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book report kuhn Guide to Thomas Kuhn#146;s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Note: I have tried to sparknotes native let Kuhn speak for himself whenever possible. The make is easier to Essay distinguish the quotes from the native son, paraphrases, I have written the war 3, quotes in boldface. Sparknotes? All references are to to a the 1970 edition of The Structure of son, Scientific Revolutions . 1. A Paradigm is . Kuhn baptizes his famous notion of of condemned, a scientific paradigm as originating from the great works of sparknotes native son, science, like Copernicus#146;s De Revolutionibus or Newton#146;s Principia. These great works became paradigms because they were sufficiently unprecedented to attract an letter to a enduring group of adherents away from sparknotes competing modes of scientific activity , and sufficiently open-ended to Essay Legitimacy and Accountability leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of practitioners to resolve. Sparknotes Native Son? (p.10) The activity spurred by Essay, such great books goes by the name of normal science.

There are . only three normal foci for factual scientific investigation. Sparknotes Son? (p.25.) 1. Determination of significant fact: Attempts to increase the big 5 theory, accuracy and scope with which facts like the specific gravities and compressibilities of son, material, electrical conductivities and contact potentials occupy a significant fraction of the literature of experimental and observational science. This kind of activity is largely independent of the reigning paradigm - the Newtonian measurement of specific gravities, for orders example, was unchanged by the advent of Einstein's theory of mechanics. 2. Sparknotes Native Son? Matches of fact with theory: (p.26) A second usual but smaller class of of reaction, factual determinations is directed to those facts that, though often without much intrinsic interest, can be compared directly with predictions from the sparknotes, paradigm theory . In support of the claim that these cases are rarer, Kuhn mentions that (p.26) No more than three such areas are even yet accessible to Einstein's general theory of relativity . 3. The articulation of Saftey, theory , which is . Native? empirical work undertaken to of wal articulate the sparknotes, paradigm theory . This is broken up into war 3 coming, three sub-categories. (i) experiments aimed at articulation are directed to the determination of physical constants. (ii) experiments aimed at quantitative laws: E.g. Boyle's Law relating gas pressure to volume. Sparknotes Native? (iii) experiments to personality theory choose among alternative ways of applying the sparknotes son, paradigm to new areas of interest. Orders Of Reaction? (p.29) This is son, one of the many places in which Kuhn might do well to of condemned make a distinction between theory and models. Let us stipulate that models are the sets of equations derived from native son theory plus auxiliary assumptions such that estimates of all adjustable parameters may be obtained from extant data (Kuhn uses the term #145;model#146; in a different sense). Thus, the of condemned, set of sparknotes son, Newton#146;s equations of soldier, motion is not a model because it is impossible to make a precise quantitative comparison with data without (approximate) solutions of those equations. When Kuhn talks about the articulation of son, theory as a part of and Accountability, normal science, he is really referring to the development of models.

While normal science is native son, a highly determined kind of activity, Kuhn is Essay, quick to deny that he is sparknotes native son, slipping back to Legitimacy naive inductivism: (p.42) In a footnote, Kuhn acknowledges the work of M. Polanyi, Personal Knowledge , Chicago, 1958, in which scientists#146; success is said to depend on sparknotes son tacit knowledge acquired through practice, which cannot be articulated explicitly. The point, expanded in the postscript, is orders of reaction, that scientists gain tacit knowledge of a theory through working through textbook or laboratory examples (called exemplars ). In summary, Kuhn#146;s argument is native, something like this: 1. All novelties of personality, fact (discoveries) or theory lead to sparknotes native son the end of normal science. 2. The History? Normal science does not aim at son its own demise. Soldier? Therefore, normal science does not aim novelties of son, fact or theory and, when successful, finds none. In sum, Kuhn seeks to on Internet explain the difficulty of discovery as an instance of the native son, general psychological fact that our expectations cloud our perception of the what of the old regime, world.

For example, Ptolemy#146;s system of astronomy certainly faced discrepancies, but it was only sparknotes native son when those discrepancies built up to crisis point that the conditions were ripe for the history of wal change (p.68): Given a particular discrepancy, astronomers were invariably able to eliminate it by sparknotes, making some particular adjustment in Ptolemy#146;s system of compounded circles. But. What Structure Old Regime? astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in native son one place was likely to show up in another. Of Reaction? Notice that Kuhn mentions complexity as requisite condition for native son paradigm change in this example. It is orders, a necessary part of what defines a crisis in normal science. For, a sufficient number of compounded circles would provide perfect fit with the data at any one time. That Ptolemaic model would provide no discrepancies with existing data . But the crisis is revealed by the way it changes over native, time, for as Kuhn puts it, the astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in on Internet Saftey one place was likely to show up in native son another. The History Mart? On the native son, other hand, Kuhn presents the Copernican revolution as an example which the crisis in big 5 theory the reigning Ptolemaic paradigm was almost the only reason for the change (pp.75-6): Copernicus#146; more elaborate proposal was neither simpler nor more accurate than Ptolemy#146;s system. Available observational tests, as we shall see more clearly below, provided no basis of a choice between them . For example, Copernicus saw as counterinstances what most of Ptolemy#146;s other successors had seen as puzzles in native the match between observation and theory. (p.79) As Copernicus complained (quoted from orders of reaction Kuhn (1957), p.138), in his day astronomers were so inconsistent in these [astronomical] investigations . Sparknotes Son? that they cannot even explain or observe the was the structure of the, constant length of the seasonal year . With them , Copernicus continues, it is as though an artist were to native son gather the hands, feet, head and war 3 other members for his images from diverse models, each part excellently drawn, but not related to a single body, and since they in sparknotes no way match each other, the personality, result would be monster rather than man. Again, we may note that Copernicus is sparknotes native, not complaining about big 5 personality theory discrepancies per sparknotes se, but about the fact that discrepancies in on Internet Ptolemy#146;s system are only removed ad hoc adjustments to the model.

From within a paradigm, from the sparknotes native, viewpoint of on Police Legitimacy and Accountability, normal science, anomalies are not seen as testing the theory . Yet Kuhn concedes (p.80) that Normal science does and sparknotes must continually strive to bring theory and Essay on Internet fact into sparknotes native, closer agreement, and that activity can easily be seen as testing or as a search for coming confirmation or falsification. But science students accept theories on the authority of teacher and text, not because of native son, evidence. (p.80) Hence the standards of critical rationality ascribed by Popper are not present. There is Essay on Police and Accountability, a need to son clarify what Kuhn is saying here. While uncritically taking the orders of reaction, background theory for granted, normal science does subject the native, models derived from the Essay Saftey, theory to severe critical scrutiny. None of native, Kuhn#146;s examples undermine that idea that models are falsified (although there are independent reasons for structure old regime thinking that such a view is too simple). So normal science strives to bring theory and fact into closer agreement by calling its models into question without ever criticizing the sparknotes native son, background theory itself. The History Mart? Kuhn does make use of sparknotes, a distinction between approaches to orders problems (models?) and the paradigm later in the book. Son? Thus, while scientists will (p.144) try out and meaning of condemned reject a number of sparknotes native son, alternative approaches, rejecting those that fail to yield the what was the structure of the, desired result, he is sparknotes, not testing the paradigm when he does so. The same point that is of wal mart, now often used in criticism of Popper#146;s falsificationism: Theories are never tested in isolation.

And when they are tested, as in the Leverrier-Adams discovery of Neptune, it is the auxiliary assumptions (the assumption that Uranus was the native, outermost planet) that was criticized, and not Newton#146;s laws of motion. 6. New Paradigms Place New Relations Amongst the Data: When normal puzzle solving fails to resolve anomalies, crisis looms, and the nature of scientific activity gradually changes. Is World War 3? (p.91) The proliferation of native, competing articulations, the big 5, willingness to try anything, the expression of sparknotes native son, explicit discontent, the recourse to philosophy and to big 5 personality theory debate over sparknotes son, fundamentals, all these are symptoms of is world coming, a transition from native son normal to extraordinary research. When the transition is complete, the profession will have changed its view of the on Internet Saftey, field, its methods, and its goals. One perceptive historian, viewing a classic case of a science#146;s reorientation by paradigm change, recently described it as picking up the native son, other end of the stick , a process that involves handling the same bundle of data as before, but placing them in of condemned a new system of relations with one another by giving them a different framework. Sparknotes? [Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science , 1300-1800 (London, 1949), pp.1-7] Others who have noted this aspect of letter to a soldier, scientific advance have emphasized its similarity to sparknotes native a change in of wal visual gestalt: the marks on paper that were first seen as a bird are now seen as an antelope, or vice versa. (p.85) Butterfield#146;s description of theory change is an important clarification of Kuhn#146;s poetic reference seeing a duck and then seeing a rabbit. Native? For there is of reaction, a danger that we might take Kuhn#146;s duck-rabbit analogy too seriously, and view theory change as literally involving a change in perception , and therefore a change in sparknotes son the data themselves, rather than just a change in the relations amongst the data. Another noteworthy feature of the above quote is the idea that the goals of is world, science change when the son, paradigm changes. Presumably, this is Essay, because the goal of science is problem-solving, and this changes as the native, problems change. The History? Yet one might also define problem-solving in native a paradigm independent way (e.g., as the goal of finding predictively accurate models), in which case the letter soldier, goal would not change. But Kuhn does not appear to sparknotes son subscribe to meaning of condemned such a view of sparknotes, science. . the Essay on Police Legitimacy, reception of son, a new paradigm often necessitates a redefinition of the corresponding science. Some old problems may be relegated to Essay Saftey another science or declared entirely unscientific. [e.g. Sparknotes Native Son? alchemy] Others that were previously non-existent or trivial may, with a new paradigm, become the very archetypes of big 5 theory, significant scientific achievement. Sparknotes Son? [e.g., tidology, the study of the on Police, tides] The normal-scientific tradition that emerges from sparknotes a scientific revolution is not only social old regime incompatible but often actually incommensurable with that which has gone before. (p.103) As far as the main conclusion is concerned, Kuhn#146;s argument is convincing. There is sparknotes, no doubt that the world view that emerges from a scientific revolution may be incommensurable in Essay Saftey the weak sense described above - that new terms are not straightforwardly translatable, and the new paradigm leads to at least some incompatible predictions.

However, there is a concomitant claim that should not go unchallenged. Are there really no objective standards on son the acceptance of of wal, primitive entities, as Kuhn insinuates? Surely, it is reasonable to demand that postulated entities can at least be measured. Isn#146;t it conceivable that Molire#146;s disdain for the term #145;dormitive potency#146; arose from the native son, fact that the label adds nothing but a new way of orders, saying soporific? The man who first saw the exterior of the native, box from on Police above later sees its interior from below. Transformations like these, though usually more gradual and sparknotes native almost always irreversible are common concomitants of scientific training.

Looking at a contour map, the student sees lines on Legitimacy and Accountability paper, the son, cartographer a picture of personality theory, a terrain. Looking at a bubble-chamber photograph, the student sees confused and native son broken lines, the of wal, physicist a record of familiar subnuclear events. (p.111) In one psychological experiment, volunteers fitted with inverting lenses report that everything appears up side down at native first, but they grow accustomed to the inversion. They learn to accurately predict where their hand should move in order to intercept an object, say, and report the experience of seeing everything the right side up. (And when the lenses are first removed, everything appears to be up side down again!) According to Kuhn, (p.112) literally as well as metaphorically, the man accustomed to inverting lenses has undergone a revolutionary transformation of Essay and Accountability, vision. Yet Kuhn is quick to acknowledge that these known psychological facts about son vision do not tell the affect, if any, of is world, scientific training on sparknotes native vision. (p.113) And prima facie , it is somewhat implausible to the history mart naively extend the sparknotes, idea to, say, the letter to a, convert to a new paradigm. Sparknotes Son? For example, Looking at the moon, the convert to Copernicanism does not say, #145;I used to see a planet, but now I see a satellite.#146; That locution would imply a sense in personality which the Ptolemaic system had once been correct. Instead, a convert to the new astronomy says, #145;I once saw the son, moon to be (or saw the moon as) a planet, but I was mistaken#146;. Orders? (p.115) At the native son, same time, there are clear analogies to the psychological phenomenon of seeing what one expects to letter to a soldier see as in sparknotes son the case of is world, seeing a black three of sparknotes son, hearts as a three of what structure old regime in france, spades. For instance: Sir William Herschel#146;s discovery of native, Uranus provides a first example and one that closely parallels the letter to a, anomalous card experiment. Native? On a least seventeen different occasions between 1690 and 1781, a number of astronomers, including several of Europe#146;s most eminent observers, had seen a star in positions that we now suppose must have been occupied at was the structure of the old regime the time by Uranus. Herschel, when he first observed the same object twelve years later, did so with a much improved telescope of own manufacture.

As a result, he was able to sparknotes native notice an apparent disk-size that was at least unusual for Essay Saftey stars. Sparknotes? Something was awry, and letter to a he therefore postponed identification pending further scrutiny. That scrutiny disclosed Uranus#146; motion among the stars, and sparknotes native son Herschel therefore announced that he had seen a new comet! Only several months later, after fruitless attempts to fit the mart, observed motion to a cometary orbit, did Lexell suggest that the orbit was probably planetary. (p.115) The question is son, whether there is evidence for the more radical conclusion that new paradigms can change the way we see the world, as opposed to changing the big 5 theory, way we interpret what we see. Or maybe we should say that new paradigms actually change the sparknotes native son, world in letter to a which scientists work?! Using traditional instruments, some as simple as a piece of thread, late sixteenth-century astronomers repeatedly discovered that comets wandered at sparknotes native will through the what was the, space previously reserved for the immutable planets and stars. The very ease and sparknotes rapidly with which astronomers saw new things when looking at old objects with old instruments may make us wish to of reaction say that, after Copernicus, astronomers lived in a different world. In any case, their research responded as though that were the sparknotes, case. (pp.116-7) Cautiously, Kuhn pushes the thesis a little further: At the orders, very least, as a result of discovering oxygen, Lavoisier saw nature differently. And in the absence of some recourse to sparknotes native son that hypothetical fixed nature that he saw differently, the of condemned, principle of economy will urge us to son say that after discovering oxygen Lavoisier worked in a different world. Essay On Police Legitimacy And Accountability? (p.118) So far Kuhn has provided no detailed argumentation to sparknotes son support his analysis. Those details are really quite interesting in their own right, irrespective of whether they actually succeed in supporting the stronger conclusion.

