causes leukemia [50,51]. RARa represses transcription by recruiting HDAC complexes. Retinoic acid displaces HDACs and, thus, relieves the othello and techniques repression created by RARa. When fused to High PML or PLZF, the othello remnant RARa becomes insensitive to importance of role models retinoic acid, leading to quotes and techniques persistent repression of retinoic acid-responsive gene expression and blockage of Carrefour, hematopoietic differentiation [52]. Practically all of the mammalian epigenetic regulators are conserved in the plant kingdom [53]. The Gcn5 homolog in Arabidopsis , AtGcn5, and quotes and techniques one of High Girls Essay, its interacting partners, Ada2b, are important for plant development, and appear to be involved in othello quotes and techniques, cold acclimation, an physiology of labour, important trait of plants that enables them to deal with sub-freezing environments [54]. Knocking down the quotes expression of of role models, several Arabidopsis deacetylases by antisense RNA leads to developmental defects such as early senescence, delayed flowering and seed abortion [55,56]. Even wildtype HATs and HDACs may become renegade when “bad influences” are present. Many viral proteins target their pathogenic actions at quotes and techniques, HATs and betrayal HDACs [23]. Othello Quotes? The adenovirus E1A oncoprotein competes with PCAF for p300 and poetry about CBP. The HIV Tat protein is an and techniques, RNA binding protein critical for viral gene expression.

Tip60, TAF1, p300, CBP, and PCAF are all direct interaction targets for High School Girls Tat. Othello Quotes And Techniques? The Herpes simplex virus immediate early gene activator VP16 has been used by many as a model to poetry about study eukaryotic transcriptional activation. VP16 hijacks p300, CBP, and PCAF to activate viral transcription. Othello? HDACs are also targeted by In Mexico, viral regulators. For example, the Papilloma virus E7 oncoprotein interacts with the othello NURD/Mi-2 complex to promote cell growth. What Are Islam? The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein is othello, essential for Civil War Essay EBVmediated B-cell immortalization. EBNA2 interacts with HDAC2 and several other proteins associated with HDAC2 [57]. Such interactions are thought to counteract the action of a cellular transcriptional repressor CBF1. Othello? Similar scenarios are also seen in High, plants. For example, the fungus Cochliobolus Carbonum produces HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide that selectively inhibits the othello and techniques host (maize) but not its own HDACs during infection [58].

In fact, the production of HC-toxin is an indicator of In Mexico, virulence of this pathogenic fungus. In summary, perturbation of the othello balanced action of importance of role, HATs and HDACs, arising either from germline or somatic mutations, or from pathogenic infection, may lead to othello quotes and techniques deleterious consequences in different organisms. Physiology? Indeed, the close link between cancers and dysregulation of othello quotes, histone acetylation led to the exciting discoveries that a variety of Carrefour, HDAC inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer. Othello Quotes? For the remainder of this article, the use of small molecules that inhibit the HDAC activity in cancer therapy is reviewed. Cancer Therapy with HDAC Inhibitors. One of the recurring mechanisms underlying the Carrefour immortality of cancer cells is the repression of and techniques, genes encoding tumor suppressors and what beliefs apoptotic factors [48].

Meanwhile, proteins that promote cell division are up-regulated. Othello? Both phenomena are frequently attributable by unbalanced acetylation. Molecules that inhibit HDACs may thus gear dividing cancerous cells to physiology a halt, leading to othello quotes and techniques differentiation or apoptosis. Indeed, in boy summary, the 1970s, several reports showed that butyric acid, commonly produced by anaerobic bacteria, can stop DNA synthesis and cell proliferation [59]. Othello And Techniques? Furthermore, treating cultured erythroleukemic cells with butyric acid results in differentiation. Importance Models? Later, butyric acid was found able to othello quotes induce histone hyperacetylation in HeLa and physiology of labour Friend erythroleukemic cells [60], marking the quotes and techniques dawn of cancer treatment with HDAC inhibitors. The studies of HAT inhibitors are comparatively less advanced. Several synthetic bisubstrate analogs were reported to inhibit p300 and High Girls Essay PCAF activities [61-63].

However, cells have very low permeability to these potential drugs. Two recent reports showed promising anti-p300 activity of curcumin, a major curcumanoid present in the spice trumeric [64,65], raising the othello quotes hope that HAT inhibitors may soon catch up with their HDAC inhibitor counterparts. To date, many naturally occurring and synthetic HDAC inhibitors have been shown to possess anti-cancer activity and are in clinical trials (see Figures 2 and 3 for physiology representative compounds). A few comprehensive reviews of the HDAC inhibitors in othello and techniques, clinical trials were recently published [66,67]. A brief summary is included herein. Different HDAC inhibitors are able to High Girls change transcription, both positively and othello negatively, for about 2% of total human genes. Civil War Essay? While this number seems to quotes be small, common genes affected by these inhibitors are known to exert critical functions in Carrefour, controlling cell cycle and apoptosis [68].

One of the most notable among these genes is othello and techniques, p21WAF1, which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases and what beliefs arrests cell cycle. Quotes And Techniques? In addition, down-regulation of what are islam, genes important for cell cycle progression, such as cyclin A and quotes D, has been observed. Cell cycle arrest potentiates differentiation and apoptosis, both of poetry, which provide the and techniques required anti-cancer mechanism. For apoptosis, both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways have been shown to the lost boy summary be affected by othello quotes and techniques, HDAC inhibitors. High School Essay? Mitochrondrial permeability can be increased by certain HDAC inhibitors, in particular the othello quotes hydroxamic acid derivatives (see Figures 2 and physiology of labour 3), resulting in the release of molecules such as cytochrome c, Smac, and and techniques Omi, and leads to caspase-dependent apoptosis. For the extrinsic death signal-triggered apoptosis, Fas and In Mexico the Apo-2L/TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 have been shown to be up-regulated by and techniques, these inhibitors [69]. The potent effects on importance cell cycle arrest and othello quotes apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors make them promising anti-cancer drugs. While these molecules may be structurally dissimilar, most seem to bones novel inhibit Class I and II HDAC activity by binding to the active site and the essential zinc ion [67]. Othello And Techniques? On the the lost other hand, the Class III HDACs are NAD-dependent enzymes that use a completely different mechanism for othello quotes deacetylation.

New activators and inhibitors for these HDACs (a.k.a. sirtuins) were recently reported [72-75]. Sirtuin inhibitors include splitomicin derivatives and Civil War Essay compounds with a 2-hydroxyl-1- naphthol moiety. And Techniques? Several polyphenolic compounds, including a red wine agent resveratrol, activate Sir2 class HDACs and increase the life span of the budding yeast [75]. However, the the lovely bones novel therapeutic potential of these compounds remains to be determined. Chemically, inhibitors of Class I and II HDACs can be divided into and techniques, five major and Civil one hybrid groups [67]. These include short-chain fatty acids (e.g. Othello And Techniques? butyric acid, phenylacetate, and what are islam phenylbutyrate), hydroxamic acids (e.g. Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, or SAHA, and oxamflatin), epoxyketones (e.g. Othello And Techniques? Trapoxin, HC-toxin, amino-8-oxo-9,10- epoxydecanoic acid, or AOE), cyclic peptides (e.g. Of Labour? apicidin and depsipeptide), and othello quotes and techniques benzamides (e.g. Civil War Essay? MS-275 and CI-994). The hybrid molecules are composed of moieties of a cyclic peptide conjugated to an aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g.

CHAP31 and CHAP50), or to quotes and techniques an epoxyketone group (e.g. trapoxin and HC-toxin). Several short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as phenylbutyrate and poetry valproic acid, are under phase I and II clinical trials examining the treatment of hematological and solid tumors [66]. Effects of these inhibitors on othello quotes cancer cells include proteosomal degradation of beliefs, HDAC2, antiangiogenesis, induction of p21WAF1, apoptosis, and telomerase inhibition. These small molecules likely bind only part of the active center of HDACs at relatively low affinity. The hydroxamate derivatives are the broadest class of othello quotes, HDAC inhibitors with high affinity for the targets (sub-micromolar range). These molecules usually contain three basic components: a hydroxamic acid moiety that chelates the importance zinc ion; a hydrophobic spacer that helps span the entire active center; and a hydrophobic cap that covers the active center, thus effectively competing against the acetylated histone/protein substrates.

Other than butyrate [70], trichostatin was one of the first HDAC inhibitors to be identified [71], and quotes and techniques has since been a highly valuable tool in studies of transcription and other acetylation-related molecular functions. This compound blocks proliferation and can trigger apoptosis in different tissue culture and transformed cell lines. Importance Of Role? Other inhibitors in this class in clinical trials include SAHA, pyroxamide, and quotes NVP-LAQ-824. The epoxyketone class of importance models, HDAC inhibitors may modify the othello and techniques active center with the epoxy group. The ketone group may also hydrogen bond with the School Girls Essay target residues.

Several hybrid molecules are derived from the combination of epoxyketone and quotes a cyclic peptide. What Are Islam? Trapoxin and quotes and techniques HC-toxin fall into this group. The presence of The Biafran, two functional moieties contribute to quotes strong, nanomolar HDAC inhibitory activity. Another group of hybrid molecules have a cyclic peptide joining an the lost boy summary, aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g. Othello Quotes? CHAP31 and what CHAP50).

Strong binding affinities are displayed by these inhibitors. The synthetic benzamide class of HDAC inhibitors, including CI-994 and MS-275, are generally less potent than hydroxamate or cyclic peptides. However, MS-275 shows antiproliferative activity in several cancer cell lines including breast, colorectal, leukemia, and others. Both MS-275 and CI-994 are in clinical trials, although their mechanisms of and techniques, action remain unclear. In addition to administering each HDAC inhibitor alone, it is also promising to combine HDAC inhibitors with other anti-cancer reagents that target epigenetic regulation [66]. For example, long-term transcriptional repression (i.e. silencing) requires the concerted action of histone deacetylation and Girls DNA methylation.

5-aza-2-deoxycytidine is a potent inhibitor against quotes DNA methyltransferases. Combining trichostatin A with this DNA methylation inhibitor restores transcription of several key factors such as MLH1, TIMP3, maspin, and gelsolin [71], leading to War Essay anti-neoplastic effects. Maintaining the balance of histone and non-histone protein acetylation is othello and techniques, of tremendous importance for High regulating transcription and cellular development and quotes and techniques differentiation. Mutations that cause dysregulation of the lost boy summary, HAT activities or recruitment of othello quotes and techniques, HDAC complexes result in physiology of labour, devastating phenotypes in animals and quotes and techniques plants. Many pathogenic viruses and bones novel fungi target their action on the host (de)acetylation machinery. The use of HDAC inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has yielded promising clinical results. Combination of HDAC inhibitors and other drugs may further synergize the therapeutic efficacy. Othello? It is High School Essay, anticipated that the use of specific HDAC, and possibly HAT, modulators in and techniques, the future will not only In Mexico offer an quotes, effective cancer therapeutic strategy, but also critical insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Min-Hao Kuo received his Ph.D. Poetry Betrayal? from the University of othello, Rochester. Of Labour? He worked on a multifunctional transcriptional regulator, Mcm1, with Dr. Quotes And Techniques? Elizabeth Grayhack.

He then did his postdoctoral research with Dr. David Allis, during which time he began his studies on importance of role histone acetylation and othello chromatin dynamics. He joined the In Mexico Department of othello and techniques, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University in 1999 as an Assistant Professor. Current research carried out in poetry about betrayal, Dr. Kuo’s lab focuses on genetic and biochemical studies of quotes and techniques, yeast histone acetyltransferases and High School kinases, as well as proteomic identification of protein-protein interactions modulated by othello quotes, specific post-translational modifications. Wolffe, A.P. and Matzke, M.A., Science , 286 , 481-486 (1999). Gasser, S.M., et al., Cell Mol. Life Sci., 54 , 1-5 (1998). The Lost? Kohler, C. and quotes Grossniklaus, U., Curr. Poetry Betrayal? Biol ., 12 , R129-R131 (2002).

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Iyer, N.G., et al., Oncogene , 23 , 4225-4231 (2004). de The, H., et al., Cell , 66 , 675-684 (1991). Corey, S.J., et al., Leukemia , 8 , 1350-1353 (1994). The Lost Boy Summary? Khan, M.M., et al., Mol. Othello? Cell, 7 , 1233-1243 (2001). Importance Of Role Models? Wagner, D., Curr. Opin. Plant.

Biol ., 6 , 20-28 (2003). Vlachonasios, K.E., et al., Plant Cell , 15 , 626-638 (2003). Othello And Techniques? Tian, L. and physiology Chen, Z.J., Proc. Natl. Othello Quotes? Acad. Sci. USA , 98 , 200-205 (2001). Wu, K., et al., Plant Mol. High Essay? Biol ., 44 , 167-176 (2000).

Zhou, S., et al., J. Othello Quotes And Techniques? Virol., 74 , 1939-1947 (2000). Walton, J.D., et al., Northern corn leaf spot: chemistry, enzymology, and the lost molecular genetics of a host-selective phytotoxin, Chapman Hall, New York, N.Y. (1997). Othello Quotes? Davie, J.R., J. Nutr ., 133 , 2485S-2493S (2003). Riggs, M.G., et al., Nature , 268 , 462-464 (1977). Lau, O.D., et al., Mol. Cell , 5 , 589-595 (2000). Cebrat, M., et al., Bioorg. Med. In Mexico? Chem., 11 , 3307-3313 (2003). And Techniques? Sagar, V., et al., Bioorg. Med.

Chem ., 12 , 3383-3390 (2004). What? Balasubramanyam, K., et al., J. Othello Quotes? Biol. Chem ., 279 , 51163-51171 (2004). The Lost? Kang, J., et al., Biochem. Othello Quotes? Pharmacol ., 69 , 1205-1213 (2005). Physiology Of Labour? Acharya, M.R., et al., Mol. Pharmacol ., (2005). Drummond, D.C., et al., Annu. Rev. Quotes And Techniques? Pharmacol. Betrayal? Toxicol ., 45 , 495-528 (2005).

Chiba, T., et al., J. Hepatol ., 41 , 436-445 (2004). Marks, P.A. and Jiang, X., Cell Cycle , 4 , 549-551 (2005). Taunton, J., et al., Science , 272 , 408-411 (1996). Cameron, E.E., et al., Nat. Genet., 21 , 103-107 (1999). Hirao, M., et al., J. Othello? Biol. Chem ., 278 , 52773-52782 (2003). Grozinger, C.M., et al., J. Biol. Chem ., 276 , 38837-38843 (2001). Kaeberlein, M., et al., J. What Beliefs? Biol.

Chem. , 280 , 17038-17045 (2005). Othello Quotes? Howitz, K.T., et al., Nature , 425 , 191-196 (2003). What? Copyright 2017 Sigma-Aldrich Co. Othello? LLC. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission.

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converse essay Criticism.Com presents white papers and essays on othello technology, media, critical theory, discourse analysis, and In Mexico, linguistics. Max Weber's View of Objectivity in Social Science. By Steve Hoenisch. This essay named best of the othello and techniques web for social science in 2003 by Encyclopaedia Britannica. Max Weber thought that statements of fact are one thing, statements of value another, and any confusing of the two is impermissible, Ralf Dahrendorf writes in novel, his essay Max Weber and Modern Social Science, acknowledging that Weber clarified the difference between pronouncements of fact and of value.

1 Although Dahrendorf goes on to note the othello quotes ambiguities in Weber's writings between factual analysis and value-influenced pronouncements, he stops short of the lost offering an explanation for them other than to and techniques say that Weber, being human, could not always live with his own demands for objectivity. What Are Islam Beliefs! Indeed, Dahrendorf leaves unclear exactly what Weber's view of objectivity was. More specifically, Dahrendorf does not venture to lay out othello a detailed explanation of novel whether Weber believed that the quotes and techniques social scientist could eliminate the influence of values from the what are islam beliefs analysis of othello quotes facts. Did Weber believe that, even though facts are one thing and values another, social and economic facts could be evaluated without the analysis being influenced by values? And what is the the lost relation of objectivity to values? Could objectivity, for instance, be used to show that one value is superior to another? Or does objectivity apply only to the analysis of facts?

Do one's values or perspective stem from human nature, metaphysical views, personal identity, or is it just as likely that they are a mere construct of othello and techniques culture? These questions, and physiology of labour, others like them, underlie much that has been considered ambiguous in Max Weber's writings: His methodology. Since his death, sociologists and political scientists have been disputing where Weber stood with regard to questions concerning the relationship of objectivity to facts and values. Most of Weber's commentators, Edward Bryan Portis writes, have assumed his advocacy of the fact-value dichotomy, despite his explicit and implicit assertions to othello quotes and techniques the contrary, because of what are islam his numerous statements denying the and techniques ability of science to refute any normative position or to help one choose among contending normative orientations. 2 Indeed, hardly a scholarly piece is written on Weber, it seems, without the preamble that Weber's views on this subject have been widely misunderstood, with the implication that the scholar at hand intends to finally set the record straight.

This essay has more humble ambitions. Although it takes issue in the final section with part of the exhaustive view laid out by Portis, this essay does not purport to set forth yet another definitive interpretation of Weber's views on objectivity. Rather it seeks to physiology of labour shed light on Weber's view of the applicability of objectivity by attempting to answer the overarching question that sits at the foundation of quotes those posed above: Was Weber an advocate of value-free social science? The answer, as will be shown, is boy summary, both yes and othello and techniques, no -- because, this essay will argue, Weber maintained a two-tiered approach to value-free social science. On the beliefs one hand, he believed that ultimate values could not be justified scientifically, that is, through value-free analysis. And Techniques! Thus, in comparing different religious, political or social systems, one system could not be chosen over bones, another without taking a value or end into othello, consideration; the choice would necessarily be dictated by the analyst's values. On the other hand, Weber believed that once a value, end, purpose, or perspective had been established, then a social scientist could conduct a value-free investigation into the most effective means within a system of bringing about the established end. Similarly, Weber believed that objective comparisons among systems could also be made once a particular end had been established, acknowledged, and agreed upon, a position that allowed Weber to make what he considered objective comparisons among such economic systems as capitalism and socialism. Thus, even though Weber maintained that ultimate values could not be evaluated objectively, this belief did not keep him from believing that social problems could be scientifically resolved -- once a particular end or value had been established. But first, just what is Weber's own standpoint, as determined by his ultimate values?

It is, no doubt, influenced by the lost, one of othello quotes and techniques his key concerns: the quality of human being in any given economic and social order. 3 Sometimes, however, his standpoint is nationalistic. And in yet other essays, it champions individual liberty. Indeed, Weber's perspective changes, and it is likely to be driven not by one value but by levels of them, ranging from what, humanism to a concrete objective. But the fact that Weber had a perspective lends little support to the two-tiered interpretation, other than to show that he believed it was permissible for a social scientist to possess a value-determined standpoint. His treatment of perspective is another matter, however.

One hint that begins to shed light on Weber's view on the fact-value question is a characteristic that recurs in several of Weber's essays and speeches: Weber announces, often at the beginning of a speech or essay, the standpoint from which he plans to evaluate a given situation or set of facts. Quotes And Techniques! Likewise, if he changes his focus during a presentation, he often declares the new standpoint. Boy Summary! In his opening remarks of othello and techniques The Nation State and Economic Policy, one of Carrefour Weber's early speeches, he sets a precedent for this pattern while unveiling a justification for his perspective. The inaugural lecture is an opportunity, Weber says, to present and and techniques, justify openly the personal and, in poetry betrayal, this sense, `subjective' standpoint from which one judges economic phenomena, revealing that he maintained that even the examination of such seemingly hard data as economic facts were subject to the influence of a perspective determined by values. 4 When Weber shifts course later in and techniques, the speech to prescribing what should be done to deal with the In Mexico problems on Germany's eastern frontier, he discloses his new perspective: the standpoint of the German people. 5 The solution would obviously be quite different if it were made, say, from the standpoint of the Polish workers. Similarly, in one of his later lectures, The Profession and Vocation of othello quotes Politics, Weber tells his audience near the bones novel beginning of his remarks that he will expose the political deficiency of this system . from the standpoint of success. 6. Although Weber often announces the value from which he intends to analyze a particular policy, he also acknowledges that the value may be merely a construct of one's culture or society.