By way of elaboration, Kuhn contrasts the Aristotelian and Galilean view of a simple pendulum: To the is world war 3 coming, Aristotelians, who believed that a heavy body is moved by sparknotes son, its own nature from a higher position to the history of wal mart a state of natural rest at a lower one, the swinging body was simply falling with difficulty. Sparknotes Son? Constrained by war 3 coming, the chain, it could achieve rest at native son its low point only war 3 coming after tortuous motion and a considerable time. Galileo, on the other hand, looking at the swinging body, saw a pendulum, a body that almost succeeded in repeating the son, same motion over and over again ad infinitum. And Accountability? And having seen that much, Galileo observed other properties of the pendulum as well and constructed many of the most significant and sparknotes native son original parts of this new dynamics around them. Meaning? From the properties of the pendulum, for example, Galileo derived his only full and sparknotes native sound arguments for what structure old regime in france the independence of sparknotes native son, weight and rate of fall, as well as for of the the relationship between vertical height and terminal velocity of motions down inclined planes. [Galileo Galilei, Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences, trans. Sparknotes? H. Crew and A. Legitimacy And Accountability? de Salvio (Evanston, Ill., 1946), pp.80-81, 162-66.] All of these natural phenomena he saw differently from the way they had been seen before. (pp.118-9) But the sparknotes son, conclusion drawn from this example is of wal, that until that scholastic paradigm was invented, there were no pendulums, but only swinging stones, for sparknotes son the scientists to see. On Internet? Pendulums were brought into existence by something very like a paradigm-induced gestalt switch . (p.120) This is son, a radical conclusion. What occurs during a scientific revolution is not fully reducible to a reinterpretation of individual and stable data.

In the first place, the data are not unequivocally stable. Meaning Of Condemned? A pendulum is not a falling stone, nor is oxygen dephlogisticated air. Consequently, the data that scientists collect from these diverse objects are, as we shall shortly see, themselves different. More important, the process by which either the son, individual or the of condemned, community makes the transition from constrained fall to the pendulum or from dephlogisticated air to oxygen is not one that resembles interpretation. How could it do so in the absence of fixed data for the scientist to interpret? Rather than being an interpreter, the scientist who embraces a new paradigm is native son, like the theory, man wearing inverting lenses. Native Son? (pp.121-22) Scientists then often speak of the scales falling from the of reaction, eyes or the lightning flash that inundates a previously obscure puzzle, enabling its components to be seen in sparknotes native a new way that for the first time permits its solution. On other occasions the relevant illumination comes in sleep.

Nor ordinary sense of the Essay on Internet Saftey, term #145;interpretation#146; fits these flashes of intuition through which a new paradigm is born. Though such intuitions depend upon sparknotes the experience, both anomalous and to a soldier congruent, gained with the old paradigm, they are not logically or piecemeal linked to particular items of that experience as an interpretation would be. Sparknotes Son? Instead, they gather up large portions of orders, that experience and sparknotes native transform them to meaning of condemned the rather different bundle of experience that will thereafter be linked piecemeal to native the new paradigm but not to orders the old. Sparknotes Native? (pp.122-23) The last sentence in the quotation is another reference to big 5 Butterfield#146;s description of theory change (7, above). There is native son, a sense in which this description strengthens the of reaction, case against sparknotes native son interpretation, since to Saftey exploit new relations is not to reinterpret old relations. However, it offers no support for a stronger incommensurability thesis. For the native, relations amongst data can change without the data themselves changing. Other philosophers of Essay on Internet Saftey, science, like Popper, have denied the sparknotes native, existence of any verification procedures at is world war 3 all. Theories are never justified (because of problems with induction), but they may be disproven. Popper#146;s philosophy is sparknotes native, that of falsificationism: Theories should be severely criticized in an attempt to meaning falsify them. Survivors of such critical scrutiny are rationally acceptable, and are said to be corroborated. . the role thus attributed to falsification is much like the native son, one this essay assigns to anomalous experiences, i.e. to experiences that, by evoking crisis, prepare the way for a new theory. Nevertheless, anomalous experiences may not be identified with falsifying ones.

Indeed, I doubt that the of reaction, latter exist. As has repeatedly been emphasized before, no theory ever solves all the puzzles with which it is confronted at an given time; nor are the sparknotes, solution already achieved often perfect. On the of wal, contrary, it is just the sparknotes son, incompleteness and what was the structure of the imperfection of the existing data-theory fit that, at any time, define many of the sparknotes, puzzles that characterize normal science. If any and letter soldier every failure to fit were ground for sparknotes theory rejection, all theories ought to be rejected at all times. On the other hand, if only severe failure to Essay on Internet fit justifies theory rejection, then the Popperians will require some criterion of native son, improbability or of Legitimacy, degree of falsification. Sparknotes? In developing one they will almost certainly encounter the war 3, same network of difficulties that has haunted the sparknotes, advocates of the various probabilistic verification theories. (pp.146-47) In the first place, the Essay and Accountability, proponents of competing paradigms will often disagree about the list of sparknotes native son, problems that any candidate for paradigm must resolve. . Essay On Internet? Lavoisier#146;s chemical theory inhibited chemists from native asking why the metals were so much alike, a question that phlogistic chemistry had both asked and to a soldier answered.

The transition to Lavoisier#146;s paradigm had, like the transition to son Newton#146;s meant a loss not only of a permissible question but of an Essay achieved solution. (p.148) The second fundamental aspect of son, incommensurability might be called meaning variance, and letter soldier is often simply equated with incommensurability: Communication across the revolutionary divide is inevitably partial. Consider, for another example, the native son, men who called Copernicus mad because he proclaimed that the letter to a soldier, earth moved. Sparknotes Native Son? They were not either just wrong or quite wrong. Part of social of the old regime, what they meant by #145;earth#146; was fixed position. Their earth, at sparknotes son least, could not be moved. (p.149) The third and Essay on Police and Accountability most fundamental aspect of the incommensurability of competing paradigms might be referred to sparknotes son as world changes: In a sense that I am unable to explicate further, the letter to a, proponents of competing paradigms practice their trades in different worlds. One contains constrained bodies that fall slowly, the other pendulums that repeat their motions again and sparknotes son again. Is World War 3? . in sparknotes native some areas they see different things, and they see them in different relations one to what was the structure old regime the other. Native Son? (p.150) I will not repeat what has already been said about the merit of the history mart, these theses. The first is the sparknotes native, claim to have solved crisis-provoking problems: Probably the the history of wal, single most prevalent claim advanced by sparknotes, the proponents of a new paradigm is that they can solve the problems that have led the of condemned, old one to a crisis. . Son? Copernicus thus claimed that he had solved the long-vexing problem of the letter, length of the son, calendar year, Newton that he had reconciled terrestrial and celestial mechanics, Lavoisier that he had solved the problems of gas-identity and of weight relations, and orders Einstein that he had make electrodynamics compatible with a revised science of son, motion. (pp.153-54) The second road to conversion follows a claim to Essay on Police Legitimacy and Accountability novel predictions: . Son? particularly persuasive arguments can be developed if the new paradigm permits the prediction of phenomena that had been entirely unsuspected while the old one prevailed.

Copernicus#146; theory, for example, suggested that planets should be like the earth, that Venus should show phases, and Essay on Internet Saftey that the native son, universe must be vastly larger than had previously been supposed. Letter? As a result, when sixty years after his death the telescope suddenly displaced mountains on the moon, the phases of Venus, and an immense number of native, previously unsuspected stars, those observations brought the new theory a great many converts, particularly among non-astronomers. In the case of the wave theory, one main source of orders, professional conversions was even more dramatic. French resistance collapsed suddenly and relatively completely when Fresnel was able to demonstrate the existence of a white spot at sparknotes native son the center of the shadow of a circular disk. Soldier? That was an effect that not even he had anticipated but that Poisson, initially one of his opponents, had shown to native son be a necessary if absurd consequence of Fresnel#146;s theory. (pp.154-55) The third and final category of war 3, claim that may cause conversion is the son, claim to letter to a simplicity: Fortunately, there is also another sort of consideration that can lead scientists to reject an old paradigm in son favor of a new. Essay On Police And Accountability? These are the sparknotes native son, arguments, rarely made entirely explicit, that appeal to the individual#146;s sense of the big 5 theory, appropriate or the native, aesthetic-the new theory is said to #145;neater,#146; #145;more suitable,#146; or #145;simpler#146; than the Essay and Accountability, old. Probably such arguments are less effective in sparknotes native son the sciences than in mathematics. . Meaning? Nevertheless, the importance of native son, aesthetic considerations can sometimes be decisive. Was The Structure Of The In France? . To see the reason for the importance of these more subjective and aesthetic considerations, remember what a paradigm debate is about. When a new candidate for paradigm is sparknotes native, first proposed, it has seldom solved more than a few of the problems that confront it, and most of big 5 personality theory, those solutions are still far from sparknotes perfect. Saftey? Until Kepler, the Copernican theory scarcely improved upon native the predictions of Essay Saftey, planetary position made by Ptolemy. . In short, if a new candidate for paradigm had to be judged from the sparknotes native, start by hard-headed people who examined only what was the relative problem-solving ability, the sciences would experience very few major revolutions. Sparknotes? (pp.155-57) These three considerations are parallel those put forward by of condemned, William Whewell circa 1840, and sparknotes predate that time.

Whewell referred to of wal mart the three tests of hypotheses as being (1) the prediction of sparknotes native, phenomena of the same kind as those which the hypothesis was invented to Essay explain, (2) the son, prediction of is world war 3 coming, facts of son, a different and novel kind (the consilience of war 3, inductions), and native son (3) the tendency to simplicity and orders of reaction unity. . crisis alone is not enough. Native? There must also be a basis, though it need be neither rational nor ultimately correct, for faith in the particular candidate chosen. Something must make at least a few scientists feel that the new proposal is on the right track, and old regime sometimes it is son, only personal and inarticulate aesthetic considerations that can do that. Of Wal Mart? When first introduced, neither Copernicus#146; astronomical theory nor De Broglie#146;s theory of sparknotes native son, matter had many other significant grounds of appeal. Essay On Internet? . This is not to suggest that new paradigms triumph ultimately through some mystical aesthetic. On the contrary, very few men desert a tradition for native these reasons alone. Often those who do turn out to on Internet have been misled. But if a paradigm is sparknotes native, ever to triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the point where hardheaded arguments can be produced and multiplied. (p.158) As currently used in philosophy of meaning, science . #145;theory#146; connotes a structure far more limited in son nature and was the structure of the old regime in france scope than the sparknotes native, one required here.

Until the of condemned, term can be freed from its current implications, it will avoid confusion to adopt another. For present purposes I suggest #145;disciplinary matrix#146;: #145;disciplinary#146; because it refers to sparknotes the common possession of the practitioners of a particular discipline; #145;matrix#146; because it is composed of ordered elements of is world war 3 coming, various sorts, each requiring further specification. (p.182) He then proceeds to define four components of native son, a disciplinary matrix: symbolic generalizations, metaphysical presumptions, values, and exemplars. Symbolic generalizations. (p. Orders? 182) One important sort of sparknotes, component I shall label #145;symbolic generalizations#146; like f = m a , or I = V / R , or elements combine in constant proportion by weight, or action equals reaction. This corresponds most closely with what have been traditionally referred to as #145;theories#146; or #145;laws#146;. Essay On Police? Metaphysical presumptions. Sparknotes Son? (p.184) Rewriting the big 5 personality theory, book now I would describe such commitments as beliefs in particular models, and I would expand the native son, category models to the history of wal include also the son, relatively heuristic variety: the electric circuit may be regarded as a steady-state hydrodynamic system; the molecules of a gas behave like tiny elastic billiard balls in random motion. Orders? Probably the most deeply held values concern predictions: they should be accurate; quantitative predictions are preferable to sparknotes qualitative ones; whatever the margin of permissible error, it should be consistently satisfied in was the social of the in france a given field; and so on. Son? There are also, however, values to be used in what social old regime in france judging whole theories: they must, first and native son foremost, permit puzzle-formulation and solution; where possible they should be simple, self-consistent, and plausible, compatible, that is, with other theories currently deployed. . Other sorts of on Internet Saftey, values exist as well-for example, should (or need not) be socially useful-but the native son, preceding should indicate what I have in meaning of condemned mind. (pp.184-85) Turn now to sparknotes native son a fourth sort of Essay on Police Legitimacy, element in the disciplinary matrix. Sparknotes Son? For it the term #145;paradigm#146; would be entirely appropriate, both philological and the history autobiographically; this is the component of sparknotes native, a group#146;s shared commitments which first led me to the choice of coming, that word. Sparknotes Native Son? Because the term has assumed a like of theory, its own, however, I shall here substitute #145;exemplar.#146; By it I mean, initially, the concrete problem-solutions that student encounter from the sparknotes native son, start of their scientific education, whether in laboratories, in examinations, or at the ends of chapters in science texts. . Essay? All physicists, for son example, begin by of wal, learning the same exemplars: problems such as the sparknotes, inclined plane, the conical pendulum, and Keplerian orbits; instruments such as the letter to a soldier, vernier, the calorimeter, and the Wheatstone bridge. (pp.186-87) The first three components of a disciplinary matrix are familiar in native son the philosophical literature.

Kuhn#146;s fourth idea of an coming exemplar is the most interesting element, especially in light of denial of the traditional presumption that theories and son laws determine the empirical content of science. Kuhn#146;s claim is orders, startling at sparknotes first: (p.188) In the absence of such exemplars, the laws and theories he has previously learned would have little empirical content . How do exemplars determine empirical content? As an example: Galileo found that a ball rolling down an incline acquires just enough velocity to return it to the same vertical height on a second incline of any slope, and learned to see that experimental situation as like the of reaction, pendulum with a point-mass for a bob. Sparknotes? Huygens then solved the of condemned, problem of the native, center of oscillation of a physical pendulum by soldier, imagining that the son, extended body of the personality theory, latter was composed of Galilean point-pendula, the bonds between which could be instantaneously released at any point in the swing. Sparknotes Native Son? . Finally, Daniel Bernoulli discovered how to make the flow of meaning of condemned, water from an sparknotes native son orifice resemble Huygens#146; pendulum. . The three problems in the example, all of them exemplars for meaning of condemned eighteenth-century mechanicians, deploy only sparknotes native one law of Essay Legitimacy, nature. Son? Known as the of reaction, Principle of vis viva, it was usually stated as: #145;Actual descent equals potential ascent.#146; (pp.190-91) Kuhn denies the charges of subjectivity and native son irrationality that usually follow close on the heels of coming, such psychological solutions (remember Hume), at least on two counts: (p.191) First, if I am talking at all about sparknotes intuitions, they are not individual. The sort of tacit knowledge, manifested in intuition, which Kuhn appeals to letter soldier is common to all members of sparknotes, a community. There is no variation within a community. Second they are not in principle unanalyzable.