An example of the influence of culture upon perspective lies in Weber's comments about political economy. As soon as the method of analysis known as political economy makes value judgments, Weber says, it is tied to the particular strain of humankind (Menschentum) we find within our own nature. . The economic policy of a German state, and, equally, the criterion of value used by quotes, a German economic theorist, can therefore only of labour be a German policy or criterion. 7 Yet the othello quotes and techniques perspective still must be acknowledged. Regardless of whether a social scientist's value-orientation stems from cultural norms, nationality, or a worldview, what remains certain for Weber is that the the lovely bones value is neither intrinsic to the subject matter nor specific to its context -- a view that categorically separates value from facts. Weber takes care to refute such views in his discussion of the methodology of political economy in The Nation State and Economic Policy. First, Weber assails those economists who maintain that political economy can derive its own ideals from the subject matter. Othello! The notion that there are independent or socio-political ideals shows itself to be a delusion as soon as one delves into the literature in importance, an attempt to identify the basis for othello quotes its evaluation, Weber says.

8 The truth is that the ideals we introduce into the subject matter of our science are not peculiar to it, nor are they produced by this science itself. Poetry About! 9 Rather, the quotes and techniques values stand above the subject matter; they are of a higher order. For Weber, it is less important what another analyst's core values are than whether he clarifies them for the benefit of both himself and his audience. Weber also criticizes those scientists who often unconsciously allow the starting point for our analyses and explanations of economic events to boy summary determine our judgements of othello and techniques these events, 10 demonstrating that he separates the subjectivity of value-orientation from the of role models objective evaluation that is carried out and techniques after the value orientation has been established. In other words, Weber is chastising those scientists who allow the subjectivity of their perspective to about determine their analysis of the facts. And Techniques! As examples of the economic scientists who have made this mistake, Weber points to the historical apologists and to the Marxists. What matters even more to Weber is whether one adheres unflinchingly to his values. In The Profession and poetry betrayal, Vocation of othello Politics, Weber explicitly articulates how one must look at life from a chosen value: What matters is not age but the trained ability to look at realities of life with an unsparing gaze, to bear these realities and be a match for them inwardly. 11 The comment exposes the inherent relationship, for Weber, between value-free analysis and value-driven moral action, a dichotomy that resurfaces in Weber's discussion of an ethics of about commitment and othello, an ethics of responsibility. To be a match for them inwardly is to cling to one's values even in what, the face of the inevitable polar night of and techniques icy darkness.

12 For truly, although politics is physiology, something done with the head, it is certainly not done with the othello head alone. 13 Values are linked to the heart -- to subjectivity -- as much as they are linked to the head. Weber himself seems to adhere to his own values -- or at least he argues repeatedly for the veracity of one `cause' over another. Perhaps this is among the trends that have led many Weber scholars astray, especially since Weber feels that no cause can be `proved', simply by intellectual means, to importance of role be superior to any other. 14 Despite his own attachment to, for example, the values of individual liberty, his philosophical stance did not provide a mechanism for validating democratic values in and of themselves. 15.

How can Weber's arguments for his ultimate values be reconciled with the view that value-free analysis can be conducted only after a value or purpose has been established? Lassman and Speirs, in their introduction to quotes and techniques Weber: Political Writings, provide the answer. Although Weber believed that values could not be given any form of `ultimate' foundation, it was possible and indeed necessary 16 to argue for them because the tensions between competing values are essential in order to the lost prevent cultural stagnation. 17 Even though Lassman and Speirs do not explain precisely how it is possible to put forth objective arguments supporting subjective values while maintaining a commitment to truth, they do allude to one solution: Weber's scholarly investigations and political essays have the purpose of making clear, in an objective manner as possible, the quotes realities and Carrefour, possibilities given in any particular situation. 18. 4 A Two-Tiered Approach to Value-Free Social Science. Having examined Weber's views of the role of perspective and values in social scientific analysis, the evidence, both from and techniques, Weber's writings and Carrefour In Mexico, from commentaries on them, must now be considered in othello and techniques, support of the interpretation that Weber took a two-tiered approach to value-free social science. First, it must be shown that held Weber believed ultimate values could not be proved scientifically, a position alluded to in several preceding remarks. Lassman and Speirs, writing in their introduction to Weber: Political Writings, address the matter directly. Weber held the belief, they say, that there is no longer any possibility of an objective ranking of ultimate values or moral principles.

19. Weber's own writings support Lassman and Speirs' conclusion that Weber considered ultimate values and physiology of labour, their subsequent political values to be subjectively determined. For instance, in Between Two Laws Weber writes that certain communities are able to provide the conditions for not only othello such bourgeois values as citizenship and true democracy, but also much more intimate and yet eternal values, including artistic ones. 20 The language that Weber uses to characterize these two types of values leads to the interpretation that he held them to be a subjective matter. Regarding the first set of the lost values, labeling them bourgeois brings to othello quotes light their contingent nature: They are the product of a class, a strata. Regarding the second set, the labels intimate and eternal clearly set them apart from In Mexico, any objective foundation. An intimate value is by definition personal, an othello and techniques opinion.

Further: It carries the connotation of emotion, of mystification. Likewise with eternal. This element of mystification, of faith in what is ultimately unknown and the lost, unknowable, materializes in other pieces of evidence that help substantiate Weber's view that ultimate values cannot be objectively established. And Techniques! The nature of the cause the politician seeks to serve by striving for and using power is a question of physiology of labour faith. 21 Yet here Weber refers to the politician, not the social scientist. But could the same theorem not be applied to the social scientist? Could social scientist not be substituted for othello quotes and techniques politician and, say, facts for power? And then could the social scientist not be asked to use those facts objectively while maintaining a commitment to are islam his values? Answering these questions in the affirmative, which can be done only through an argument by extension, a frail but not hopeless step, leads to interpreting The Profession and Vocation of Politics as a metaphor for the actions of the quotes social scientist, showing that the values he seeks to serve are also a question of about betrayal faith.

The argument by extension notwithstanding, there is other evidence that Weber held the social scientist's values to be a subjective matter. Portis, for quotes instance, says Weber believed it impossible to justify ultimate values scientifically. He presumed they were derived from the metaphysical commitments that define one's general outlook. 22 Rogers Brubaker, in The Limits of Rationality, also acknowledges that Weber's discussion of value orientations amplifies those of a long line of ethical relativists. Weber believed that value orientations are essentially subjective, and boy summary, that conflict among them cannot be rationally resolved. 23.

Furthermore, Weber believed that value orientations could not be eliminated from othello and techniques, social scientific work. They necessarily determine the analyst's perspective. Portis writes that Weber, in his Freiburg inaugural address, said political economy was a `political science,' in the sense that it must proceed from a value perspective. 24 More crucially, Portis goes on to quote Weber as writing that `there is no objective scientific analysis of physiology of labour culture . or social phenomena independent of special and one-sided viewpoints -- expressly or tacitly, consciously or unconsciously -- they are selected, analyzed, and organized for expository purposes.' 25. 5 Ruling Out Objectivity Prior to quotes Perspective. But how, given this assertion by Weber, can he be seen to advocate a value-free analysis once a perspective has been established? The first hint lies in Carrefour In Mexico, the quotation itself.

Weber does say that there is quotes, no objective analysis independent of special and the lovely novel, 'one-sided' viewpoints, a remark that does not rule out objectivity, only objectivity prior to a perspective. This interpretation of Weber's position derives additional support from other comments Weber made regarding objectivity. Example: One of the deadly sins in the area of politics is, Weber says, a lack of objectivity. 26 The objectivity, however, can engage only after a value has been established; otherwise, this remark is logically inconsistent with Weber's statement that the nature of the cause the politician seeks to serve by striving for and using power is othello and techniques, a question of faith. The two statements, taken together, imply that once a political position -- a value or perspective -- has been established, the politician must hold to the ideal of importance of role models objectivity. Furthermore, without resorting to the two-tiered interpretation of Weber's view of value-free social science, it would be difficult to reconcile Weber's comment that a lack of objectivity is and techniques, a sin with the comment that there is no objective analysis independent of special viewpoints. Lassman and Speirs supply another piece of evidence for the view that Weber believed a subjective end had to be established before objective analysis could proceed. They write: The `disenchantment' that Weber described did not stop with liberalism. The traditional philosophical foundations of what all political ideologies and doctrines were threatened by a relentless undermining of their own presuppositions. This extract reveals that Weber, at least in Lassman and Speirs' view, was interested in analyzing from an othello objective viewpoint the makeup of various political systems -- but it also shows that the objective analysis could only be carried out models once the purpose of the system, i.e., the and techniques ultimate value upon which it is based, is identified and acknowledged.

Thus it seems, both by default and implication, that Weber believed the political analyst could adhere to the principle of objectivity once an value or perspective had been laid out. In this regard, Weber departs from -- or rather builds upon -- the philosophy of social science laid out by Friedrich Nietzsche, whose thought influenced Weber. Nietzsche's perspectivism maintains that all interpretation is necessarily mediated by perspective, making analysis unavoidably laden with biases, presuppositions, values, and betrayal, so forth. Weber builds on othello Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible -- but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. For the politician, the are islam beliefs question of value is a choice of a faith; but once it is made, it should be pursued by objective means. For the social scientist, value necessarily determines perspective and othello quotes, influences the facts chosen for analysis, but once those decisions are made, the social scientist is bound by the principle of objectivity. The work of Weber scholars supports this conclusion. Brubaker, for instance, affirms the two-tiered interpretation of Weber's view regarding objectivity: The selection of means to a given end can be assessed in terms of its objective rationality, since it is Carrefour In Mexico, possible to discriminate objectively -- for Weber, scientifically -- between adequate and inadequate means.

But the notion of objective rationality does not apply to wertrational action -- to action conceived as intrinsically rather than as instrumentally valuable, as an end in itself rather than as means to some further end. 27. Portis agrees, writing that Weber came to othello quotes and techniques believe that empirical methods, in social science, could distinguish between true and what, false beliefs only when researchers took a distinct orientation toward their own ultimate values. 28. 6 Establishing a Value Prior to Analysis. On another level, however, Portis also argues that Weber nevertheless maintained that political activity and and techniques, social science are incompatible pursuits, and this is where Portis' interpretation of Weber's thought on the lost objectivity goes afoul. Weber, he says, denied that objectivity would be equated with impersonality or that it was possible for thought to be compartmentalized into quotes and techniques, normative and objective categories. 29. As a result, Portis maintains, Weber argued that a social scientist who engaged in political activity rendered inauthentic the test of his propositions against reality.

Thus, Weber's perspective, Portis contends, is that politics are autonomous from science both in principle and in practice. Portis is partly right. Yet he is also partly wrong. The Lost Boy Summary! He accurately portrays Weber's first-level view that denies the othello existence of either positive or natural law, affirming the fact-value dichotomy: The categories through which social phenomena are perceived must be radically subjective, derived from priorities that the investigator brings to beliefs work rather than universal laws discovered through systematic observation. 30 Portis, however, soon goes astray -- or just does not go far enough -- in characterizing Weber's view of the fact-value dichotomy: Because these categories are antecedent to social scientific analysis, social problems cannot be scientifically resolved. 31 True, Weber would agree, categories must be established prior to analysis.

Once established, these categories also entail ends, and it is by working objectively toward those ends that allows the social scientist to othello resolve a given social problem scientifically. Moreover, if one accepts Weber's view that objectivity can be applied to social and economic problems only the lovely novel after a distinct value orientation has been established, it follows that political action does not corrupt a social scientist's objectivity as long as the scientist's perspective or values are explicitly acknowledged. The crucial element that Portis overlooks is that by othello, choosing categories, by establishing a value prior to analysis, as the social scientist must, he is poetry about betrayal, necessarily making decisions that are inherently political in nature. Given this, the othello and techniques converse of Portis' conclusion in fact holds: That a social scientist cannot engage in objective analysis without taking overt political action, because the choice of values is itself a political act. From this it follows that science and politics are, for Weber, not mutually exclusive; rather, they are mutually inclusive.

The social scientist cannot proceed with objective analysis until after his values or perspective have been established, an act which is political, whether conscious or not, whether announced to others or not. Thus, despite Portis' ideal vision of what are islam Weber's thought to the contrary, social science and political activity are compatible: The social scientist, in conducting research and analyzing facts, is necessarily influenced by his political position, at othello quotes least to the extent determined by his ultimate values. Weber knew this, and exhorted his fellow social scientists to clarify both for themselves and for others the physiology values driving their investigations. Such a clarification is the prerequisite to objective analysis of quotes and techniques facts with a particular purpose or value in mind. Furthermore, again despite Portis' claims to the contrary, part of the power and allure of importance models Weber lies in the dual legacy that he handed down: He succeeded, at least in quotes and techniques, the totality of his work, in being overtly political while remaining true to importance his integrity as a social scientist. At least one work by Weber -- his short essay titled The President of the Reich -- directly bears this out. And even if, as Portis argues, Weber did become psychologically tormented by the tension he felt between his need to voice his political views and his need to feel integrity as a social scientist, what allowed him, in the end, to succeed in quotes and techniques, being both political and scientific was his two-tiered approach to value-free social science. Weber sees the damage inherent in failing to openly acknowledge one's values, and the even greater danger in falling prey to the delusion that the analyst can evaluate social facts completely independent of physiology of labour own values.

Weber sums up this position in The Nation State and Economic Policy: We in particular succumb readily to othello quotes and techniques a special kind of illusion, namely that we are able to boy summary refrain entirely from making conscious value judgements of our own. 32 In other words, when the analyst fails to othello quotes clarify and consciously acknowledge his values, it is unlikely that he can conduct the subsequent analysis impartially. Physiology! The acknowledgement of quotes a value orientation is the prerequisite to bones novel objective evaluation. The following books, cited in othello quotes and techniques, the essay above, can be bought from Carrefour In Mexico, Amazon.Com by clicking on quotes and techniques the title. Criticism.Com, an Amazon associate bookstore, derives a small fee on the purchase of every book sold through one of its links to Amazon.

Thank you for supporting Criticism.Com. 1 Ralf Dahrendorf, Max Weber and Modern Social Science, Ch. 37, [Max Weber and his Contemporaries], eds. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Carrefour, Jurgen Osterhammel (London: The German Historical Institute/Allen Unwin, 1987), p. Quotes And Techniques! 577. 2 Edward Bryan Portis, [Max Weber and of labour, Political Commitment: Science, Politics, and Personality] (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), p. 75. 3 Peter Lassman and Ronald Speirs, Introduction, [Weber: Political Writings] (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. And Techniques! xi. 4 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and Carrefour, Economic Policy, p. 1. 6 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of othello Politics, p. 331. 7 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and of role, Economic Policy, p. 15.

11 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 367. 14 Weber: Political Writings, Introduction by Lassman and Speirs, p. And Techniques! xxiii. 15 Anthony Giddens, Weber and Durkheim: Coincidence and poetry about betrayal, Divergence, Max Weber and his Contemporaries, eds. Wolfgang J. Quotes! Mommsen and Jurgen Osterhammel (London: The German Historical Institute/Allen Unwin, 1987), p. 188. 16 Weber: Political Writings, Introduction by Lassman and Speirs, p. xxiv. 20 Weber: Political Writings, Between Two Laws, p. 76. 21 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 355.

22 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. 15. 23 Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality: An Essay on the Social and Carrefour In Mexico, Moral Thought of Max Weber (London: George Allen Unwin, 1984), pp. 5 and 6. 24 Portis, Max Weber and othello quotes and techniques, Political Commitment, p. 71. 25 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. 72, quoting Weber from poetry, The Methodology of Social Sciences, trans. Edward A. Shils and Henry A. Finch (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1949), p. 72.

26 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of othello quotes and techniques Politics, p. 354. 27 Brubaker, The Limits of importance models Rationality , p. 54. 28 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment , p. 71. 32 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and Economic Policy, p. 19.

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Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Some of the and techniques most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on importance models, UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to quotes open a text file. For more information on In Mexico, the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of othello and techniques system you are using and your preference between the editors on are islam beliefs, your system.

Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with. Othello Quotes. By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the remainder of this document I will base the steps on poetry about betrayal, the DOS editor and and techniques, a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the of role models editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the quotes appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. The Lost Boy Summary. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Quotes And Techniques. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an poetry about, HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is used to identify the beginning of the othello quotes element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Some tags may also contain additional information.

This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to Carrefour In Mexico recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document.

Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of othello quotes and techniques your HTML, make it easier to read, and poetry about betrayal, make it much easier to quotes maintain. Physiology Of Labour. Although indentation is othello and techniques not required, you should always use it to poetry about betrayal improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of othello additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to In Mexico use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future.

I could not possibly cover every tag here. Quotes And Techniques. However, I will briefly describe some of the Carrefour commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at The following table contains many of the most common and quotes, most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by about betrayal, simply placing the begin tag, the othello and techniques text to of role models format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to othello and techniques ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into Carrefour In Mexico, your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension.

To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the othello text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming.

There are many tools available to bones help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to othello and techniques use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. Poetry About Betrayal. One method of locating useful and othello and techniques, free images is to the lost view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to and techniques use the the lost Yahoo search engine and search for othello quotes the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and poetry about betrayal, click on the search button. This type of othello quotes and techniques searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly.

Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an importance models, increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. Othello. In addition, you should keep the poetry about betrayal content of othello quotes your images on Carrefour In Mexico, a professional level unless the image directly relates to quotes and techniques your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. Carrefour. However, you should consider placing any such images on othello and techniques, a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of your image. For example, to display an about, image called computer.gif that is quotes and techniques 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the of role models browser was unable to load your image.

Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the othello quotes and techniques image does not exist, you did not specify the physiology correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to othello and techniques 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt.

There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for betrayal help with using your HTML browser. Quotes And Techniques. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on importance of role models, the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the othello quotes and techniques browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in of labour, the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes.

Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of othello and techniques these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Physiology Of Labour. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the othello quotes result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists.

Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to poetry about the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an email address on quotes, the universities main web page. What. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible.

In addition you should always mail a paper copy of othello quotes your resume to any potential employers. In Mexico. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the othello quotes and techniques Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to poetry betrayal bring the reader a broader range of othello quotes and techniques information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to Carrefour In Mexico create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr.

Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of othello Java Report is devoted to Product Review. Physiology. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the quotes equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6.

In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and Carrefour In Mexico, disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in quotes, The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. Carrefour In Mexico. He states that you must resolve mentally to quotes and techniques address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of boy summary it all. Othello. In addition, the article provides the boy summary URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the and techniques reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by models, anyone who decides to create and HTML resume.

Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an othello, ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an of labour, HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an quotes, HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is what are islam beliefs accurate, precise and very helpful.

The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to quotes and techniques HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the Carrefour In Mexico document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. Quotes And Techniques. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of what are islam beliefs HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and othello and techniques, variations. In addition the document contains an easy to use index which allows the reader to poetry about betrayal jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use.

This document is an excellent source of information for othello both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.

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20 Classic Case Studies Every Business Student Should Know. Although almost every business is unique in othello quotes its own way, there are some universal lessons that apply to Carrefour In Mexico just about any kind of business. In these case studies, we#39;ll take a look at employee performance and retention, supply chain management, growth, ad spending, and quotes and techniques more. Although the following are focused on specific businesses, all business students can learn lessons from their triumphs and mistakes. Read on, and you#39;ll find 20 classic case studies you#39;d do well to know as a business student. In Mexico. Managers hope they#39;ll never have to deal with employee drug abuse, but the fact is quotes and techniques, that it does happen.

In this case, Amber, an administrative assistant started out models, well, but began to adopt strange and inconsistent behavior. Her work was maintained pretty well, but she began arriving late and calling in and techniques sick often, especially right around the time she got paid. In Mexico. She began borrowing and failing to repay money, and then started showing a short temper on othello, the phone with customers. After being found in what are islam the ladies room sniffing white powder, she was confronted about a cocaine problem, and reacted by quitting immediately, leaving a hole in othello quotes the organization for months before a replacement could be found and what replaced. Othello. Experts believe the employer#39;s actions were wrong, waiting too long to confront Amber, and of role focusing on accusations instead of criticizing behavior directly related to work, such as lateness and rudeness to clients. Othello Quotes And Techniques. They also point out that Amber should have been sent in for importance of role models a drug test before being outright accused of using cocaine, opening up the opportunity for rehabilitation instead of a severed tie. Sometimes, doing the right thing is more important than profits, a lesson that Malden Mills learned firsthand. When the factory burned down in 1995 just two weeks before Christmas, production halted and employees assumed they#39;d be out of work until the factory was rebuilt. But CEO Aaron Feuerstein extended the employees 90 days at full pay, as well as 180 days with benefits at a cost of $25 million to Malden Mills.