On the second count, Kuhn suggests that neuropsychology might provide such an letter analysis, in stark contrast with the rule-based analysis that philosophers have traditionally sought (p.192). Kuhn#146;s suggestion predates the current explosion of research into neural networks, parallel distributed computers, or connectionism. A possible objection is that neural states must be subject to laws, and sparknotes native son therefore we may properly conceive of what was the structure of the in france, it as something we achieve by applying rules and criteria. Kuhn responds, in effect, by drawing the distinction familiar to the philosopher of mind between a merely rule-governed process (which covers everything) and native a rule-following procedure, which follows a program or set of rules. Neural processing is of reaction, rule-governed, but not rule-following: . the fact that the system obeys the same laws . provides no reason to sparknotes native suppose that our neural apparatus is what was the social of the, programmed to operate the same way in sparknotes interpretation as in perception or in either as in the beating of our hearts. The History Mart? What I have been opposing in this book is sparknotes native son, therefore the attempt, traditional since Descartes but not before, to analyze perception as an what social structure old regime interpretive process, as an unconscious version of what we do after we have perceived. What makes the sparknotes native son, integrity of perception worth emphasizing is, of course, that so much past experience is embodied in the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to sensations. Mart? (p.195) Without providing any answers, it is worth raising some questions. (1) Exactly how much past experience is embodied in sparknotes son the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to meaning sensations? (2) Assuming that scientific judgment (or intuition?) is a distinct neuropsychological process that accompanies or follows perception, is judgment an automatic unconscious process molded by educational experience? Or is judgment a slow, interpretive, rule-following procedure of the son, classical kind?

In what follows, I will assume that Kuhn wishes to what was the structure of the in france conflate perception (sensation) and judgment, and say the sparknotes native, same about Essay on Police both - they are automatic, unconscious, non rule-following, procedures highly adapted to past educational experiences. (p.196) Educational training results in a stock of neurally encoded information that is used to make scientific judgments of sparknotes, various kinds - judgments of the relevance of data to theory, judgments of confirmation, judgments of what models to try next, judgments of on Internet, simplicity, judgments of family resemblance. Native Son? This does not fit the traditional view of knowledge, but the fact that it is was the social of the, subject to native change through the discovery of misfits with the environment makes it worthy of the term: But it is strange usage, for one other characteristic is on Internet, missing. We have not direct access to sparknotes son what it is we know, no rules or generalizations with which to express this knowledge. Rules which could supply that access would refer to of the stimuli not sensations, and sparknotes native stimuli we can know only what was the social in france through elaborate theory. Native Son? In its absence, the knowledge embedded in orders of reaction the stimulus-to-sensation route remains tacit. (p.196)

. what the participants in sparknotes son a communication breakdown can do is was the of the old regime in france, recognize each other as members of different language communities and then become translators. Sparknotes Son? Taking the personality, differences between their own intra and sparknotes native inter-group discourse as itself a subject for Essay study, they can first attempt to discover the terms and locutions that, used unproblematically within each community, are nevertheless foci of sparknotes son, trouble for inter-group discussions. (Locutions that present no such difficulties may be homophonically translated.) Having isolated such areas of Legitimacy, difficulty in scientific communication, they can next resort to their shared everyday vocabularies in an effort further to elucidate their troubles. Native Son? Each may, that is, try to war 3 discover what the sparknotes native son, other would see and the history of wal say when presented with a stimulus to which his won verbal response would be different. If they sufficiently refrain from sparknotes native son explaining anomalous behavior as the consequence of mere error or madness, they may in time become very good predictors of each other#146;s behavior. Essay On Police Legitimacy And Accountability? Each will have learned to sparknotes son translate the other#146;s theory and personality its consequences into his own language and son simultaneously to describe in his language the world to is world war 3 coming which that theory applies. That is sparknotes son, what the Essay on Police, historian of sparknotes, science regularly does (or should) when dealing with out-of-date theories . (p.202) Part of orders, what had previously obscured Kuhn#146;s view of the sparknotes native son, matter was his conflation of #145;persuasion#146; with #145;conversion.#146; In his original essay, Kuhn assumed that the only way that someone could understand the opposing viewpoint was to letter to a be converted to the new paradigm. Native? Such conversion would not facilitate inter-group communication since the converted would no longer debate. But now Kuhn concedes that someone may see the other point of to a soldier, view, and sparknotes native even be persuaded by coming, it, without being converted to the new paradigm (p.204) Though scientific development may resemble that in other fields more closely than has often been supposed, it is also strikingly different. Sparknotes? . Consider, for example, the Saftey, reiterated emphasis, above, on sparknotes native son the absence or, as I should now say, on the relative scarcity of competing schools in to a the developed sciences. . Or think again about the sparknotes, special nature of Essay and Accountability, scientific education, about puzzle-solving as a goal, and native about the to a, value system which the scientific group deploys in periods of sparknotes native son, crisis and decision . Social? (p.209) The implication is that if the scientific community weren#146;t like that, then it would not accumulate problem-solutions. Kuhn reports that (p.207) Some critics claim that I am confusing description with prescription, violating the time-honored philosophical theorem: #145;Is#146; cannot imply #145;ought.#146; By some kind of inference to native son the best explanation, he thinks his theory is warranted because scientists behave as the theory says they should . If we include the Essay on Internet, suppressed premise that scientists behave rationally (so they behave as they ought to behave), then it might be a good argument. Sparknotes Native? But it seems just all too quick and easy! For one thing, there is personality theory, no reason why the same argument can#146;t be used to argue, say, that religious fundamentalists ought to sparknotes read the bible if their goal is to know the orders, truth about evolution, since their methods have been developed and son selected for big 5 theory their success, do in sparknotes native fact behave as the orders, theory says they should.

I think that Kuhn would be better of if he denied that his claims are prescriptive, or normative, at son all. For example, the implication above is big 5 personality theory, not that scientists ought to native son aim at the accumulation of of condemned, problem-solutions, only that if that is their goal, then certain structural features of their community will be causally influential in sparknotes native bringing about this end. There would be no claim that any person or community ought to solve problems. The causal claim would be argued along the same lines as arguments of other causal claims: E.g., switch A controls that light because the light goes on or off when I flick switch A, but the light does not respond when I flick switch B. Likewise, problem-solutions are achieved by personality theory, communities of sparknotes native son, type A, but such achievements are not replicated by community B. There is no inference of #145;ought#146; from was the social structure in france #145;is#146;; just a causal conclusion being inferred from native relevant evidence. Of Wal? The problem is that Kuhn#146;s causal inferences are unsupported.

As in sparknotes the light switch example, no clue is given of the causal mechanisms behind those problem-solving achievements. What are the quite special characteristics of the on Internet Saftey, world that allow for sparknotes son such achievements? As Kuhn stated in letter to a the closing paragraph of his original essay, such questions like what must the sparknotes, world be like in war 3 coming order for sparknotes native son us to theory know it? are left unanswered.

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Houseboat Essays and Research Papers. Supervisor: Mr. Sparknotes Native Son? B. Hurombo Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background of the Essay on Internet Saftey, Study Houseboat sailing activities is a popular activity in . Kariba(citation), the resort town opened up development for private boat operators to offer the visitors of the magnificent resort an opportunity to sail the calm waves of the lake through early morning and sunset cruises, speed boat fishing trips, and sparknotes native son, canoeing. The houseboat operator business composition in war 3 coming Kariba is one of the major revenue earners as these. Cruise , Cruise ship , Houseboat 1677 Words | 5 Pages. Srinagar.Overnight stay at the houseboat . Day 04 :- Srinagar-Tour Ends Morning enjoy a relaxing Shikara ride(optional) on the lake Its one . of the most soothing relaxing aspects of a holiday in Kashmir, later you will be transferred to Srinagar airport in time to sparknotes son, board flight to back home HE 002 : Jewels of Kashmir 4n/5 days Day 01 :- Arrive Srinagar Upon arrival at Srinagar airport,you will meet our representative you would be transferred to coming, your hotel or houseboat where you will proceed for. Dal Lake , Gulmarg , Houseboat 2759 Words | 7 Pages. hotel at Gulmarg. (B, D) Day 5 GULMARG - SRINAGAR After breakfast time free till afternoon for personal activities.

Later check out and proceed to . Srinagar. Sparknotes Son? Arrive and check in to the Houseboat . Time free for what was the in france, rest till evening. Evening free for shopping and personal activities. Dinner and stay overnight in Houseboat at Srinagar. (D) Day 6 SRINAGAR LOCAL SIGHTSEEING After having breakfast day free for local sightseeing, which includes Shankaracharya temple and Mughal gardens. Shankaracharya temple.

Dal Lake , Houseboat , Jammu and Kashmir 900 Words | 3 Pages. South Africa. Native? The barge is topped with an Essay Saftey exposed dining deck, and the whole thing is sparknotes son illuminated at night like a giant floating lantern. Indias . War 3? Kettuvallam-In the sparknotes native, Indian state of Kerala, beautiful houseboats with thatched roofs are a common sight floating on the water. Many of these luxury houseboats are open to tourists, who can come onboard and relax while enjoying a freshly cooked meal from the boats kitchen. Tattershall Castle- Moored in the River Thames in war 3 coming London, the PS Tatterhsall Castle. Eating , Floating restaurant , Houseboat 918 Words | 3 Pages. comprised of open water area, floating garden, built-up land masses with human settlements, houseboat areas etc. Land Uses of the Lake | | . | | Area in Km2 | 3. | Cultivated | 2.29 | 6. | Park /Lawn | 0.03 | 8. | Residential | 0.66 | 9. | Roads /Paths | 0.07 | 11. | Tourist Infrastructure | 0.01 | 12. | Vacant Land with or without vegetation | 0.37 | 13. | Waterbody with Houseboats | 0.15 | 14. | Waterbody with Rads /Flotating Gardens | 0.35 | 15. | Waterbody with submerged.

Dal Lake , Drainage basin , Hazratbal Shrine 916 Words | 3 Pages. representative at the Srinagar airport. He will assist and sparknotes son, transfer you to the hotel/deluxe houseboat . In the afternoon you take a shikara ride . on Dal Lake, where you visit the floating vegetable gardens. While riding the war 3, Shikara there are plenty of opportunities for bird watching with plentiful species including Kingfisher, Little Bittern, Common Pariah Kites, Grebe etc. Dinner and sparknotes native, Overnight in meaning of condemned hotel/ deluxe houseboat . Day 2: HALF DAY SIGHTSEEING Morning sightseeing. Andaman and Nicobar Islands , Dal Lake , Houseboat 1073 Words | 4 Pages. our houseboats . On the way, at every 10-15 meters on son the road there was a soldier ready for action, and in was the social structure of the old regime in france some places more than one. We could . see that the security was very tight.

The houses were very old with a few larger ones in sparknotes native son between. We were told that only Kashmiris were allowed to buy houses there. Foreigners could rent but not own a house In Srinagar. Suddenly we came to Dal Lake which would be our home for the next three days. A shikara took us across the lake to the houseboat . War 3? The. Ben Gurion International Airport , Dal Lake , Delhi 3370 Words | 8 Pages. Dal Lake, where you can spot and enjoy the ride of canopied Shikara boats. The floating vegetable market, lavish houseboats , bountiful flora . and son, fauna, Char Chinars, Nishat and Shalimar Baghs bring alive a ravishing picture of Srinagar. Adding to the citys blissfulness are the of wal mart, Hazaratbal Shrine, Jama Masjid and Shankracharya Temple. Canopied Shikara boats in Dal Lake Houseboats of Kashmir Hazratbal Shrine Situated around 52kms away from Srinagar is native Gulmarg, meadow of flowers. The hill.

Dal Lake , Houseboat , Indus River 506 Words | 7 Pages. values. Saftey? The Tattapani or the Sulphur lake water is believed to native son, cure different types of skin diseases. Gulmarg and Sonmarg are the trekkers trails. Theory? . Native Son? Chandanwari, Verinag, Anantnag and of wal mart, Nagin Lake are worth seeing places. The scene of Dal Lake with houseboats and their reflections in still waters of the lake present an impressive sight. The cave of Amarnath where the temple of Lord Shiva is sparknotes native son located is a marvellous place for the religious tourists.

Situated at letter to a soldier a height of 15,000 ft., it is crowded during. Attraction , Deity , Houseboat 553 Words | 2 Pages. 1TempSPL3QT8D.htm 4/8/2007 Page 6 of 10 fertilizers and pesticides. l Diverting land water from prescribed or . designated use l Encroaching the extending land mass in to the lake l Carrying out native, tourist development activities Houseboats etc., which attract thousands of human populations across the globe , which also add to pollution. Problems Concerns of RR in Dal Lake Conservation Project Emotional issues : No trauma could be more painful for a person and members. Agriculture , Dal Lake , Houseboat 2046 Words | 10 Pages. Allen, to depict the role and fate of the war 3 coming, Egyptian cultural intelligentsia during the 1960s (107). Sparknotes Native? After all, it is what of the in france a story of the nightly gathering of the . educated Cairenesa lawyer, a writer, an actor, an art critic, and civil servantson a houseboat on the Nile, to chitchat over such topics as current affairs, popular culture, and the meaning(less) of life. Faithful servant, Amm Abduh, provides each night with kif and sparknotes native son, prostitutes, while main character Anis Zaki loads the the history, kif in sparknotes son the water pipe. Cairo , Consciousness , Egypt 922 Words | 3 Pages. family out on Shasta Lake who were enjoying the week on a houseboat . This would be the first time meeting all his aunts, uncles, grandparents, . and cousins. Personality? I did not expect for the meeting to end up like this.

Brandon, my boyfriend, and sparknotes native, his younger cousin, Jake, picked me up at Packers Bay in the ski boat. It was a chilly morning and I was in shorts and tank top and had only my towel to keep me warm. The boys forgot where the Essay Saftey, houseboat was parked in the lake. We spent the next hour and half searching. Boat types , Buoy , Face 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Mantekas Professor Simon English 103 22 November 2013 Relating Adrift on the Nile to Egyptian Culture Naguib Mahfouz writes a very adventurous novel, . taking place in the 1960s in a houseboat on the Nile River. Adrift on the Nile is a novel full of sparknotes sexual banters, and late nights partying in the houseboat , which surprisingly leads to of condemned, many internal and external conflicts. Mahfouz, himself, was born in sparknotes native Cairo, where the what was the social of the, Nile River is located centrally (Naguib Mahfouz). Native Son? However, does Mahfouz.

Alexandria , Cairo , Egypt 2749 Words | 9 Pages. fertile fields alongside the Kerala Backwaters. Converted to accommodate tourists, the houseboats have a sleeping area, with toilets, as a . dining area and a sit out on the deck. In house boats tourist can rest at ease on a houseboat at night and observe the beautiful countryside while sitting on the deck during the day. Food is cooked on board the houseboat by the accompanying staff. The facility available in the houseboats makes an atmosphere in which the tourist can have a relaxing time seeing the birds. Kerala , Kerala backwaters , Kochi, India 910 Words | 3 Pages. needed for a watercraft to letter to a, be practically capable of native maritime transportation. Fane Lozman was the owner of a floating home that was moored in the marina . of the city of meaning of condemned Rivera Beach, Florida starting in 2006. However, this home was definitely not a houseboat . The home was more of a floating structure with all the son, amenities of is world war 3 coming a land based home.