After the factory was rebuilt and all of the displaced workers were rehired, cooperation and productivity reached a new high, with 40% more business, 95% customer and employee retention, and a production increase from 130,000 to 200,000 yards per week. However, since then, Malden Mills has been to bankruptcy court three times, with much of the debt tied to the rebuild of the factory. Feuerstein made employees happy, to be sure, but business students should study this case to consider whether bold philanthropic actions will pay off in quotes the end. In 2008, Starbucks announced that they would be closing 600 US stores. Up to that point, Starbucks stores had added new offerings, including wi-fi and music for sale, but started to lose its warm neighborhood store feeling in favor of physiology of labour, a chain store persona.

Harvard Business Review points out that in this situation, Starbucks is othello and techniques, a mass brand attempting to command a premium price for an experience that is no longer special. Meaning, in order to keep up, Starbucks would either have to physiology of labour cut prices, or cut down on stores to restore its brand exclusivity. Othello Quotes. HBR#39;s case study shares three problems with the poetry betrayal growth of Starbucks: alienating early adopters, too broad of an appeal, and superficial growth through new stores and products. Quotes. Harvard recommends that Starbucks should have stayed private, growing at bones a controlled pace to maintain its status as a premium brand. Big business is attractive, with huge profits for some. Othello. But there#39;s something to be said about small business as well, with lower risk and the potential for creativity. Darren Robbins of the lost, Big D Custom Screen Printing in Austin, TX found success in his business by and techniques pursuing customers with orders both large and small. Although Big D started out catering only to large orders, the shop sat idle in between orders, and through effective scheduling and transparent pricing, was able to models fill in dead times with smaller orders. Big D found a profit in othello a market segment that other local screen printers weren#39;t clamoring to about betrayal fill. Experts believe this was a smart strategy, allowing Big D to spread out risk in othello quotes their business and offer customized products.

But at least one person is critical of the offering, pointing out that the niche has little upside potential, and may hurt the company#39;s efficiency. Family businesses typically have the luxury of physiology, passing the torch down to children after parents retire, but in quotes some cases, there are no candidates, or the candidates may not be right for the role. This presents a challenge when it#39;s time to boy summary find a successor, especially if existing employees have assumed that top level promotions would come from within the family. And Techniques. So the Carlson companies had to what are islam beliefs put in great effort to find a replacement, looking both internally and outside of the company, ultimately finding an internal candidate who would work well with the family but also offered plenty of experience as an executive in different industries. According to Beverly Behan of Hay#39;s Group, Carlson should be commended for not only making the right decision in not hiring the heir apparent, but for handling the job search in a calm, effective way. Retiring Employees, Lost Knowledge.

Another important retirement issue is one of lost knowledge. What happens when retirees leave the office, taking years of experience and know-how right along with them? Businesses lose all of that knowledge, but according to American Express, it doesn#39;t have to and techniques be that way. Through a pilot program, AMEX created a workforce transformation group that would allow retiring participants to gradually give up some of their day to day responsibilities. In return, the are islam employees would spend some of this time mentoring and teaching classes to successors. This resulted in othello quotes and techniques a phased retirement, allowing employees to leave gradually and enjoy more time while still enjoying a portion of their previous salary, and regular benefits. This also meant that some employees stayed a year or more past traditional retirement age. AMEX believes this program is a success, allowing senior employees to enjoy their last years of work in a reduced capacity, as well as educating the existing workforce for poetry betrayal future success. Othello Quotes. Consultant David DeLong agrees, citing this program as an the lovely bones novel, example of how job handoffs should really work. Advertising costs money, which many businesses find themselves short of these days. But forgoing ad spending in favor of better profits can be a mistake.

Experts say that in a slump, one of the best things you can do is adopt or increase your advertising strategy to attract customers. During a recession, this is especially true, as other businesses may be cutting back on their ad spending, making your voice even more prominent to customers. After seven years of growth, buliding from 30 to othello quotes 300 locations, Firehouse Subs#39; growth fizzled, and company leaders realized they had to do something about it. Of Labour. So they returned local advertising fees collected from othello franchisees, not to put in their pockets, but to take hold of their own local marketing. Sales fell even more, revealing that this was not a good strategy at of labour the time. Othello And Techniques. Instead, Firehouse reclaimed their local marketing fee, and then gave franchisees the option to take part in a new marketing campaign, requiring them to pay double for local marketing, but in return, becoming part of an $8 million advertising campaign poised for success. Experts commend Firehouse for having the the lovely bones courage to ask franchisees for more money where it was needed, even when times were tough. In 1982, seven people in Chicago died after taking Tylenol due to othello quotes and techniques an unknown suspect lacing the capsules with cyanide after the products reached the In Mexico shelves.

In the immediate aftermath, Tylenol#39;s commanding 37% market share dropped to othello just 7% nationwide, despite the problem being contained to the Chicago area. Tylenol was not responsible for the tampering of the product, but to maintain the product#39;s reputation, Johnson Johnson pulled all of the Tylenol from the shelves, absorbing a loss of importance of role models, more than $100 million dollars. Tylenol was successfully reintroduced with tamper resistant packaging, discounts, and sales presentations to the medical community. The brand survived due to swift action and effective public relations from Johnson Johnson. It#39;s tough to be the little guy, especially when one of the and techniques big guys becomes your direct competition. But at Hangers Cleaners, an offbeat image and good customer service helped them pull through when PG opened an eco-friendly dry cleaners in the same town. Hangers differentiated itself through van delivery service, funny t-shirts and hangers, as well as social networking.

The company also spent time connecting with the community by partnering with local businesses and charities. Instead of out-pricing or out-spending PG, Hangers embraced its personality and of role adopted a culture of excellent service that customers found value in. And Techniques. As a result, Hangers has experienced growth while other local dry cleaners have reported flat or declining revenues. Market Expansion Through Partnership. To support new growth, businesses have to expand past their initial customer base, an often daunting task for small businesses. However, partnering with another successful company can help businesses reach a new level. Diagnostic Hybrids, specializing in Carrefour In Mexico medical diagnostics, did just that, partnering with Quidel, a market leader in quotes and techniques rapid diagnostic tests. This partnership allowed Diagnostic Hybrids to enjoy a larger market presence, as well as take advantage of better research and development resources. Although Diagnostic Hybrids was acquired by Quidel, key elements of the organization remain, with the physiology same company president, and othello quotes operation as a separate subsidiary.

Tesco#39;s move into Korea offers a classic case study of building market share internationally. The company made some smart moves in their Korean expansion, most notably partnering with Samsung, the leading Korean conglomerate, and embracing the Korean way of life by bones novel operating stores as local businesses and community centers. Tesco also made a smart move by quotes and techniques employing nearly 100% Koreans on the lost, staff, with only 4 British employees out of 23,000. Reports indicate that Tesco#39;s intelligent strategy has won over shoppers in Seoul, with 25% of quotes, Koreans signed up for about loyalty cards and sales in the billions, finding success in crack[ing] the Asian tiger, where competitors such as Carrefour and Wal-Mart have failed. Another excellent international case study comes from bike manufacturer Triumph, which lost steam in its British home base three decades ago, but found new life by heading overseas. In 2010, Triumph sold just 7,562 bikes in the UK, but 50,000 worldwide, indicating that an international interest paid off for the company. Triumph#39;s famous factory in Warwickshire closed up shop in quotes and techniques 1983, but the Indian factory remained, and these days, the of labour motorcycles have become the and techniques country#39;s Harley Davidson. The company struggles to poetry about betrayal meet demand in India, with a six month waiting list and a new factory being built.

India#39;s middle class has embraced the vehicle as an affordable commodity, even giving them as dowries in weddings. Background Checks for Job Candidates. Background checks are an issue faced by many companies, as sensitive information is now more public than ever. Othello. OfficeDrop is no exception, as the company scans paper into digital files, including patient records and minister sermons, most of which require trustworthy employees who can handle documents discreetly. Many companies offer quick, superficial checks, but for OfficeDrop owner Prasad Thammineni, more information was required. Beliefs. He found a company that would allow research to delve into a number of different sources and othello quotes perform a more comprehensive search. Other business owners offered somewhat critical opinions of Thammineni#39;s choice, pointing out that instead of Googling to find a background check company, he should have asked his business network who they were using.

They also recommended that he take advantage of free resources, including online searches and checking out social media sites to learn more about job candidates. Employee Engagement in Tough Times. When Gamal Aziz stepped in as president of the betrayal MGM Grand Hotel Casino, he didn#39;t just take on othello quotes and techniques, a $400 million spruce up of the hotel, he worked on the employees as well. He asked rank and file employees to share their insight through a hotel, discovering that there was a disconnect between what was going on at the hotel and the knowledge of staff. He implemented an In Mexico, easy fix, creating short meetings at othello and techniques the start of the lost, every shift to inform employees of daily happenings so that staff could offer more to othello quotes guests, improving customer loyalty, return visits, and spending. Experts laud Aziz for differentiating the MGM grand with top quality service from the employees. Social Media Serves Up Creme Brulee. Marketing is key, whether you#39;re a multibillion dollar company, or just a guy with a cart full of creme brulee. But just doing it isn#39;t enough: you have to market effectively.

Curtis Kimball, the physiology of labour man behind the Creme Brulee Cart, put Twitter to work for othello him amassing thousands of Carrefour In Mexico, followers and growing his business by allowing people to follow the quotes and techniques cart through the of labour online service. Kimball engages with customers and develops a personal relationship with followers online, asking for suggestions on flavors and cart locations. Perhaps the most impressive part of this story is the quotes and techniques fact that Kimball has no marketing budget (Twitter is a free service), yet enjoys an incredibly popular status and high ratings on poetry, Yelp. Othello. Overreaching Products, Suffering Sales. You can#39;t be everything to everyone, as Hickory Farms found out. A company that started out with holiday gift baskets including sausage, ham, and cheese at one point had an offering of 2,500 different products, sprawling the company and resulting in a loss of the lovely bones, favor with customers. Recognizing this issue, Hickory Farms streamlined itself, slashing their number of quotes, products from 2,500 to 300 with more modern visuals, descriptions, and other features, including less packaging and of role models more recycled content. The company also overhauled their website, making it easier to shop online. All of this streamlining resulted in a price reduction of 13% that Hickory Farms was able to othello quotes and techniques pass on to their customers. Brand strategist Jennifer Woodbery believes that this was a smart move, making the most of Hickory Farms#39; trusted name and image with an effective rebranding of the lovely bones novel, offerings.

Maintaining Consistently Good Employees. It happens all the time: good employees get a promotion, and suddenly, they#39;re not so good anymore. Such is the quotes case for cat shelter Paws Need Families, as Della, a cleaner turned assistant manager, then manager started arriving late, letting applications sit, and slipped on what beliefs, inoculations, all serious offenses. Instead of quotes, confronting Della directly, general meetings were held, and an assistant manager was hired to compensate for Della#39;s shortcomings. What. Ultimately, Della never cleaned up her act, and was fired. Ken Blanchard, co-author of The One Minute Manager believes this situation could have been avoided with frequent meetings and support with a system of review, both of which can identify issues before they become real problems. In 2009, Maclaren issued a recall for quotes and techniques every stroller it had sold in the US for a decade, which came to 1 million units. The strollers were recalled so that a cover could be installed to prevent amputation of are islam beliefs, a baby#39;s fingers, which could happen if the baby were to be in the stroller in the wrong spot. As a luxury brand, this incident was damaging even though it was a misuse of the product and not a defect. Experts believe that Maclaren did the right thing in the aftermath of the recall, asking for a fast track recall from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and got out in front of the recall as it started spreading through the press, saving face and further embracing a mission of child safety. We all hope that clients will pay on time, but the fact is that most businesses have to deal with lateness at quotes some point or another.

How you deal with it can make all the difference, and In Mexico this case study reveals a smart strategy. Othello Quotes And Techniques. When a client wrote to check in on the progress of work, a web developer replied that she was hesitant to what beliefs work quickly for othello quotes and techniques that client because she was still waiting on payments for month-old work. This immediately got the attention of the clients, who contacted her and discovered that their checks were not going to the right address. The problem was solved almost instantaneously, enforcing both leverage and rewarding positive behavior. However, it was risky, and the client criticized her for not sharing a warning before coming to a difficult point. What. In 2000, a fire at the Philips microchip plant affected phone manufacturers Nokia And Ericsson.

The companies reacted in different ways, and ultimately, Ericsson did not do well, quitting the mobile phone business and allowing Nokia to win over the European market. While Ericsson had tied up all of its key components in a single source and planned to wait out the quotes and techniques problem with the fire, Nokia worked to snatch up spare chips from models other plants and suppliers, as well as re-engineered some of their phones to adapt to different chips from new suppliers. It#39;s not hard to imagine what happened after that. Nokia kept trucking along, while Ericsson suffered from othello and techniques months of lost production and physiology of labour sales, allowing the market to be dominated by Nokia. This incident and fallout is a classic lesson in supply chain risk management. Copyright Online Colleges 2017.

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compound words essay Liberty and American Federal Democracy. The Preamble of the Constitution of the United States lists six ends to which the Constitution is othello and techniques, addressed: union, justice, domestic tranquility, defense, general welfare, and importance models liberty. The last is presented most fully, to whit, secure the blessings of liberty to othello quotes and techniques ourselves and our posterity. Taken together, those six define the importance of role models ends of republican government.

To best achieve those ends the American founders recognized that simple republicanism was not enough, that what was required was a compound republic, what we today call a federal system. The history of the founding generation of the United States of America is in no small measure a history of finding the way to such a compound republic, what the preamble refers to as a more perfect union, the first item on the list. For the othello quotes and techniques founders, republicanism meant popular government, what Daniel Webster and Abraham Lincoln were later to define as government of the people, by the people, and for the people. Almost immediately most of of labour, them began to see that republicanism of that kind had to othello and techniques be democratic republicanism. Novel. Hence, once the Constitution was established, the thrust of the American political experience has been in the direction of strengthening the democratic aspects of the American compound republic. Let us look at the six ends of the preamble once again and read them as a list, placed in a certain order by design.

I am not claiming that the framers did so deliberately. I simply do not know whether they did or not. But whatever their intention, what emerges is a certain hierarchy of quotes, ends. The first step in the achievement of the substantive ends is forming a more perfect union. That will make it possible to establish justice, which in turn will ensure domestic tranquility. Domestic tranquility makes it possible to provide for of role the common defense and a country both tranquil and secure by definition promotes the general welfare at one level and can devote itself to further efforts to that end. The highest of these ends is not simply liberty but the blessings of liberty, that encompass justice, tranquility, security, and welfare.

The ends presented in the Preamble represent, in a sense, a rephrasing of the othello quotes ends presented in the Declaration of Independence -- life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness -- greater detail. Union -- a compound republic -- is thus a means to larger ends, but so important a means that it becomes an end in itself. Lincoln was to emphasize this at the time of the Civil War when he spoke of the constitution, the Union, and the liberties of the people and argued that it was first necessary to preserve the Union in order to the lovely bones preserve the quotes and techniques other two. Lincoln well understood that for the lost boy summary Americans the blessings of liberty depended upon the more perfect Union, that is to say, the compound republic. Our task is to examine the othello quotes relationship between liberty and American federal democracy as reflected in the Constitution of the United States. We begin with two fundamental questions: What kind of betrayal, liberty is to be fostered in order to bring blessings? How is it best fostered? We must begin our inquiry by understanding that, as Donald Lutz has persuasively argued, the Constitution of the United States is an incomplete document in that it rests on the constitutions of the individual states. 1 Thus any consideration of the larger question of the Constitution and liberty is connected with the more specific question of this paper because the United States is a compound republic and othello quotes and techniques its constitutional system is what are islam, built accordingly.

The American founders certainly did not confuse liberty with anarchy. Their writings are peppered with comparisons between the two whose conclusions were unequivocal. Indeed, fear of anarchy was one of the major propellants toward constitutionalism for most of the American leadership, Federalist and Anti-Federalist alike. This fear was enhanced by the very fact that they were making a republican revolution and historically both revolutions and republics had been noted for bringing about anarchy. Just as they rejected anarchy, so too did they reject natural liberty. Elsewhere I have discussed natural liberty as one of the basic myths of the American experience, the idea that in this new world of nature, humans are also freed from the shackles of society to become natural men. Quotes And Techniques. 2 For the most part, the hidden or not so hidden assumptions behind the myth of natural liberty were that human society is corrupting while human nature is unequivocally good and therefore what needs to done is to emancipate humans from the chains of society so as to enable their better natures to flourish unimpeded. The Lovely Bones. Although this myth was presented most systematically by Jean Jacques Rousseau, it can be found back at othello quotes and techniques the very beginning of the age of the discovery and exploration of the Western Hemisphere. There were those who saw in the native Americans natural men and, hence, happily living in paradise.

It was not difficult for them to take the next step and to about hope that Europeans arriving on othello quotes the shores of the New World could emancipate themselves from the bonds of society and regain their true natures as well. A variant of this myth with a somewhat less optimistic view of human nature accepted that humans were not totally good by nature but saw in the human confrontation with the challenges of nature the true testing ground for real men. This version of the myth allowed first barbarism and even savagery, treating them as part of the process of winnowing the In Mexico wheat from chaff or separating the gold from the dross. Perhaps the archetypical mythical expression of this view was to be found in the myths of the voyageuer and the mountain men, individuals who set out for the wilderness, leaving civilization far behind, who had to quotes and techniques survive by Carrefour In Mexico, honing their skills as men. Failure to do so almost inevitably meant death at quotes the hands of nature, while success produced the hero who, by being in harmony with nature, rose above the constraints of human law to a loftier morality. This myth developed into the larger myth of the Western hero, who, honed in the wilderness, could then come back to importance civilization to restore and do justice beyond the limits of the and techniques law.

3. In the 20th century, after the land frontier was closed and importance of role models opportunities for natural men to quotes and techniques venture forth into vast stretches of physiology, truly wild nature no longer existed, the myth of the natural man took two turns. For the first half of the century, aviators who were aviation pioneers or test pilots were viewed as carrying on the natural man tradition. In a sense, Chuck Yeager and his colleagues were the last of these natural men. After them, as Tom Wolfe points out, came the othello quotes astronauts who were more pampered gladiators. (His book, The Right Stuff [Bantam 1983], is poetry betrayal, a wonderful study in contrast and conflict between the natural man test pilots of Edwards Air Force Base and the pampered astronauts). Quotes And Techniques. 4.

More recently there has been a reversion to the first variant of the myth, with individuals in society seeking to return to nature not by confronting wilderness but by dropping social conventions and by doing what comes naturally and letting it all hang out. The first represented a mild expression of the attack on surviving Victorian conventions at the time of World War II, that was part of the the lost boy summary move to loosen the forms of quotes and techniques, society in are islam the first post-war generation, while the quotes and techniques latter was one of the mottos of the student revolt of the 1960s which sought to abandon social convention altogether. I repeat, natural liberty was not what the founders had in mind. Even Jefferson, who was much closer to assuming the natural goodness of man than the vast majority of his colleagues, believed that the are islam beliefs people had to quotes and techniques live together in community in order to develop civilization which, if simple enough, was a good thing. Others, John Adams for the lost boy summary example, drawing upon their Puritan heritage, had no confidence in the innate goodness of humans, even if they no longer believed in their innate depravity.

They could see the old Adam in othello quotes all people and viewed their task as building a political order that would contain those human passions which led to bones novel depravity, and where possible, channel them into more productive lines of activity, thereby strengthening what Lincoln was later to call the and techniques better angels of human nature. One of the basic tensions underlying the American experience is between the myth of natural man and the countermyth of fallen man, brought to American shores by importance, the Puritans. The Puritan view was summed up by the old couplet taught to and techniques children in Massachusetts schools, In Adam's fall, we sinned all. For some, this view was fully Calvinist in its emphasis on total human depravity except for the few elect, chosen of God by predestination. For others, the old Adam was less than total. Rather, humans had to of role know that they were swept by passions that lead them to evil inclinations and that those inclinations were all too easily translated into behavior appropriate to them.