It was a sixty foot by twelve foot home containing a sitting room, bedroom, closet, bathroom, kitchen, and sparknotes son, stairway leading to a second level office space, with. Appellate court , Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States , Court 941 Words | 3 Pages. most invigorating and effervescent places to meaning, unwind in sparknotes son India. Traditional houseboats provide a wonderful opportunity to explore the . The History Mart? Kumarakom. A houseboat is a huge country boat converted into floating living quarters with spacious interiors and all modern luxurious amenities. A Houseboat cruise is a great way for tourists to native son, skim the breathtaking beauty of the backwater and natural marvel of Kerala. Houseboats Travel Itinerary includes: Kumarakom Backwater Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary . Andhra Pradesh , Ganges , Hanuman 1266 Words | 5 Pages.

find a washed-out houseboat , they find a dead body in the house, the body had been shot in the back. While heading back to the cave, Huck has . Jim hide in the canoe, so he would not be seen. The next day, Huck puts a dead rattlesnake near Jim's sleeping place, and its mate comes and bites Jim. On Internet Saftey? Jim's leg swells. A while later, Huck decides to go ashore and to find out what's new. Jim agrees, but has Huck disguise himself as a girl, with one of the dresses they took from the houseboat . Huck practices. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Huckleberry Finn , Jim 941 Words | 3 Pages. (Sea Sama). Many badjaos live most of native son their lives in houseboats , which occasionally cluster in moorings near certain strands and beaches, so as . to do business in nearby market places of the land-dwelling Sama and was the social structure of the, Tausug.

In the markets they barter their sea products for such farm produce as fruits and cassava. On the son, shore they also fetch drinking water, gather firewood and meaning, gather materials needed in the construction and repair of their houseboats . Sparknotes Native? Maguindanao (people of the flooded plain) The. Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao , Lanao del Sur , Maguindanao 835 Words | 3 Pages. (Sea Sama). Many badjaos live most of their lives in houseboats , which occasionally cluster in soldier moorings near certain strands and beaches, so as . to sparknotes son, do business in nearby market places of the land-dwelling Sama and Tausug.

In the markets they barter their sea products for such farm produce as fruits and cassava. Social Of The Old Regime In France? On the shore they also fetch drinking water, gather firewood and gather materials needed in the construction and repair of their houseboats . The Badjao or sea gypsies inhabit the shores and. Bajau , Malaysia , Mindanao 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction: The Badjao which literally means fisherfolk or simply fishermen is sparknotes native a group of indigenous people that are usually referred to as Sea . Meaning? Gypsies, making use of native son small wooden boats known locally as vinta. In their houseboats , also known as Lepa and Pelang, they usually carry all their belongings and Essay Saftey, valuables as they travel from sparknotes native son one place to the history of wal mart, another. Native? According to Dr. Pendatun I. Talib, Secretary General and Founder of the on Internet Saftey, National Sama-Badjao Movement, Inc., and currently director. Bajau , By the People , Jayaraj 774 Words | 3 Pages.

Fishing Boats - Things to Consider When Buying. and $5,000. C. Sparknotes Native Son? House Boats These boats are designed to imitate a home. These are often used for family or group escapades or cruises. Of Wal Mart? It has the . amenities of sparknotes native son a real home like sleeping cabins, a kitchen or galley, or even a swimming pool. Personality? Houseboats are classy fishing vessels and they carry a price of around $60,000. D. Bowriders Also called the runabout, bowriders are many boaters' favorite for their versatility and maneuverability. They are also perfect for fishing, water sports.

Boat types , Boats , Fisherman 616 Words | 3 Pages. Seasonz India Holidays Honeymoon Package 4 NIGHTS 5 DAYS MUNNAR (2N), THEKKADY (1N) ALLEPPEY/KUMARAKAM HOUSEBOAT (1N) Day 1: Cochin . Munnar (140 Km) SEASONZ INDIA HOLIDAYS ROYALE PLAZA,BRIDGE ROAD,ALUVA,KOCHI-683101 PHONE 0484-4015115;09539115115 Munnar, a mist lush green hill station up in the Annamalai range of Kerala. Munnar's tea gardens some of the highest in the world, stretch up the sides of the hills and are interspersed with pockets of sparknotes forest rich in wildlife. ? ? ? ? ? ?. Hotel , Kerala , Kochi, India 1327 Words | 8 Pages. above the of wal mart, expansive surface of stagnant waters where the speedboats, houseboats and cabin cruisers play. Sparknotes Native Son? But it is no longer a . wilderness(146) Were we to reverse the order and take out the connotations, it would be a great statement supporting Lake Powell. Certainly it is no longer a wilderness, but it has a photogenic backdrop of of condemned buttes and mesas, projecting above the expansive surface of waters where the speedboats, houseboats and native, cabin cruisers play. One rhetorical strategy he uses fairly. Colorado Plateau , Colorado River , Dam 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Double Entry Journal for Chocolat (Joanne Harris) Chapters 15-18. stunts the towns growth because the is world coming, town narrow-minded and judgemental to new ideas. quote: Crinkly cellophane paper wraps it like a covering of ice. Sparknotes Native Son? . Running past and winding into the valley, a river of Essay on Internet blue silk ribbon, upon which a cluster of houseboats sits quiet and unreflecting.

And below, a procession of chocolate figures, cats, dogs, rabbits, some with raisin eyes, pink marzipan ears, tails made of licorice-whips, with sugar flowers between their teeth . . . And mice. On every available surface. Cellophane , Metaphor , Rat 821 Words | 3 Pages. care that was once only available in a sterile institution like a hospital. The ideal nursing facility offers a home like atmosphere that is as comfortable, . informal, and pleasant as possible. A houseboat is a boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a human dwelling. Some houseboats are not motorized, because they are usually moored, kept stationary at a fixed point and often tethered to land to provide utilities. Native? However, many are capable of operation under their own power.

Care of residents , Manufactured housing , Mobile home 605 Words | 2 Pages. * Training Centres * Kerala Websites * Kerala Videos * Kerala Reviews * Public Information Officer * Contact * EXPERIENCES * . Ayurveda * Cuisine * Festivals * Kerala Souvenirs * Homestays * Houseboats * Kalarippayattu * Performing Arts * Backwaters * Beach * Hills * Museums * Pilgrim Centres * Waterfalls * Wildlife * Monsoon * Village Life Experience * Others * DESTINATIONS *. Eravikulam National Park , Government of Kerala , Kerala 726 Words | 4 Pages. The Virgin Group: Business Strategy. convention were central to Bransons way of business. His dislike of office buildings and the usual symbols of corporate success was reflected in the absence . of a corporate head office and his willingness to do business from personality his family homes, whether a houseboat in Maida Vale or Necker Island Caribbean retreat. (Grant p. Native Son? 10).

The Virgin name is also one of its best strategies, people know the name and know that there are many products and services that are available to them. Saftey? This strengthens the company. Management , Necker Island , Richard Branson 812 Words | 2 Pages. student body entertainment committee. Your committee has agreed to sponsor a spring concert. The motive behind this concert is to offer a safe alternative to . Alta Vista Baby (AVB) Week?end, a spring event in which students for X University rent houseboats to engage in heavy partying.

Traditionally this occurs during thelast weekend in May. Unfortunately, the partying has a long history of getting out of hand, sometimes leading to fatal accidents. After one such tragedy last spring, your committee. 1947 , 1971 , 1976 6746 Words | 25 Pages. to me and son, links in with the above articles is that by is world war 3 coming Jithendran Kokkranikal and Alison Morrison titled Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Tourism: The . Houseboats of Kerala, published in Tourism and Hospitality Research in 2002. Sparknotes Native Son? In the meaning, article Kokkranikal and Morrison discuss the ways that self-employed and small scale enterprises such as the Houseboats of sparknotes native son Kerala assist in the economic and social benefits of tourism within tourist destinations. Is World War 3? Like Everett and Aitchison, and in a similar way to my planned. Cultural tourism , Food , India 3613 Words | 10 Pages. On the son, way we went through JAWAHAR TUNNEL which was an amazing experience for me.It took 4-5 mins to cross the tunnel.As we crossed the tunnel we were in . What Was The Structure In France? Kashmir.We reached Srinagar at sparknotes 10 Pm.We booked a beautiful HouseBoat named NEW MONALISA for our stay in Srinagar. Staying in a houseboat was awesome.It was very well decorated and personality, the stuffs were very polite and extremely helpful.That day I had a very good night sleep and it was also needed as I didn't had a chance to sleep last night and spending. 1965 , 1977 , Jammu 2604 Words | 8 Pages.

chain reduction. Secondary hydraulic pump furnishes power for hydraulic steering and son, 8 bow thruster. Builder Information: The CLYDE. was built over . the past 12 years by my son Frank and what of the, I in our yard at native son Pepin. We started with a 36' Whitcraft houseboat hull, cut a foot off the height, and is world war 3, reshaped the stern to provide rake for the wheel. Decks are of 14Ga steel. Son? Cabins are wood. First launched June 22, 2001 in the history of wal Alma, Wisconsin. Superstructure: Wood construction, main cabin with galley and. Bow , Hull , Hydraulic machinery 363 Words | 2 Pages.

Assessment activity 12: Assess likelihood of risks occurring Risk | Likelihood ranking | People who are not strong swimmers, especially children, drowning . Sparknotes Son? | Very high | Houseboat clients getting lost and/or stuck on sandbanks | Low | Clients finding the houseboat very difficult to control in high winds resulting in damage to the houseboat and/or land structures | Medium | Clients being sunburned and dehydrated on hot, sunny days | High | Clients making a lot of noise when moored and residents complaining. Actuarial science , Business continuity planning , Insurance 6382 Words | 49 Pages. outsider and she cannot get the is world war 3, appreciation of the inhabitants of the French town. Due to her kindness, sympathy and chocolate she eventually makes really . Native? good friends with some people there. Meaning Of Condemned? One day a handsome gypsy, Roux, comes to the town in his houseboat and sparknotes, catches Vianne's eye. Now Roux and Vianne have to inspire the locals to give up on hypocrisy and remember about love. As far as the acting concerned, the letter to a soldier, cast is rather surprising, but at sparknotes native son the same time, all the actors performed perfectly together.

Academy Award for Best Actress , Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress , Acting 476 Words | 2 Pages. The Most Beautiful Place I Have Ever Seen. medicinal values. The Tattapani or the Sulphur lake water is believed to cure different types of skin diseases. Gulmarg and personality, Sonmarg are the trekkers trails. . Native Son? Om Alolaa, Saad, and Essay on Internet Saftey, Albanat Lake are worth seeing places.

The scene of Om Alolaa Lake with houseboats and native son, their reflections in still waters of the lake present an impressive sight. Farsan is abundantly endowed with some of the best hill stations in Saudi Arabia. Personality? They are Jeddah, Makkah, Taif and Madinah. Apart from having great scenic attraction. Arabian Peninsula , Hejaz , Jeddah 491 Words | 2 Pages. have occurred. The UCR Program has three sub-classifications for burglary: forcible entry, Unlawful entry where no force is used, Attempted . forcible entry.

The UCR definition of structure includes an apartment, barn, house trailer or houseboat when used as a permanent dwelling, office, railroad car (but not automobile), stable, and vessel/ships. In overview, according to sparknotes native, the FBIs Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program in 2013, there were an war 3 estimated 1,928,465 burglaries nationwide, a. Assault , Crime , Crimes 1050 Words | 7 Pages. parquetry-work, which is locally called Sadeli. Kashmir In Kashmir, extensive wood-work has been used for native, structures since ancient times. Houses are lined . with wood ceilings worked in geometrical patterns and windows in lattice work.

The Kashmiri houseboat , made entirely of a specially seasoned wood that does not warp in water, is a visual delight. Hoshiarpur (Punjab) Wood workers here specialise in theory inlaying ivory, now more or less replaced by plastic due to its low cost. Native? Intricate designs have. Decorative arts , Furniture , Home 1270 Words | 5 Pages. and predict what he and of condemned, Huck should do next. By making decisions for both him and Huck, Jim is sparknotes native son established as more of of condemned a father figure to native son, Huck, which Huck . has never experienced. Jim also protects Huck from seeing the theory, face of the dead man on the houseboat , which was later learned to be Hucks own father. Doan' you 'member de house dat was float'n down de river, en dey wuz a man in son dah, kivered up, en I went in en unkivered him and soldier, didn' let you come in?

Well, den, you kin git yo' money when you. Adventures of sparknotes native Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , Mississippi River 1577 Words | 4 Pages. campaign the mayor had promised Addison to mart, rezone some of her land- not tax deductible no tax benefit Borrowed money from a bank to native son, make a down payment on a . automobile- interest deduction can help if itemized deduction is more than standard Sold a houseboat and a camper on eBay. Both were personal use items and big 5 theory, the gain from one offset the loss for the other- Her dependent aunt Katherine died on June 3 of the year- can still use since it been more than half a day Paid for sparknotes, Katherines funeral expenses-. Corporate tax , Income tax , Income tax in the United States 1395 Words | 4 Pages. annexation has greater significance than the degree of annexation. The paintings were affixed for the better enjoyment of them as paintings and the statue . and sundials were also placed for war 3, the better enjoyment as chattels. To understand whether a houseboat is a fixture or fitting, the case Mew v Tristmere 2011 summarises this very well, it was held that the house boats did not form part of the sparknotes native son, realty and is world, remained as chattels. Whilst the degree of annexation was not dissimilar to that in son Elitestone. Estate , Fee simple , Fee tail 1298 Words | 4 Pages. Burglary: Criminal Law and personality theory, Effective Entry.

anybody then you cannot be guilty of burglary as youre not a trespasser. The Theft Act does however give a description of what is sparknotes son considered as a building . or part of a building. All inhabited places are considered as buildings so that would include houseboats or caravans, are considered as buildings/dwellings. To be a considered as a building the structure must have some degree of permanence. Social Old Regime In France? The main problem for native son, the courts, have occurred where a structure such as a portacabin for example has been used.

Appeal , Bodily harm , Case 1503 Words | 4 Pages. to pick up ethnic curios and other articles. Nearest railway station: Thiruvananthapuram central, about war 3, 16 km Nearest airport: Thiruvananthapuram . International Airport,about 10 km. Native Son? 2.Alappuzha or Alleppey is big 5 famous for native, its boat races, houseboats , coir products, fish and lakes. Alappuzha remains prominent on the tourist trial of Kerela as one of the major centers for backwater boat trips. | | A host of boat races are held here during the harvest season ( between July and September. Kerala , Mullaperiyar Dam , Periyar National Park 1059 Words | 3 Pages. Richard Branson and is world war 3 coming, the Virgin Group of Companies in 2007. for potential entrepreneurs; his brand actively encouraged the creating of fresh business ideas to its development office in London, Sidney and New York. . Bransons opposition to sparknotes son, corporate offices led him to conduct business from big 5 personality family homes, houseboats , and vacation homes. His image exuded a carefree approach to exploring new ventures.

Branson was impressed by the Japanese approach to business. Their long-term development and focus on son organic growth were the is world war 3, key points Branson admired. Sparknotes Native Son? His. Management , Richard Branson , Virgin Atlantic Airways 1115 Words | 4 Pages. running for hours so that tourists could return to air-conditioned comfort. Waste disposal system is also a serious problem in most of the tourist . destination all over the world. For example in Kumarokom and Vemband lake in Kerala. Wastes from the houseboats has boosted the growth of algae which causes a serious damage to the ecosystem.

Wildlife viewing puts stress on animals and has changed their behavioral patterns. Noise and commotion created by tourists have adverse effect on meaning of condemned their behavioural pattern. Biodiversity , Endangered species , Extinction 1155 Words | 6 Pages. compromising yourself, that to me is a heroic act that needs to be celebrated.' Selected works: The Peacock, 1963 Voices in the City, 1965 Bye-Bye, . Native Son? Blackbird, 1971 The Peacock Garden, 1974 Where Shall We Go This Summer?, 1975 Cat on a Houseboat , 1976 Fire on the Mountain, 1977 Games at Twilight and Other Stories, 1978 Clear Light of Day, 1980 Village by the Sea, 1982 In Custody, 1984 - film 1993, dir. by Ismail Merchant, starring Shashi Kapoor, Shabana Azmi, Om Puri, screenplay. Culture of India , Delhi , Economy of the history India 1247 Words | 4 Pages. utensils, plants and sparknotes, bowls, a set of was the social structure in france sharp knifes, etc.; to keep ourselves and native, each other entertained we would have our favorite board games, books to personality theory, read, . sketch paper, and pencils.

If I had my boys, seeds to sparknotes son, plant, and my wonderful over exaggerating houseboat I would live comfortably on a deserted island for is world war 3 coming, a long time. Son? Boys Discovered on Desert Island Continental 118 was heading from London to Sydney when it was reported missing almost a month ago. The crash site was discovered last night by. Boiling , Desert , Desert island 1352 Words | 3 Pages. this piece of heaven ! Srinagar :The Jammu and Kashmirs Summer capital more than 2000 years old in the heart of Kashmir valley spreads out on both side of . river Jehlum. To A? Srinagar has been called the Venice of the sparknotes native, Orient The quaint charm of is world Houseboats of Dal Lake, Nageen Lake and Naseem Lake in Srinagar to stay is a MUST Pahalgam: 95 km. Native? east of Srinagar, 2400 mt. above sea level. Popular holiday resort. It is called Shepherds village at the head of the Lidder valley.Best place for trout fishing. Dal Lake , Jahangir , Jammu and Kashmir 1123 Words | 4 Pages. Backwaters of Kerala are the place meant for those in search of a peaceful moments amidst natural beauty. The main backwater destinations in Kerala are . Kumarakom, Allepey, Cochin, Trivandrum and Kollam.

Cruising along these backwaters on board the war 3, houseboats or Kettuvallom is one experience that is forever cherished by visitors to the state. India has always been a popular destination for travellers. The culture, tradition and lifestyle of the common masses and sparknotes native son, the grandeur and opulence of the royalty. Agra , Delhi , India 1296 Words | 4 Pages. OBJECTIVES OF KERALA TOURISM VISION 2025 . Letter Soldier? 63 HOUSEBOATS CERTIFICATION . . Native Son? 65 1 Keralas Approach to Tourism Development: A Case Study Ministry of Tourism Culture, Government of India ANNEXURE VI: ANNEXURE VII: ANNEXURE VIII: ANNEXURE IX: CLASSIFICATION OF AYURVEDA CENTRES . 67 CLASSIFIED HOUSEBOATS IN KERALA. 68 CLASSIFIED. Case study , Cultural tourism , India 28370 Words | 97 Pages.

and was discovered by a few people who wanted to hire her for opportunities like Broadway. She played the role of Ruby in a 22-nation tour of of wal Porgy and . Bess, and left Guy in sparknotes a family friends care. Later she returned to is world war 3 coming, her son and son, settled in a houseboat commune in Sausalito. Neighbors still rejecter her and her son for their skin color, forcing her to move to New York. She then started writing plays and singing at Harlem's Apollo Theatre, appearing in Essay Saftey off-Broadway New York theatrical productions. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 594 Words | 2 Pages. lives. These houseboats are furnished in a grand style, with carved furniture and sparknotes native, woollen carpets with intricate work on them. The main idea . Big 5? behind the concept of a houseboat is the fact it provides a haven for those who like to spend a quite holiday, away from the noise and bustle of the cities. The British started the sparknotes son, tradition of houseboats as the Kashmiri rulers forbade them land ownership, so they had no option but to build dwellings that float on the history of wal waters. Most of these houseboats have all the.

Jammu , Jammu and sparknotes son, Kashmir , Kashmir 4739 Words | 13 Pages. mitigation strategy that adapts to flood conditions when necessary, and does not inconvenience residents since the of wal mart, home remains close to street level under . normal conditions. A look at floating docks and houseboats suggests that there is an alternative approach, one that allows homes to sparknotes son, remain close to big 5, the ground under normal conditions but rise as much as necessary when flooding occurs. There are existing precedents of cost effective amphibious houses, or. Dam , Flood , North Sea flood of 1953 1436 Words | 5 Pages. A Brief Analysis on the Film King of Masks.

Masks also reveals poverty, hardship, corruption, and darkness that Wang and sparknotes, Doggie experience in the world that they live in. The mist in opening scene and . Soldier? overall color tone of native grey suggests that Wang is paddling into a world of dullness. With his houseboat - his only sanctuary- Wang travels around to make a living by performing Bianlian in return of Essay on Internet donation from people who appreciate his art on the street. Desperation and poverty are not only accompanying people in the slave market but also Wang: his. China , Chinese culture , Chinese name 1504 Words | 4 Pages. upon the lake either for livelihood or for enjoyment. The lake of sparknotes son course is popular for its Houseboats ,Shikaras and promenades and it is . Big 5 Personality? undoubtedly a bird watchers paradise.. Slowly as the Shikara passes through the channels in Srinagar the houseboats pass by which are handled by even the children with great dexterity. Son? The birds in this lake are very approachable. The kingfishers sit on letter soldier the tops of houseboats nonchalantly almost within the touching distance of humans who seem to sparknotes native, be equally unmindful.

Bird , Dal Lake , Jammu 2365 Words | 10 Pages. sea, river, or lake water. These hotels have facilities which are similar to a regular hotel. Examples: House boats of Kashmir and Kerala or old cruise . liners which have been converted into a hotel. Picture: Houseboats of war 3 Kashmir, A houseboat on Lake Union in Seattle, Washington, USA , Houseboat in Alleppey, Kerala located on the backwaters A Kashmir House boat Tourism industry in India is one of them most profitable industries in the country and contributes substantially to foreign exchange.

Cultural tourism , Maldives , Tourism 1965 Words | 8 Pages. Jim is one of the sparknotes native son, most caring and intelligent characters in the entire book. Huck states that Jim oftentimes does not wake him up to big 5 personality, take over sparknotes son the night . watch because he wants to make sure that he gets enough sleep, Jim covers Paps face in the houseboat to save Huck grief, and Jim just overall looks after over Huck like a worried parent. Meaning Of Condemned? One of the sparknotes native son, most ironic moments in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is where Huck and letter to a, Tom concoct an sparknotes native elaborate, absurd plan to rescue Jim, only for war 3 coming, it to native son, be revealed. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , Tom Sawyer 708 Words | 2 Pages. then depart to the history of wal, Alleppey (140kms, 1hr 30 mins), which is the heart of the backwaters. Backwaters form the sparknotes native, heart of Kerala. Board the house boat by 12 noon. . Personality Theory? Lunch at 1.00 am Each houseboat will have two or three bath attached bedrooms. Each boat will have a crew of sparknotes native son three members. The most enchanting sight of the houseboat is to see the villages in the authentic rural setting living their normal life.

The view of the backwaters is breath taking. Traditional Kerala food will be served on board the. 2nd millennium , Chennai , Fort Kochi 6149 Words | 18 Pages. operates on Keralaa??s backwaters. Rotels A Rotel is a hotel on wheels. These hotels are trains which provide a hotel-like atmosphere.

Palace on letter Wheels and . Sparknotes Native Son? Deccan Odyssey are some of the prominent rotels. Boatels Houseboat hotels are referred to what in france, as boatels. In India, houseboats are common along the backwaters of Kerala and Dal Lake in S r i n a g a r . Based on level of service Economy / budget hotels These hotels offer fewer amenities to guests and charge lower. Boutique hotel , Destination hotel , Hotel 1887 Words | 10 Pages. Book Report on Maya Angelou's The Heart of a Woman and she also uses literary elements such as figurative and descriptive languages while describing other people which overall results in native son a positive reaction . from me. War 3 Coming? The Heart of a Woman begins in 1957 with Maya Angelou and her son Guy living in a houseboat community in Sausalito, California. In less than a year, they move to Hollywood, California in a safer residential neighborhood. During her stay there, she is introduced to legendary singer Billie Holiday who later informs Angelou, Youre going. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Grammy Award winners 1905 Words | 5 Pages. content and native, form. Letter To A? 1974 saw the release of her first attempt at juvenile literature, The Peacock Garden, and the next two years yielded another adult . novel, Where Shall We Go This Summer? (1975), followed by another juvenile venture titled Cat on a Houseboat (1976).

Although her first three adult novels were not favorably reviewed, her later work garnered growing attention for sparknotes son, what the 1999 Encyclopedia of letter soldier World Literature in sparknotes the 20th Century critic Janet Powers refered to as a sensitivity to subtle. British Raj , Children's literature , Delhi 1968 Words | 5 Pages. Calumet Water Reclamation Plant, then the North side Water Reclamation Plant in 1928, followed by what structure of the old regime the West Side Reclamation Plant in sparknotes son 1931, and Essay on Internet Saftey, the Southwest . side Water Reclamation Plant in son 1939. The River was also used as a home, residents moved into houseboats there to not pay taxes or rent, mostly during the great depression. During the 20th Century the river was becoming cleaner.

In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed, and this made it so nobody could dump pollutants into the water without a permit. Chicago , Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal , Clean Water Act 2285 Words | 6 Pages.

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The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare#039;s King John - Essay. Steve Longstaffe, S. Martin's College Lancaster. Deborah Curren-Aquino, summing up fifty years of critical engagement with Shakespeare's King John, identifies a radical break with earlier views of the play in the tendency in post 1940 scholarship to describe John as ambivalent, ambiguous, suspicious, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive. 1 The form and tone of John, in other words, are recognisably modern. Few critics have gone as far as Sigurd Burckhardt, who in the 1960s asserted that the play documented Shakespeare's own modernity, defined as the recognition that order, or justice and truth at the heart of things, was of sparknotes, human, rather than divine, origin. 2 Burckhardt's position, though not his confidence that he could show that when he wrote King John, or quite possibly in big 5 personality theory, writing it, Shakespeare became a 'modern', is echoed in Virginia Vaughan's claim of 1989 that the son, play like Shakespeare's other history plays depicts a crucial point in Essay on Internet Saftey, the inauguration of the relativism of the modern age. 3 But for the most part, writers on John have avoided such grand narratives of epistemological shifts, and found the play's modernity to be historically produced in a much more local way: as part of a Shakespearian negotiation with chronicle, source play, or the history play genre. What John is sceptical about, in other words, is other historical accounts of John's reign, especially regarding their relationship to what might still be termed Tudor ideology.

For many critics, Shakespeare's John is in antagonistic relation to such sources as the anonymous Queen's Men's play The Troublesome Reign of King John and the 1587 Holinshed, interrogating the sparknotes native son, writing of history of was the social structure of the old regime, which these two texts, and the history play as a genre, were part. Such a John appears our contemporary, teasing out sparknotes, aporias and contradictions in Renaissance writings of coming, legitimacy, faith, or patriotism. Native? For Phyllis Rackin, it is a 'problem history' where the audience has no sure guide through the ideological ambiguities. 4 Larry Champion identifies it as an Essay on Internet open-ended chronicle play with historical process transformed into sparknotes native son, human process, stripped bare of Tudor providentialism and reduced to of wal mart an individual self-interest that only in its best moments might be communally enlightened. 5 Guy Hamel argues that Shakespeare's assault on formulas [ . . . ] reveals itself in almost every departure from sparknotes son The Troublesome Reign. 6 To situate Shakespeare's play in the history mart, a sceptical relation to ideology or generic formulas is, of sparknotes son, course, profoundly unsubversive of the continuing critical imperative to speak with the the history of wal, Bard. The modern Shakespeare, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out, must subvert only that which is no longer subversive. The John worthy of modern critics' engagement is produced by a common critical strategy, which is sparknotes native son most clearly visible in the conclusion of one of the what old regime, play's editors that it would be a crippling limitation of the power of King John to tie it too closely to the situation of the 1590s. 7 It is in sparknotes son, its implication in the religious politics of the period of the Spanish war that John is most clearly un-modern; it is part of the the history, wartime anti-Catholic polemic, something which has been played down in order to produce a modernity which legitimates a continual critical return to the play, and to a lesser extent, to Shakespeare. It is not surprising that there has been relatively little interest in John's brand of Protestant nationalism of late, for, as David Aers has pointed out, many influential contemporary critics of early modern writing display a marked lack of interest in Christian traditions, Christian practices and Christian institutions. 8 Mid-century critics, following E. Son? M. W. Tillyard's characterisation of the play as but Mildly Protestant in of condemned, tone, stressed the moderation of the play's anti-Catholic sentiments, whilst identifying an assertion of Protestant nationalism.

9 Recent critics have gone further, identifying a play-world where all religious utterances are just further examples of debased political rhetoric in a world with no consistent values, not even Protestant nationalism. Sparknotes? 10. But how debased is this rhetoric? Specifically, did the letter, kind of language with which John defies the Papal legate Pandulph on son, his first encounter with him circulate in of condemned, post-Armada London as a somehow debased version of earlier, more sincere, Tudor coinages? To stretch the 1980s monetary rhetoric further, I suggest that, on the contrary, play rhetoric directed against foreign Catholics wishing to son overthrow an English monarch was on the gold standard during this period of war with Spain. John's words themselves are direct as he responds to Pandulph's demands in the name of the Pope:

Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name. So slight, unworthy and is world war 3, ridiculous, To charge me to an answer, as the pope. Tell him this tale; and sparknotes, from the what social old regime, mouth of England. Add thus more, that no Italian priest. Shall tithe or toll in our dominions; But as we, under God, are supreme head, So under Him that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold.

Without th' assistance of a mortal hand: So tell the pope, all reverence set apart. To him and his usurp'd authority. 11. And on being accused of blasphemy by the French king, John amplifies his declaration with a piece of Foxean anti-Catholicism:

Though you and all the kings of Christendom. Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, Dreading the son, curse that money may buy out; And by the merit of of wal, vild gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, Though you and sparknotes native, all the the history of wal, rest so grossly led. This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish, Yet I alone, alone do me oppose. Against the pope, and sparknotes native son, count his friends my foes. This speech is immediately followed by coming John's excommunication, and by Pandulph encouraging both rebellion and sparknotes native, assassination.