In the Puritan view, humans had to be curbed by, not released from social bonds. Rather than viewing nature as redeeming and society as corrupting, they saw nature as corrupt and a properly religious society as having the potential to, if not to othello quotes and techniques redeem (since only God could do that), at Carrefour least to keep corruption within bounds. Thus the laws of Massachusetts and other Puritan commonwealths provided that no citizen should be allowed to settle beyond the reach of othello quotes and techniques, civilization, ere he lapse into physiology savagery. It was the obligation of the polity to enact legislation to preserve and othello quotes strengthen morality and the task of the magistrates to the lovely bones enforce that legislation. In a sense, the American Constitution was the product of othello and techniques, a reconciliation of these two views, achieved in part through their synthesis. Rejecting both myths, the founders saw humans as mixed in their natures, having both good and bad inclinations. The difference between them was the the lovely bones novel difference between Jefferson and othello quotes and techniques Adams, with some following Jefferson in expecting man to be indefinitely perfectable if he lived under the right institutions, and others viewing man as being of Carrefour In Mexico, limited perfectibility but capable of improvement through the right institutions. In both cases there was a convergence around the necessity for proper institutions. That is why Martin Diamond could refer to the American revolution as a revolution of sober expectations.

5. What emerged out of all of this was an understanding of liberty as what, following John Winthrop and James Wilson, we may refer to as federal liberty. Federal liberty, in the modern sense, is the liberty to be a partner in establishing the othello quotes and techniques covenant founding civil society (hence federal, from beliefs foedus meaning covenant) and then the liberty to live according to the terms of the covenant. Both dimensions of the definition are important. Totalitarian societies, both religious and secular, have emphasized the second half alone. That is to say, in claiming their citizens are free people, they define freedom or liberty as the liberty to obey the rules of the church or polity which are unilaterally imposed, in some cases in othello quotes the name of God, and in others in bones novel the name of some other transcendent historical authority, power, or force.

True federal liberty requires that humans be partners in and techniques making the covenant which defines right and wrong and the rules of the game that flow from that definition before they can be expected to live according to them and that processes be provided for reexamination of the terms of the covenant and, if necessary, to change the rules. Even in the lost those cases where God is othello and techniques, considered a partner or guarantor, that must be so. That is the lovely bones, what constitutionalism is all about. In the American political tradition, federal liberty has taken two forms. Quotes. One, first enunciated by John Winthrop, deals with the relationship between individuals and civil society, and the lovely the other, first defined by and techniques, James Wilson, deals with the relationship between the states and the federal government under the Constitution of the United States.

Winthrop, one of the founders of physiology of labour, Puritan Massachusetts, enunciated his famous doctrine of federal liberty in othello quotes and techniques 1645. There is a two-fold liberty, natural (I mean as our nature is now corrupt) and civil or federal. The first is common to man with beasts and other creatures. By this, man, as he stands in relation to man simply, hath liberty to importance do what he lists; it is a liberty to evil as well as to good. This liberty is incompatible and quotes inconsistent with authority and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just authority. The exercise and maintaining of Carrefour In Mexico, this liberty makes men grow more evil and in time to be worse than brute beasts: omnes sumus licentia deteriores. This is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which all of the ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain and subdue it. The other kind of liberty I call civil or federal; it may also be termed moral, in reference to the covenant between God and man, in the moral law, and the politic covenants and constitutions between men themselves. This liberty is the proper end and object of authority and cannot subsist without it; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just and honest. This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard (not only of your goods, but) of your lives if need be. 6.

Developed in the 17th century, Winthrop's full definition reflects a republican pre-democratic understanding of the political order. Recognizing this, we still can draw upon its essence to understand the federal liberty of the individual in a democratic civil society. James Wilson, one of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention from Pennsylvania, Scottish-born and and techniques educated, was a product of the Scottish Enlightenment. In other words he came out of the novel same Reformed Protestant tradition as the Puritans, but identified with its more secularized expression as developed in Scotland in the mid-18th century. In defining the appropriate relationship between the states and the federal government, he drew upon the same concept of federal liberty, for a secular setting. (Wilson himself was a believer who saw natural law as from God and at least partially revealed in the Bible). For Wilson, federal liberty was the quotes means of sharing the attributes of sovereignty, with both the states and the federal government deriving their powers by boy summary, delegation from the sovereign people through constitutional compacts in and techniques such a way that each remained an physiology, instrument of the people, while at the same time checking the other. His argument was that just as individuals entering a political compact gained greater liberty by surrendering part of their natural rights in othello and techniques exchange for a limitation on the liberty of others to do them harm, so too did the constituent states gain more by surrendering part of their freedom of action to a general government in return for being partners in a larger whole. Federal liberty then is the liberty to enter into a covenant or compact through which each party surrenders certain of its natural liberties in order to of labour gain more from the othello quotes new partnership created, to whose rules the parties are then obliged to follow. 7.

A complete definition of federal liberty requires a synthesis of Winthrop and Wilson to include the two dimensions of importance of role models, morality and interest. American constitutionalism rests upon that synthesis. This is not immediately apparent in reading the Constitution of the United States. It is well accepted that one of the quotes and techniques great goals of the Constitution was to establish a large commercial republic. This, indeed, is the essence of the Federalist theory of constitutionalism. Commerce is presented as an alternative to republican virtue as a means of maintaining republican government. Self-interest rightly understood is models, presented as the motivation for the self-restraint necessary to maintain republican government and ambition countering ambition (in the words of The Federalist), the basis for controlling the excesses of human energy.

The original Constitution provides substantive protection for only a very few liberties, relying instead on othello the procedural guarantees built into importance models the system of othello, government it establishes. The protected liberties are of three kinds, those involving the physical liberty of the person, such as the right of habeas corpus; those involving the freedom of the marketplace, such as the guarantees of the right of contract and protections of patents and copyrights and provision for a uniform rule of In Mexico, bankruptcy; and those emancipating individuals from the effects of family and religious ties such as the bans on othello bills of attainder and religious tests for office. The Bill of Rights further extended this effort to use the federal constitution to protect individual rights and the lovely novel liberties, with nine of the ten amendments being exclusively devoted to othello and techniques that subject. All told, the federal constitution is oriented toward creating and protecting a national marketplace, both political and economic, and is oriented toward protecting that marketplace and access to it on the part of all citizens as individuals. The Lost Boy Summary. This thrust has been continued in almost every subsequent constitutional development whether by formal amendment or U.S. Supreme Court interpretation.

The Civil War amendments were designed to open both marketplaces to blacks and, by extension, other non-white groups. Most of the other amendments deal with terms of suffrage and are also designed to extend access to the marketplace -- to othello women and, most recently, to late teenagers. To participate in betrayal the marketplace, one only need subscribe to the rules of the game which, in the federal constitution, are political rather than moral. The Constitution goes so far as to specify that no religious test shall be used in connection with federal office-holding and that what is required is that every state, as well as the othello quotes and techniques federal government, maintain a republican form of government. Were the federal constitution to stand alone, one could conclude that morality and government were entirely separated in the new American constitutional order. This is not, in fact, the case. Since the federal constitution and the government it creates are both incomplete and need the states to be complete, we must also look at the state constitutions to see what kind of liberty they are committed to protecting and fostering. Certainly in the revolutionary period most of the state constitutions were designed to foster commonwealths rather than marketplaces, that is to say, polities that were both republican and committed to models a shared moral vision. It is not unfair to say that the federal constitution could emphasize individualism and the marketplace precisely because the founders could count upon the state constitutions to and techniques emphasize community and commonwealth. The idea that a proper republic should be a commonwealth grew out poetry betrayal, of the Whig tradition developed in Britain and British North America in the late 17th century and which reached its apotheosis in the states at the time of the American revolution. Othello And Techniques. The original American state constitutions also followed the Whig model.

It was only after the adoption of the federal constitution that there slowly developed a synthesis between the Carrefour In Mexico Federalist and Whig constitutional models which began to influence state constitutional development. Jacksonian ideas of democracy were democratic adaptations of Whiggism rather than deviations from it. It was only in the post-Civil War period that the synthesis began to reshape state constitutions, most particularly the constitutions of the newly-admitted Western states. 8. Liberty, under the commonwealth model, was concerned not simply with individual rights but also with the preservation and fostering of othello, community. Importance Of Role Models. Thus communal liberties, while never as important in othello and techniques the New World as in the Old, had a place within the commonwealth model along with individual liberties. The federal constitution, while making no such provision directly, tacitly recognized the importance of communal liberties by importance models, leaving the othello states free to what are islam beliefs protect and foster them as they pleased.

The New England and Southern states did so unequivolcally. Even in matters of religion and state, Massachusetts and Connecticut went so far as to maintain established churches into the 19th century and New Hampshire did not strop its last religious tests until the end of the Civil War generation. In other aspects of life, the New England states continued to use the authority and powers of and techniques, government to beliefs maintain a certain moral order -- where they can and there is consensus they still do. The Western states settled by New Englanders reproduced a limited version of the othello and techniques New England pattern. In the Civil War, the Southern states, whether original or new, were organized to maintain what Abolitionists called slavocracy and rule by the slave power -- social systems resting on slavery and concentrating power in the hands of a plantation-centered elite. After the war and Reconstruction, the political systems of the Southern states were used to reinstate as much of the old system as possible through Jim Crow segregation and disenfranchisement of the about freed slaves and their descendents. In the end, the revulsion of the majority of Americans against that system was a major factor in overturning the rights of the states to maintain thei own social systems. Othello And Techniques. As Abraham Lincoln repeatedly suggested, all Americans would have to pay dearly for their original sin of black slavery and Carrefour In Mexico so it has been. The Middle States, on the other hand, were already well on othello quotes their way toward a redefinition of their commonwealths as marketplaces, hence the Federalist approach suited them. They and especially the the lost boy summary new states in the West settled by Middle Staters, were the first to embrace the Federalist model.

Over time, more states moved away from clearcut moral visions of their commonwealths, making that model even more attractive. On the other hand, on those few occasions when it was tried, the federal constitution proved to be a very poor bulwark for commonwealth goals. Its worst failure was in connection with the prohibition of the consumption of alcoholic beverages, a moral goal written into the Constitution through the 18th Amendment which had the effect of encouraging alcoholic consumption, while at the same time promoting organized crime. Repealed within half a generation, those negative aspects of its legacy are still with us. Thus the American political system and its constitutional tradition provide for the two great orientations of American political culture -- marketplace and commonwealth -- and the liberty associated with each through the quotes and techniques maintenance of a compound republic -- what we now call a federal system. The marketplace is the clue here.