As Lily Campbell has pointed out, John is on Internet Saftey presented here as standing in the same relationship to the Catholic church as Elizabeth, even appropriating her own title of son, supreme governor in is world war 3 coming, his use of Henry VIII's formulation supreme head. The clarity of John's position here is momentary, however; he does not reach these vituperative heights again. Indeed, he resigns his crown to native son Pandulph later on. But it is is world coming important not to underrate the legitimating power of John's rhetoric. Such defiance, in the post-Armada period, places John firmly as a properly patriotic Englishman engaged in the same struggle as Elizabeth. The Protestant nationalism that supported Elizabeth's land and sparknotes native son, sea campaigns against what was the structure of the old regime in france, the Spanish would thus have been engaged in John's case. Furthermore, it could have been so powerfully engaged as decisively to affect interpretation of the play. In the post-Armada context, John is a true English king primarily because of the son, 'true' rhetoric he employs; his anti-Catholicism is central to the play's politics. King John is consensually dated to the history the period between 1587, when the second edition of native son, Holinshed appeared, and 1598, when Francis Meres mentioned in the history, print a Shakespearian King John, though it is native son impossible to meaning of condemned know whether that play was the one first printed in 1623.

13 It thus belongs within the sparknotes, core years of the Spanish war, and social of the old regime in france, probably to sparknotes native the post-Armada period. After 1588, however, the national mood was certainly not conducive to Essay a relaxed and sceptical investigation of the possible hypocrisy of sparknotes, religious nationalism. The defeat of the Armada, far from the history of wal engendering a lasting sense of invulnerability to foreign Catholic invasion, fed a sometimes apocalyptic wartime paranoia. Son? 14 Even in 1588, the official London festivities to celebrate the victory were subsumed into the queen's thirtieth anniversary shows. Elsewhere in the country, David Cressy informs us, the Armada celebrations in 1588 were more solemn than jubilant [ . . . ] the festivities were conducted in a minor key. 15 London, though its strategic importance meant that it was carefully governed, had its share of hardship, and had to cope with returning soldiers threatening to loot Bartholomew Fair in war 3 coming, 1589, and with royal demands for men, ships, and money at sparknotes native a time when the what social structure, capital was also struggling with plague and dearth. 16 Thousands were conscripted in the early 1590s, and sparknotes, City trained bands were often mustered. 17 In southern England there were general anti-invasion musters in is world, 1590 and 1596. In the latter year, the Spanish cannon besieging Calais could be heard in native, Greenwich, the meaning, capture of which prompted Sir Henry Knyvett to write his civil defence tract The Defence of the Realm. The Spanish raided Cornwall in sparknotes native, 1595, and sent another Armada in 1597. 18.

Although English Catholics protested their loyalty, and towards the end of Elizabeth's reign did so vociferously, Cardinal Allen's assurance to Philip II that they would rise to support an invasion was impossible for the authorities to ignore. 19 The early 1590s saw the final addition to Elizabeth's anti-Catholic laws. After the legislation of Saftey, 1593 obstinate recusants were not permitted to travel more than five miles from their homes without severe penalties. Son? New anti-Jesuit provisions were also added to the 1581 Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's subjects in Essay on Internet, their true obedience. Sparknotes Native? 20 Though these measures were moderated in structure in france, committee, and were not applied completely rigorously, they do indicate that the government were worried about Catholic invasion preparations. The church, naturally, was hardly irenic at this time.

Even before the war, anti-Catholic rhetoric proliferated as a discourse which structured, by sparknotes native way of reappropriations, most of the coming, controversies that developed [ . . . ] between contending positions in the English church itself, especially those between Puritan radicals and the church establishment. 21 For the native son, Protestant divine, anti-Roman polemic was at once an expression of Protestant zeal and an implicit gesture of loyalty to a national church, the Protestantism of whose doctrine was generally acknowledged. 22 Anti-Catholicism seems to have been one of the media through which the English church talked to personality theory itself; it functioned at least partly to legitimate what was being said. War against a Catholic enemy, and the anti-Catholicism of the English church, both would have both provided a context for interpreting John's defiance of Pandulph. In addition, anyone familiar with recent historical accounts of sparknotes native son, John's reign would have expected to see him presented as a legitimate king undermined by circumstances and Catholic conspiracy. John's use in this context by anti-Catholic polemicists has been well documented. 23 Foxe's account in the Acts and meaning, Monuments limits itself to religious matters, and native son, places John within the perspective of the struggle between the true church and antichrist. Holinshed's account emphasises that the of wal, contemporary sources are Catholic and therefore biased, scarselle can they afoord him a good word [ . . . Native Son? ] the occasion whereof [ . . . ] was, that he was no great freend to letter to a soldier the clergie, before criticising John for his great crueltie, and sparknotes, unreasonable avarice. 24 But Holinshed's John, like Foxe's, is a worthy pre-Protestant religious patriot.

Even those not well versed in the chronicles would have heard of John, and how after his submission to Pandulph most miserable tyrannie, raveny and spoyle of the most greedie Romish wolves ensued, through the deployment of this reign in the 1571 Homily against Disobedience. 25 Anyone aware of these versions of the historical John would have come to the play expecting to see a proleptically Protestant king subverted by the Roman church. Though Polydore Vergil and John Stow did not write within this representative tradition, their impact on public opinion was likely during the immediate post-Armada period to have been negligible. John does appear in the Huntington plays of the later 1590s as a wicked tyrant, but in these plays there is no attempt to address the political agenda of King John. There is Essay on Internet no indication that a Protestant nationalist audience would have taken such plays seriously as historical accounts directly addressing the political concerns of the early-to-mid 1590s. Significantly, the Huntington plays were first performed in 1598, and thus may well have post-dated a realisation that the crucial phase of the struggle for western Europe was to all intents and purposes over. Native Son? 26. The repertory in the post-Armada years was dominated by serious matters with an immediate gut appeal to [. . . ] militarism, in the words of Andrew Gurr. 27 The growth of the English history play was due, according to David Bevington, to a need for relevant, but indirect, appeals to war fever. Essay On Internet Saftey? 28 Anti-Spanish and son, anti-Catholic sentiments were common across a range of plays.

John's resistance to Pandulph in Shakespeare's drama would have functioned metonymically to link him to personality theory contemporary anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, and to sparknotes the Protestant histories and other polemical deployments of the historical John's reign. The ubiquity and strength of anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, furthermore, could well have operated so as to produce a strong cathexis for of wal mart, these sentiments and their utterer in the play, conditioning responses to, and interpretations of, it. In other words, the intellectual or emotional reactions to John's religious nationalism would not be qualified by elements elsewhere in the play; John's words in 3.1 would themselves qualify the responses to the rest of the play, including some of its ambiguities, suspicions, scepticisms and questions. Recent critics read John's rhetoric very differently. For many, the religious nationalism of his speeches function not to mobilise anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish sentiment, but to native son indicate that such a rhetoric, and such a mobilisation, is more fully present elsewhere, in soldier, the The Troublesome Reign. Sparknotes? The fact that this play has more anti-Catholic material than King John has often been taken to mean that the latter play fails to cross some (qualitative? quantitative?) threshold whereby it might be deemed to mobilise popular religious xenophobia. Thus, Phyllis Rackin sees the play compressing and meaning of condemned, marginalizing John's dispute with Rome.

29 For M. M. Reese, Shakespeare's play eliminates the crude anti-Catholic bias of the native, anonymous play. 30 Robert Ornstein explains that Shakespeare lacked the big 5 theory, temperament to exploit religious prejudices and hysterias [ . . . ] the religious issue very nearly disappears in King John, and John completely loses his stature as a 'reformation' hero. 31 John Blanpied agrees that Shakespeare neutralises the anti-Papal material, leaving John without a polemical base from son which to borrow his authority. 32. For many, the result of the history of wal, this compression, and consequent neutralisation and sparknotes, marginalization, is a play which, in the words of Virginia Vaughan, presents politics, not polemics. 33 As long ago as 1962 Geoffrey Bullough drew this distinction, stating that Shakespeare turned away from [ . . . Essay On Internet? ] sectarian propaganda to emphasise more purely political motives. 34 Such a construction of Shakespeare's John (and, of sparknotes native, course, John's Shakespeare) as drawing a distinction between real politics and un-sophisticated (and explicitly anti-Catholic) rabble-rousing has received much critical support, though earlier writers attribute it to a Shakespearian distaste for bias or rant, or a preference for complexity over personality theory simplicity, and later ones more to a textual refusal of the easy closure which a more foregrounded religious element would have allowed or perhaps necessitated. 35 The dominance of Christianity in Renaissance England is perhaps the most effective reminder of Renaissance difference; conveniently, Shakespeare manages to play down that difference and sparknotes native, provide a transcendent scepticism for our age of of the old regime in france, suspicious reading. As can be seen from Blanpied and Ornstein, the playing down of the religious element also means a John robbed of the legitimating power of sparknotes, religious nationalism.

John's words to Pandulph are read as attenuated by Essay on Internet Saftey John's compromised moral or legal status. Deborah Kehler states that in the light of his false claim, John's use of divinity to serve his own ends is transparent, while for Philip Edwards what seems an admirable quality of sturdy national courage is questioned by the moral quality of the speaker, and by his eventual fate in the play. 36 Responses to John's words are conditioned not by sparknotes native their deployment of a powerfully cathected sentiment, but by character. Even those critics recognising the power of John's words conclude that they are an big 5 isolated and anomalous moment, occasional choric greatness, or an affect of native son, efficiency, not magnanimity. 37 At best, for Larry Champion, the anti-Catholic John is just one of the equally persuasive views of the the history, usurper, the sparknotes son, wouldbe murderer, the terror-stricken capitulator, the sufferer, the patriot, and the kingly defender of his nation.

38 Without a rousing crudely religious centre, the play's politics are nicely modern: for character within the play, there is no clear royal authority. For the audience watching it, there is no unblemished cause and no unquestioned authority to claim their allegiance, in Phyllis Rackin's formulation. David Womersley, though he sees the play as clearly conservative in big 5 personality, its conclusions, agrees that it confronts the native, question of how one lives in letter to a soldier, a world without value. 39 Without wishing to play down the play's contradictions, I think that there is at least one value discernible. The play is sparknotes native clearly dialectical, with many causes and claims directly challenged. 40 Falconbridge has long been read as a sceptical outsider, who has a complex relationship to the politics of Saftey, commodity he describes, and perhaps practises. 41 More recently, readings of the play as oppositional and enquiring have been strengthened by feminist revaluations of Eleanor and Constance as subversive voices. 42 Equally clearly, John's involvement in Arthur's death may be perceived as moral weakness, just as Hubert's refusal to do the deed shows moral strength.

43 None of this, however, directly undermines John's unblemished cause of resisting Pandulph. Although he is criticised for sparknotes son, much else within the play, the only voices raised against was the social structure of the, John's defiance are Pandulph's and those foreign kings' loyal to him, which is only to be expected, as they are the targets of John's ire. The main reasons for the widespread critical perception of the play as modern in its politics are mentioned by Kehler and Edwards above: that John is native son illegitimate, that he is lacking in moral quality, and that he later gives his crown, effectively, to the Pope. Of these, the Essay Saftey, moral argument is least persuasive. Machiavellianism does not preclude sincerity, especially with such an affective topic. Renaissance history plays often portray monarchs as complex, and attempt to manipulate audience responses via this complexity. Holinshed recognises John's faults, but does not allow them to reflect on native, his status as proto-Protestant martyr.

William Camden, writing in 1605 of the Tudor bugbear Richard III, recognised that albeit hee lived wickedly, yet made good laws. 44 The other two points require more detailed engagement. John's submission to the Papacy at the end of the play could well have cancelled his earlier robust anti-Papalism. Through an analysis of the representative strategies used for John's cession I will argue that it may not have done so. If he is not a legitimate king, then he is employing anti-Catholic rhetoric to the history of wal mart bolster his position. Sparknotes Son? He need not be shown to believe his own words. If this were so, John's use of religious rhetoric is on a par as a cynical manipulation of language with Richard Ill's political use of witchcraft accusations in Shakespeare's play and the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. John is not illegitimate just because his opponents say he is.

The challenges of Constance or the letter soldier, Dauphin have no particular power on their own. Native Son? Yet for personality, many critics, whether or not they engage with John's modernity, it is axiomatic that John is an illegitimate king, that he is a usurper in possession of the crown when the right lies with Arthur (and, some have added, the true kingliness with Falconbridge). Sparknotes? 45 There are two cruces commonly adduced to support John's illegitimacy. Both can be read differently. The first is a critical exchange in the play's first scene, where John and Eleanor discuss the theory, implications of the French challenge just made on Arthur's behalf. Eleanor reproaches John for not dealing with the sparknotes native, question sooner, as This might have been prevented and social in france, made whole/With very easy arguments of love,/Which now the manage of two kingdoms must/With fearful-bloody issue arbitrate (1.1.35-8). John replies Our strong possession and our right for us, to which Eleanor retorts, Your strong possession much more than your right,/Or else it must go wrong with you and me./So much my conscience whispers in your ear/Which none but heaven, and you and son, I, shall hear (1.1.39-43). Most critics follow Reese's conclusion that this shows that John is king de facto and big 5 personality, possession is sparknotes native his only 'right' , though Edna Zwick Boris points out that Eleanor is not denying John's right but emphasising the practical aspect of his advantage over Arthur. Meaning? 46 Nothing in Eleanor's speech indicates that John has no right, or that he is a usurper.

Eleanor's qualification of John's assertion merely draws attention to native son the relative usefulness of possession, and the military strength it brings, in on Internet Saftey, the fighting to sparknotes son come. Given he is up against French and other armies, it is obvious that his right alone is insufficient. The use of conscience similarly does not have to imply a guilty recognition of the facts. Social Old Regime In France? Even within Shakespearian usage, the word at this time could simply mean inner knowledge. 47 Eleanor does not wish others to sparknotes native son hear because a public acknowledgement of the relative uselessness of John's right is inappropriate to the dignity of his court, especially just after he has been challenged by Chatillon. Her subsequent words and actions are consistent with her holding the opinion that John's legitimate rule must be buttressed with her diplomatic sense. To A Soldier? She refers to the will of Richard I, which in Holinshed plainly entitles John to the throne, in her confrontation with Arthur's mother: I can produce/A will that bars the sparknotes son, title of of wal mart, thy son (2.1.470-1). Sparknotes Native? Just as the fact that The Troublesome Reign is more anti-Catholic than John seems to license the claim that John is not anti-Catholic, so Eleanor's words that John's possession is more important than his right have led to the claim that he therefore has no right. The other key moment for John's illegitimacy, and for the play's exploration of the consequent instability of political legitimacy, is Falconbridge's reaction to Saftey Arthur's corpse at the end of the fourth act. Modern editors have been so sure that he accepts Arthur's claim that they have punctuated a potentially ambiguous speech so that only one interpretation is possible. In order to suggest an alternative reading which supports John's legitimacy, I will quote from the First Folio:

Bast. Native Son? Go, beare him in thine armes: I am amaz'd me thinkes, and loose my way. Among the thornes, and dangers of this world. How easie dost thou take all England vp, From forth this morcell of dead Royaltie? The life, the right, and social of the old regime, truth of all this Realme. Is fled to heauen: and England now is left. To tug and sparknotes native, scamble, and to war 3 coming part by th teeth. The vn-owed interest of proud swelling State: Now for the bare-pickt bone of Maiesty.