Federal liberty is of labour, best fostered through ordered rules of the game. These include fixed elections, separation of powers, guaranteed rights of access, due process, and federalism. Here it is not necessary to elaborate on these ordered rules of the game, the idea behind them should be clear. Fixed elections are necessary to assure that the othello and techniques governors will always be responsible to and dependent upon the governed for poetry about betrayal their offices. And Techniques. Guaranteed rights of access assure that the marketplace is kept open to all legitimate participants. Due process is necessary to maintain the people's standing in are islam beliefs the marketplace and to adjudicate their claims upon each other and the marketplace as a whole. Separation of powers is designed to prevent the overconcentration of power in any one individual or institution. Bicameralism is designed to quotes and techniques provide a possibility for the lovely bones second thoughts in political decision-making, to quotes foster prudence and control enthusiasms.

Federal liberty is what are islam beliefs, necessary to prevent the disasters of anarchy and the diseases of natural liberty. Quotes. Federal liberty is possible without lapsing into totalitarian tyranny only when it is constitutionalized so that there are ordered rules of the game established by agreement among the participants in Carrefour accordance with prudence and reason. As we all know, the founders believed that liberty could only othello quotes and techniques, survive if proper republican institutions were established to both contain and foster it. Federalism offers the means for combining the marketplace and the commonwealth, allowing for physiology of labour fostering both individual and communal liberties in appropriate ways. The United States as a whole is built upon two contrasting conceptions of the political order, both of which can be traced back to the earliest settlement of the and techniques country. In the first, the political order is of role, conceived as a marketplace in which the primary public relationships are the product of bargaining among individuals and groups acting out of othello, self-interest. In the second, the political order is conceived to be a commonwealth -- a state in which the whole people have an undivided interest -- in which the citizens cooperate in an effort to create and maintain the are islam best government in order to implement certain shared moral principals. These two conceptions have exercised an influence on othello government and politics throughout American history, sometimes in conflict and sometimes complementing each other. They are particularly important in defining the relationship between power and justice, the two poles of politics that between them encompass the basic political concerns of importance of role, all civil societies, namely who gets what, when and how (power) and who should in order to develop a good society (justice).

The major continuing task of every civil society is to shape the relationships between these two faces of politics in a manner that best fits its situation. Othello Quotes And Techniques. Indeed its character as a civil society is in large measure determined by the relationship between power and justice that shapes its political order. The Lost. Consequently a particular civil society's conceptions of the uses of power and the nature of justice are vital. Othello Quotes And Techniques. Americans seek the efficient use of power in the pursuit of liberty, equality and happiness. We may conceptualize power and justice as two poles connected by a four-cell matrix. The top two cells of the matrix represent the universal political demands, that is to say, in every polity there is In Mexico, a close relationship between efficiency and power and quotes and techniques legitimacy and betrayal justice in the sense that power is designed to be exercised according to the polity's accepted conception of efficiency and used to advance what that polity considers the legitimate ends of government. In the United States, efficiency means government that is energetic and efficacious with the least wasteful or minimum necessary expenditure of resources, while legitimacy is determined by American understandings of and techniques, liberty, equality and happiness.

The lower two cells reflect the definitions of efficiency and legitimacy of any given polity. In the United States, efficiency is measured in predominantly commercial terms, as befits a great commercial republic. Commerce in this sense embodies the exchange of goods, services and ideas. The federal republic has adhered quite closely to the original purpose of the U.S. Constitution to advance and protect commerce. Commerce is particularly valued because it is an efficient means of organizing, harnessing and diffusing power in bones novel light of American values through the marketplace. Americans characteristically rely upon various kinds of marketplaces (political, economic, the marketplace of othello quotes, ideas) to protect and foster liberty, as well as to protect property and promote enterprise. Americans have changed their conventional definition of what is efficient in government as the organization of their commercial enterprises has changed.

In the of labour 18th century, efficiency meant first and foremost the efficiency of competition among small-scale, relatively equal political entities within a political-economic framework that provided protection for the marketplace through active imposition of ordered rules of the game. All this reflected the political economy of the time which rested upon many small enterprises. Othello Quotes And Techniques. In the late 19th century it came to mean the hierarchical organization of enterprises in monopolies or oligopolies reflecting an economic system of large corporations built by great entrepreneurs. Governmental reformers, in turn, sought to build a power center to replace the of role existing noncentralized system in the name of quotes, efficiency. During the first half of the 20th century those corporations became complex bureaucracies governed by executive teams specializing in management and finance and American definitions of governmental efficiency changed in the direction of bureaucratized power pyramids. More recently there is a change in poetry about betrayal the direction of the decentralized conglomeration of synergistic organizations and work groups controlled on the basis of measures of their output. This has lead to a new interest in decentralization in the name of more efficient government. In every case, both efficiency and quotes and techniques commerce are primarily related to the concerns of power, its organization and management. Legitimacy, on the other hand, is given meaning in the United States by the particularly American complex of values and aspirations associated with liberty, equality and happiness, which I have elsewhere termed agrarianism. 9 The agrarian ideal envisions the United States as a commonwealth of self-governing freeholders, each with a tangible stake in his community and hence in American society as a whole, raised to new heights of human decency through the general diffusion of knowledge, religion and morality.

This agrarian ideal provides for the protection of individual liberties, the maintenance or fostering of equality, and the achievement of no small measure of happiness. American agrarianism stems from both the Puritan and Jeffersonian roots of the lovely, American life and has also undergone adaptations to the changing circumstances of American history from the days of the 17th century Puritan village to late 18th century Jeffersonian ward republic to 19th century commonwealth of homesteads to 20th century suburb or exurb of free-standing homes. As the embodiment of the othello quotes and techniques nation's social and political mystique (a future-oriented myth), it is the importance of role major source and test of legitimacy in the United States. Both legitimacy and agrarianism are related to the problem of the quotes and techniques attainment of justice and are expressions of the continuing effort to create a more just society in the United States. Each of the four cells in the matrix is modified by the lost boy summary, every other one. Thus in every form it has taken, American agrarianism has had a strong commercial aspect, beginning with the Americans' desire to make a profit from the use of the land even while valuing closeness to it for moral reasons. Othello Quotes. Unlike feudal or peasant agrarianism, it has represented the effort to create a moral commonwealth of religiously inspired freeholders actively engaged in commerce in its various manifestations. By the same token, the of role values of agrarianism modify commercial efficiency at crucial junctures so that maximizing profits is not the quotes only measure of efficiency in Carrefour In Mexico American life, even as those values themselves are tailored at some points to meet the demands of efficiency.

The politically-defined limits of commerce in America are set by the demands of agrarian legitimacy. Periodically the commercial aspects of American society have run wild only to be pulled back in line sooner or later on the grounds that they have been set free illegitimately. For example, most monopolies are considered illegitimate even if they are efficient from a commercial point of view. This common sense illegitimacy is defined in terms of liberty, equality and happiness. In the 20th century, particularly since the end of and techniques, World War II, there has been a shift away from the earlier synthesis between marketplace and commonwealth in two ways. On one hand, increasingly the states have been denied their historic constitutional powers to support any particular moral order other than that of the are islam beliefs marketplace within their boundaries, by quotes, decision of the U.S. Physiology. Supreme Court. And Techniques. The Court has consistantly interpreted the federal constitution in such a way as to extend the marketplace into the commonwealths.

Thus the powers of government, particularly the state governments, have been denied in matters connected with transcendent moral issues, whether in the relationship between religion and state, obscenity and pornography, abortion, Sunday closings, and required days of rest, to name a few of the major issues. In the case of what are islam beliefs, segregation, this was a necessary and appropriate exercise of the Court's responsibility under the Constitution. In certain other cases, while constitutionally more dubious (e.g., pornography), the and techniques Court's decisions reflected changed public opinion about the proper role of government in society, away from the In Mexico idea that government should support a shared moral consensus to othello quotes a greater emphasis on individualism and importance of role the right to privacy. In still other cases, the quotes and techniques Court imposed its new understanding of the Constitution against the wishes of the states and of the people (e.g., abortion, school prayer), but even in these cases, the latter have been sufficiently divided so as to prevent reestablishing state powers in any specific area in which the moral issue predominated. On the of role other hand, at least from the New Deal onward, the federal government undertook to establish a new morality of equality for the nation as a whole. It was supported in its efforts by the U.S. Supreme Court and, sooner or later, by the people. In terms of liberty, it can be said that the trend for the past 50 years has been to and techniques limit traditional individual liberties, especially in of role models connection with property rights and freedom of association, on behalf of equality, while expanding individual liberties in othello quotes matters of privacy and poetry about due process. All of this has tended to emphasize the marketplace at the expense of the commonwealth, in the sense that the federal interventions in othello and techniques areas that have taken on moral dimensions on closer look are designed to improve rights of access of all to the various marketplaces of American life or to protect their rights once in the marketplace. It seems to be a morality based upon raising the ordered rules of the game from morally sanctioned means to a moral end. Most of the issues in question rest upon conceptions of the lost, morality that transcend the ordered rules of the game and may even require their partial suspension to achieve some higher end.

That is what the Court has rejected. One need not reject the substance of the Court's decisions to recognize their effect on the body politic. They have contributed mightily to creating a new and very different moral climate in the United States, one in which the othello older expectations of commonwealth and community are now treated as oppressive examples of government intervention into private lives and physiology of labour interference with individual liberties. Thus the balance between marketplace and commonwealth upon which American federal democracy rested and through which the liberties of Americans were preserved, fostered and contained, has been dealt a severe blow. It remains to be seen whether the United States can survive that blow and remain the same kind of country that it has been, or better yet, the country envisioned by its founders. 1. Donald S. Lutz, The Purposes of American State Constitutions, Publius , vol. 12, no. 1 (Winter 1982), pp. 27-44. 2. Daniel J. Elazar, Pluralism, Federalism, and Liberty, Chapter 2 in The American Constitutional Tradition (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988).

3. Othello Quotes And Techniques. Cf. Dixon Wecter, The Hero in America. 4. Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff (New York: Bantam, 1983). 5. Martin Diamond, A Revolution of Sober Expectations (Washington: American Enterprise Institute, 1976). 6. John Winthrop, History of New England, 1630-1649 , ed. Sam Savage (Boston, 1853), II, 279-282. 7. Wilson at the Pennsylvania ratifying convention as quoted in J.B. McMaster and what are islam F.D. Stone, Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788. 8. Cf.

Publius , vol. 12, no. 1 (Winter 1982), a special issue on state constitutional design, especially the Introduction and quotes and techniques Part One. 9. Cf. Daniel J. Elazar, Cities of the Prairie (New York: Basic Books, 1970), esp. Chapters 4, 5 and 6.