Doth dogged warre bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in son, the gentle eyes of peace: Now Powers from big 5 theory home, and discontents at home. Meet in one line: and vast confusion waites. As doth a Rauen on a sicke-falne beast, The iminent decay of wrested pompe. Now happy he, whose cloake and sparknotes, center can. Hold out of wal mart, this tempest. Beare away that childe, And follow me with speed: Ile to the King: A thousand businesses are briefe in hand,

And heaven it selfe doth frowne vpon the Land. Sparknotes Native? 48. Editors of the recent Penguin, Oxford and Cambridge editions concur in seeing the fourth line as addressed to Hubert, who has now picked up Arthur as Falconbridge commanded, and in punctuating the passage so that From forth . . . begins a new sentence. 49 The clear interpretation is that, ironically, Hubert can lift all England as he lifts Arthur's corpse. Arthur is referred to as England at 2.1.91 and coming, 202 by Philip of France. All the life, truth and right of England, which resided in Arthur, has fled (like Astraea) to heaven, and son, all that remains for the country left behind is a dogfight over the remaining in bones of power. Arthur is both England, and dead royalty, and with his death dies political legitimacy.

No one speaks of Arthur's right more eloquently than the Bastard son of Coeur de Lion, according to Marie Axton. 50 For others, John's illegitimacy authorises views of the play's modernity, and Falconbridge's speech marks the point where he chooses to theory support a king whom he has just recognised as a usurper, making his own political meaning in a world where there is no guarantor of legitimate rule. His decision to follow John must be an native existential one, choosing a way despite his own awareness that whatever 'rightness' he invests it with is not inherent in it. 51. It is possible, however, to to a soldier read the speech differently. If the thou of the fourth line is not Hubert, but the sparknotes native son, heaven to which Arthur's soul has presumably fled, Arthur need not be acknowledged as rightful monarch at what social of the old regime all.

Arthur's soul is imagined both as actively fleeing and sparknotes son, passively being taken up. Arthur's body, in a familiar metaphor, is a realme from which the ruler (England, as Arthur is big 5 theory English) has gone. Alternatively, the England that has left the body just suggests life, in conjunction with Englishness. Either way, Arthur's right is to the realm of his own body. Falconbridge then shifts to native the larger realm, also lacking a ruler, but for the different reason that powers from letter to a home, and discontents at home are in conflict. The crucial point is sparknotes native son whether this realm refers both to Arthur's body and to England. A simple gesture could make clear that the reference is to Arthur's body alone. Falconbridge is critical of John, but this need not impugn his legitimacy, as the the history mart, terms he uses recall those used by the nobles disapproving of John's recrowning in sparknotes native, 4.2. Each reference to John can be read as critical of the sumptuousness of the ceremony, and of the new clothing associated with it, much remarked on by the letter to a soldier, nobles at the time.

His first reference ironically situates John's majesty as bare-pickt rather than clothed with flesh. Son? Proud swelling state refers back critically to the wasteful excess of the recrowning, as does wrested pomp (that is, pomp employed in the improper context of John's ceremony, rather than wrested from of wal mart Arthur). The final reference ironically characterises John's clothing as simple (cloak and center) and unlikely to last the tempest of disorder in the realm. Thus, although the whole speech is clearly critical of John, and registers Arthur's loss, Falconbridge is sparknotes not necessarily affirming Arthur's right to the crown. To A Soldier? Falconbridge's words are difficult to understand, but an audience accepting John's legitimacy need not have understood him to challenge this right, and it is possible to imagine a performance which makes clear that John is legitimate King. His legitimacy is further buttressed by the qualifications of Arthur's right implicit in the words and actions of those supporting it. A claim supported by a man who carries on native, his back the spoils of a dead Richard I is not likely to have impressed an Elizabethan audience, even if they responded positively to the bemused and passive boy who at one point states I would that I were laid low in my grave./I am not worth this coil that's made for me (2.1.164-5).

John's legitimacy, however, raises the question of his cession of the crown to Pandulph, which happens just after the Falconbridge speech quoted above. If John is not legitimate king, then his act is robbed of political or constitutional authority, and is unlikely to bind his successors. Essay On Internet? In the 1960s John Sibly pointed out that papal claims for supremacy in England utilised historical as well as spiritual arguments, and suggests that John's illegitimacy was introduced precisely to counter these arguments. He begins from the premise that technically, John was not a usurper until Arthur's death, as he could still have resigned the crown when Arthur reached his majority, and sees Falconbridge's words before the recrowning as recognising that John is sparknotes now a usurper: it is immediately after the 'flight to heaven' of any 'right' John may have had in the realm, that he 'surrenders' his crown. To an Elizabethan audience, this must very forcibly have demonstrated that John had just given up what he no right to give at all; and Pandulph had 'restored' what he had no right to receive in the first place. 52. The cession of the crown is merely an index of the Essay, current balance of power, and for a Protestant audience devalues a morally bankrupt and/or illegitimate John still further. 53 If a legitimate John is sparknotes native son posited, the status of this humiliating submission, to the very man John had so strongly defied earlier, needs to be addressed. The mere representation of John's submission need not have functioned simply to condemn him, despite the commonsense appeal of what social structure of the old regime in france, this position.

The Homily Against Rebellion draws different conclusions. Son? Here John's submission to Pandulph is the clearest example, in its awfulness, of the war 3, chaos into which rebellion throws the country. The details of John's contract with the Papacy are spelt out to indicate the extremity of the situation when Englishmen [ . Native? . . ] brought their soveraigne lorde and naturall countrey into this thraldome and subjection to a false forraigne usurper. 54 John's legitimacy emphasises the indignity of his submission. Holinshed reproduces John's charter of submission and his words of the history of wal, fealtie, but does not criticise him, as he does on other matters. Foxe is slightly more difficult to sparknotes native son interpret. Meaning? A paragraph of the 1563 edition, omitted from the 1583 second edition, explains John's reasons for submitting as fear of the French king, and the perception that nothing else could be found to avoid the present destruction both of his person and native, the realm also. As a sorry subject of the sinful seat of Rome he was sure, not without shame, that being under his protection, no foreign potentate throughout the whole empire was able to subdue him. 55 The negativity of big 5 theory, shame here may be Foxe's judgement on John, or John's own opinion of himself. But the 1583 edition reproduces John's Letter Obligatory to the Pope, and is unequivocal in its identification of sparknotes native, John as a hapless victim of that execrable monster and antichrist of Rome. Thus, though an audience may well have simply cathected John's earlier anti-Papalism, the reverse is not necessarily true when considering responses to his submission.

The signification of John's cession of the crown depended on its context, so that within a Foxean narrative it might simply indicate the effectiveness of the was the social structure of the in france, Papacy in sparknotes native son, persecuting and humbling its opponents. It is also important to recognise that John's cession of the crown in Shakespeare's play employs different dramatic strategies to his earlier confrontation, and that these strategies may well have directed an audience towards a response the final result of which would be to confirm John as legitimate. The representation of English kings losing crowns on the London stage of the letter soldier, 1590s shows signs of having been subject to careful and subtle theatrical negotiations. Though recent critics have retreated from the once-commonplace conclusion that because the 1608 quarto of native, Shakespeare's Richard II was the first to feature his deposition it must have been censored, there is still the possibility that the first quarto of 1597, or the the history mart, play as performed, was cut, or that Richard's abdication/deposition was somehow 'unwritable' at this period. 56 This 'unrepresented' 1590s deposition can be compared to those represented in Shakespeare's Richard III and 3 Henry VI. The 1595 quarto of the latter presents Henry's resignation of son, his throne to personality the joint protectors Warwick and sparknotes son, Clarence in a scene half the length of big 5 theory, its 1623 First Folio equivalent, in which Henry accepts the arrangement so that the people of sparknotes native, this blessed land/May not be punished with my thwarting stars (4.6.21-2). The 1590s quarto underrepresents, rather than omits, Henry's deposition In Richard III deposition is directly represented only in a stage direction in which Richard fights Richmond and is slain.

Although the visitations Richard receives in what was the social of the old regime in france, his sleep before the battle can be argued to be a displaced representation of a deposing tribunal, to whose conclusions Richard involuntarily assents, the death of the king in this instance is underrepresented in that it is a fait accompli. 'Underrepresentation' was not the only strategy used in sparknotes native son, the history plays of the 1590s. The 1591 quarto of The Troublesome Reign of King John, which covers much of the same ground as Shakespeare's play, follows Foxe and war 3, the Homily in representing John's recrowning at Pandulph's hands. As with the two earlier texts, its principal strategy is to attempt to limit interpretation by presenting the deposition/abdication as primarily signifying John's helplessness in son, the face of Popish prelates' persecutions, the final wrong turning in a Troublesome Reign. The preface identifies John as a kind of English Tamburlaine, a warlike Christian and your Countreyman; For Christs true faith indur'd he many a storme,/And set himselfe against the Man of Rome. Meaning Of Condemned? 57 This John, as in Shakespeare's play, defies Pandulph on sparknotes, their first meeting, and orders Falconbridge to Essay on Internet ransack the abbeys, though The Troublesome Reign shows the action where Shakespeare only alludes to it.

John recrowns himself in front of native son, his nobles, explaining that he does this not because he has been deposed, but because he is checking the assured witnes of your loves in social old regime in france, a ceremony to bind the sparknotes, nobles to big 5 personality him, (Troublesome Reign, 1555). The play deals with such potentially difficult moments by providing a clear cause for sparknotes native son, events, and coming, this applies also to native John's recrowning by Pandulph. He prepares to meet the legate by assessing his situation under the Papal interdict, recognising that his sins are too great for him successfully to personality banish Popery (though he looks forward to it happening), and resolving to finely dissemble with the Pope (2 Troublesome Reign, 275) as the realm's chaos is sparknotes caused by Papal interference. He ends by resolving equivocation: Dissemble thou, and coming, whatsoere thou saist,/Yet with thy heart wish their confusion (283-4). On meeting Pandulph, John offers submission, penance, and crusade, and is rejected. His first impulse is to native kill Pandulph, but he again submits, to be informed that surrendering his crown is the only acceptable course. John resolves to fight rather than do so. At that moment a messenger enters, telling that a large French fleet has put the what was the structure of the old regime, country into mutiny. On hearing this, John's resistance collapses. He later receives his crown back as tenaunt to son the Pope (637), berates himself (Shame be my share for personality theory, yeelding to the Priest), and in his last speech traces this act as increasing his troubles: Since John did yeeld unto the Priest of Rome/Nor he nor his have prospred on the earth (707, 1075-6).

The dramatic strategy of The Troublesome Reign is to try to contain the implications of John's submission to sparknotes native the Pope by of condemned inserting it into sparknotes native, a master narrative, the course of the ancient struggle between Roman and native Christianity (Protestantism). It provides a full account of was the social of the in france, how and why John yielded, and what John perceived the native son, consequences to have been. By this strategy, the play attempts to the history contain the implications of John's act for posterity. Because the causes of the deposition easily fit into native, the Foxean picture of the embattled proto-Protestant subverted by Papal wiles, to represent the deposition itself is not necessarily to provide a subversive undoing of John's status as proto-Protestant hero. This strategy might be called directive representation: the Essay on Internet Saftey, deposition is sparknotes native shown, but attempts are made to limit an audience's perception of its meaning. A third strategy is at work in Marlowe's Edward II, which was published twice during the 1590s also with a deposition/abdication scene. This third strategy might be characterised as overrepresentation, here defined as the representation of an action or event so that a conclusive meaning is is world difficult to draw from it. It is not clear, for example, from Edward's abdication/deposition scene why he has given up the crown, whether he has a choice, or whether he is in sparknotes son, a fit state to is world war 3 understand what he is doing. Native Son? This ambiguity is foregrounded when Edward begins by of condemned comparing himself to a shadow now regiment is gone.

58 He then asks if he must resign his crown as Mortimer will take it, is told that it will rather pass to his son, denies this, is asked again whether he will resign, gives his crown to sparknotes native son Leicester, takes it back just until night, is asked again for war 3, it, refuses, gives it back to protect his son's right on a reminder from Leicester, calls upon another to take it from him, hands it over, and sends a handkerchief wet with his tears to queen Isabel. The switches of intent, and the complexity of Edward's emotional state make a mockery of Winchester's bland comment in the next scene that The king hath willingly resigned his crown (5.2.28). Sparknotes Native Son? Moreover, Edward remains alive to worry at the contradiction of his status as king without a crown or regiment. Edward's abdication/deposition is coming shown, but what it signifies, other than that Edward no longer has the military or emotional resources to resist, is unclear. Native? The deposition scene in the later quartos of Richard II works in a similar fashion. King John clearly underrepresents John's sensitive submission to the church. Where The Troublesome Reign attempts to direct attention from the constitutional consequences by of wal mart focusing on John's reasons for, and reactions to, his swearing fealty, King John takes only 65 lines (during which John also hears of the effects of Arthur's death upon sparknotes son the rebels) to cover the period between the first mention of the idea and Falconbridge's rejection of it as an is world war 3 coming inglorious league. John is not shown reflecting upon his tactics before he meets Pandulph, or on native son, the submission's consequences. Although the play underrepresents this episode in comparison to The Troublesome Reign, what happens is still clear.

John states he has yielded his crown, and Pandulph gives it back, as holding of the pope/Your sovereign greatness and authority (5.1.3-4). Underrepresentation is not, however, non-representation, though Barbara Hodgdon has recently pointed out that the play seeks to suppress precisely those events that might divide or fracture audience response. Of Wal Mart? 59 But the play can be read as recognising the problems even in underrepresenting John's submission, and that it attempts to contain the negative implications of this via overrepresentation. Sparknotes Native? It does not follow the Foxean strategy of presenting the recrowning with minimal comment and leaving the reader to point the moral; rather, it makes it difficult to understand, and thus subject to coming recuperative qualification by John's easily intelligible speeches in sparknotes native son, 3.1. Overrepresenting sensitive events and topics was common in Tudor histories. A. The History Of Wal Mart? R. Braunmuller has identified dramatist and chronicler as sharing the native son, problem of avoiding both censorship and Saftey, charges of partisanship, and as having two choices: leave out causal explanations as Fabyan did, or include too many causes (Hall's 'double grace') and avoid choosing among them. Shakespeare and Holinshed wrote confusing texts because each believed that confusion was not sedition. 60 Braunmuller's useful formulation of the available strategies is sparknotes son confirmed in big 5 theory, Holinshed's preface to sparknotes son the reader: I have in things doubtfull rather chosen to shew the of wal mart, diversitie of their writings, than by over-ruling them, and son, using a peremptory censure, to frame them to agree to my liking: leaving it nevertheless to each mans judgement, to controll them as he seeth cause. 61. It is perhaps misleading to characterise historical writing as primarily concerned with avoiding sedition, rather than as attempting to make orthodox sense out of the history, unpromising material. Sparknotes Native? Shakespeare may have attempted a different, though still orthodox, treatment of John's reign as compared to of condemned that in his sources, rather than avoided or covered up heterodoxy.

In the present context, Holinshed's crucial point centres on the notion of controlling the interpretation of things doubtful. Where two straightforwardly represented events contradict one another such controll would be likely to depend heavily on extra-textual factors such as previous expectations. Sparknotes Native Son? Thus, in meaning of condemned, the case of John, an sparknotes audience might compare his submission with his defiance, and conclude that no conclusion was possible. But if the defiance was straightforward, and the submission confusing, an audience is letter less likely to have seen the defiance as cancelled or invalidated by the submission. Sparknotes Native? The defiance would be central to a response to the play, and the submission marginal. Though John underrepresents John's submission in comparison with other texts, the issues upon which an interpretation depend are overrepresented: the validity of a recrowning, whether John can give away his crown, and what significance such an action has.

A parallel to this dramatic strategy can be seen in another text dealing peripherally with John. Thomas Wilson, writing in 1600 of the state of theory, England, states that it is an sparknotes absolute Imperiall Monarchy held neither of Pope, Emperor, nor any but of God alone, and so hath bene ever since the year of the structure of the old regime in france, World 2855, which was 1108 years before Christ. 62 Wilson then engages with the supposed donation of Britain to the Papacy by son the emperor Constantine, which he rebuts by pointing out that subsequent conquests extinguished Rome's right. The only other threat to this independent England is John's submission: after this, K John did resign the Crowne to is world war 3 Pandolphus, the Pope's legate, and did receive it againe from him, to hold it of the Pope, paying yearly a certain Tribute; but then is easily answered (though it be the native, Pops strongest clayme) that King John was but an usurper, and being distressed besides with the meaning, Barons' Warres, he was forced to do yt to native son have the Pope's help, but his act was never confirmed by the States of the Country and therefore frivolous. 63.

This passage, written for private circulation and not printed until 1936, stresses the constitutional importance of an engagement with John's submission, though this is not a question Holinshed, Foxe or the Homily addressed. Wilson overrepresents the to a soldier, arguments against sparknotes native, Papal sovereignty; John is personality not merely a usurper, but a distressed, enforced and frivolous usurper. The tactic here is not to provide one conclusive refutation, but to sparknotes native produce the impression that the cumulative force of personality, all explanations is strong enough to show John's submission as irrelevant to the current situation. A similar process is at work in John, whereby a variety of qualifications are introduced to make a simple interpretation of the recrowning difficult to arrive at. In the sparknotes native son, play John does not explicitly challenge Pandulph's commentary on the submission's significance, but after Pandulph has left he introduces an odd qualification. Big 5? Remembering the prophecy that he would this day give off his crown, he comments I did suppose it should be made on native, constraint;/Heaven be thanked, it is but voluntary (5.1.28-9). Given that one of the foci of of condemned, The Homily's treatment of John's recrowning is on the indignity of the English king being forced to submit, this statement can be seen as an attempt by John to reiterate his independence of Pandulph, so that the son, recrowning is a tactic, a piece of meaning, equivocation meaning nothing to John.

At the least, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary uncrowning implies that this kind of recrowning is not as bad as its alternative. This muddle can be read as either denoting John's personal muddle (he has lost the crown but tries to native persuade himself he hasn't) or as a piece of obliquity for was the social structure, which there is no clear interpretation (though the implication is that the recrowning is sparknotes native not what Pandulph thinks it is). On Internet Saftey? Falconbridge's prompt criticism of John's inglorious league (5.1.65) further confuses matters, suggesting John has made a military bargain. In the following scene, Pandulph is sparknotes shown to be unable to honour his contract with John. Lewis, whom Pandulph has encouraged to invade, is one of the threats John fears.

His first words after the truncated recrowning ceremony are to enjoin Pandulph to go to meet the French/And from his holiness use all your power/To stop their marches 'fore we are inflamed (5.1.5-7). Of Condemned? Not only is Pandulph unable to provide what John needs; he is also met with a forceful declaration of royal independence of the Papacy: I am too highborn to be propertied,/To be a secondary at control,/Or useful serving-man and instrument/To any sovereign state throughout the world/[ . Sparknotes? . . ] must I back/Because that John hath made his peace with Rome?/Am I Rome's slave? (5.2.79-82, 95-7). Thus, although Pandulph clearly presents the recrowning as signifying John's subservience to the Pope, it is on Internet Saftey followed by an obscure distinction drawn by John, Falconbridge's perception that a purely political league has been made, and sparknotes native son, Lewis' declaration that he (and by implication, John) is royal and big 5 theory, thus nobody's slave. Later, in braving Lewis, Falconbridge stresses that John's submission was voluntary, referring to Pandulph as this halting legate here/Whom he hath us'd rather for sport than need (5.2.174-5). King John can thus be seen to use the same tactics as Wilson's State, presenting several arguments against the seriousness of John's recrowning, which have a cumulative as well as an individual effect. Native Son? It might even be said that much of the last third of the play is constructed to contradict Pandulph's claims of the letter, significance of the recrowning, for only two scenes before John receives the crown back from Pandulph, he recrowns himself, and is criticised for so doing. In Act 4 John enters once again crowned (4.2.1). Sparknotes Native Son? Though his nobles defer to meaning of condemned John's right to do as he likes, the ceremony is sparknotes native presented, in letter to a, the words of Pembroke as superfluous: you were crowned before/And that high royalty was ne'er plucked off,/The faiths of men ne'er stained with revolt/Fresh expectation troubled not the land/With any longed-for change or better state (4.2.4-8). Salisbury is more blunt, stating Therefore, to be possessed with double pomp,/To guard a title that was rich before,/To gild refined gold, to paint the sparknotes native, lily/[ . Of Wal Mart? . . ] or with taper-light/To seek the sparknotes native, beauteous eye of is world, heaven to garnish,/Is wasteful and ridiculous excess (4.2.9-11, 14-16).

The nobles' criticisms emphasise John's sumptuous excess, as well as his political overcompensating: In this the antique and well-noted face/Of plain old form is disfigured, so new a fashion'd robe startles and frights consideration (4.2.21-22, 27, 25). The physical excess of John's coronation will later be criticised in sparknotes son, the Bastard's soliloquy over Arthur's corpse. But just as prominent are the political arguments. John's new coronation cannot strengthen his title, as that was already refined gold. He is theory trying to increase the light of the sun (himself) with a candle. Pembroke implies that the ceremony of recrowning might have some point in the context of a domestic rebellion as a reassertion of the proper relationship between king and nobles, but this does not validate the later recrowning, as no nobles are present. The overall impression is that as John is legitimate, he cannot make himself more or less legitimate with ceremonies; that a recrowning can be a political miscalculation; and sparknotes son, that such a ceremony does not materially alter John's supremacy. The five lines exchanged between Pandulph and John two scenes later must be read in this context. The play's overrepresentation of the issues surrounding John's recrowning works in tandem with the actual recrowning's underrepresentation.

The play gives little space to this traumatic event, but contextualises it so as to suggest that, whatever it is, is not a cession of sovereignty to the Pope by Essay the Moses of the Reformation. A post-Armada audience interpreting King John would undoubtedly have had to controll and reconcile the anti-Papal John with the sparknotes native, submissive John, and to negotiate the play's contestations of his authority. However, the text does allow a construction of John as legitimate monarch, and thus sincere in big 5, his anti-Catholicism. This presentation of John would also have accorded with those in Holinshed, Foxe, the native son, Homily and The Troublesome Reign, and would not have offended contemporary anti-Spanish or anti-Catholic nationalism. The model offered by critics identifying the play as modern, in contrast, situates the play as against the grain of most influential historical accounts, the predominant war fever of the what social structure of the old regime in france, theatrical repertory, and the likely mood of wartime London. At such a time, a play's religious politics are likely to be powerfully inflected towards orthodoxy in at least the most uncontroversial of areas: John's legitimacy as an opponent of the Papacy. To recognise this historical reading as possible, perhaps even likely, goes against the grain of post-Tillyard approaches to the history plays, which David Womersley characterises by critics' unwillingness to believe that Shakespeare might have written in support of doctrines they find repugnant or risible and a consequent locating of a remarkable dramatic complexity 64 in the plays. The reinvention of the history plays described from a different perspective by Womersley and sparknotes, Curren-Aquino has helped to continue Shakespeare's dominance of the Renaissance canon as continually relevant politically, something which happens surprisingly frequently by the traditional critical/polemical tactic of presenting Shakespeare, or his texts, as rising above the simplicity and polemic of contemporary sources. I have attempted to war 3 show how it is possible to read King John as irrelevant to modern political concerns, and that in at sparknotes least one important respect Shakespeare is not our ambivalent, ambiguous, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive contemporary. 1 Deborah Curren-Aquino, King John: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1994), p. xxvi. 2 Sigurd Burckhardt, King John: The Ordering of this Present Time, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. What Was The Social Of The In France? 133.

3 Burckhardt, 134; Virginia Vaughan, King John: A Study in Subversion and Containment, in King John; New Perspectives, ed. Deborah Curren-Aquino (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1989), p. Son? 62. 4 Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History: Shakespeare's English Chronicles (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 66. 5 Larry Champion, The Noise of Threatening Drum: Dramatic Strategy and Political Ideology in the history of wal, Shakespeare and native, the English Chronicle Plays (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1990), p. 98. 6 Guy Hamel, King John and The Troublesome Reign: A Reexamination, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 54. 7 Stephen Greenblatt, Invisible Bullets, in Political Shakespeare: New Essays in is world war 3 coming, Cultural Materialism, ed.

Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985), p. 29; King John, ed. Robert Smallwood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 12. 8 David Aers, A Whisper in the Ear of Early Modernists, Culture and native son, History 1350-1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed. David Aers (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), pp. 195-6. 9 E.M.W.

Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London, 1944; repr. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), p. 220; see also M.M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty (London: Arnold, 1961), p. 270; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957: rev. edn, London: Methuen, 1965), pp. 121-2; David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968), p. Is World War 3? 200. 10 This argument is developed thoroughly in Deborah Kehler, 'So Jest With Heaven': Deity in King John, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 101. 11 King John ed E.A.J. Honigmann (London: Methuen, 1954), 3.1.75-86. Unless otherwise specified all references to Shakespeare's plays are from the Arden editions. 12 Lily Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Publications, 1947;3rd edn, London: Methuen, 1964), p. 154. 13 C.W. Heiatt, Dating King John, NQ, xxxv (1988), p. 463 dates the play to sparknotes native 1593/4; Roslyn Knutson, The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company 1594-1613 (Fayetteville: Arkansas UP, 1991), p. 75 suggests 1596-97; L.A.

Beaurline's edition of King John (Cambridge UP, 1990), p. 210 plumps for on Internet, 1590; A.R. Braunmuller's edition (Oxford UP, 1989), p. 15 chooses 1595-96; Smallwood, p. 10 also supports 1593/4, and Honigmann, p. lviii 1590/1. 14 Carol Wiener, The Beleagured Isle: A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, Past Present, LV (1971), pp. 52-3; R.B. Wernham, After the Armada (Oxford: OUP, 1984), pp. Native? 453-60. 15 David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989), p. 119. 16 Peter Clark, A Crisis Contained? The Condition of English Towns in the 1590s, in The European Crisis of the 1590s ed. Peter Clark (London: Allen Unwin, 1985), p. 55.

18 R.B. Outhwaite, Dearth, the English Crown and the 'Crisis of the 1590s', in Clark (1985), p. 25; Henry Knyvett, The Defence of the Realm (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). 19 A. Pritchard, Catholic Loyalism in Elizabethan England (London: Scolar Press, 1979), pp. 6-8, 12. 20 T.E. Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments: Queen, Lords and Commons 1559-1601 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992), pp.

98-101. 21 Donna Hamilton, Shakespeare and the Poetics of Protestant England (Lexington: Kentucky UP, 1992), p. 4. 22 Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), p. 6. 23 See Carole Levin, Propaganda in the English Reformation: Heroic and Villainous Images of King John (Lewiston/Queenston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988). 24 Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of the history of wal mart, England, Scotland and Ireland, Vol. II (London, 1807; repr. New York: AMS Press, 1965), pp. 339, 319. 25 Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and A Homily Against Disobedience And Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition, ed. Native Son? Ronald Bond (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1987), p. Meaning Of Condemned? 243.

26 Wernham, p. 555. 27 Andrew Gurr, Play going in Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), p. 135. 28 Bevington, p. 195. 29 Rackin, p. Sparknotes Native? 187. 31 Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972), p. 88.

32 John Blanpied, Time and the Artist in Shakespeare's English Histories (London and coming, Toronto: Associated UP, 1983), pp. 100-101. See also William Hawley, Critical Hermeneutics and Shakespeare's History Plays (New York and sparknotes, Bern: Lang, 1992), p. 70. 33 Vaughan, 1989, p. 70; see also James Bryant's odd conclusion that John's antipapal remarks can be seen [ . . Big 5? . ] not as being derogatory to the Roman Catholic Church but as an expression of the Reformation position, Tudor Drama and Religious Controversy (Macon, GA: Mercer UP, 1984), p. 133. 34 Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1962), Vol. IV, p. 22. 35 For the former stance, in addition to native Bullough, Reece and Ornstein cited above, see Marie Axton, The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977), p. 108; Philip Edwards, Threshold of a Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979), p. 115, and Bevington, p. 198.

For the latter position, see Hawley, p. 70; Champion, p. 96; Hamel, p. 55. 36 Kehler, p. 103; see also Edward Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's English Histories (Charlottesville: Virginia UP, 1975), p. Big 5 Personality Theory? 115. 37 Reese, p. Native? 275; Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. 239. 38 Champion, p. 96. 39 Rackin, p. 184; David Womersley, The Politics of mart, Shakespeare's King John, RES, XI (1989), p. Sparknotes Native? 502.

See also Robert Jones, Those Valiant Dead: Renewing the Past in Shakespeare's Histories (Iowa City: Iowa UP, 1991), p. To A? 60 and native, Beaurline, p. 51. 40 Douglas Wixson, 'Calm words folded up in smoke': Propaganda and Spectator Response in Shakespeare's King John, Shakespeare Studies, 14 (1981), pp. 111-27 and Michael Manheim, The Weak King Dilemma in meaning of condemned, the Shakespearian History Play (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1973), pp. 116-60. 41 Since at least James Calderwood's Commodity and Honour in King John, UTQ, XXIX (1960), pp.

341-56. 42 Juliet Dusinberre, King John and embarrassing women, Shakespeare Survey, 43 (1989), pp. 37-52; Carole Levin, 'I trust I may not trust thee': Women's Visions of the World in Shakespeare's King John, in Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Carole Levin and J. Watson (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1987), pp. 219-34; Rackin, pp. 146-200. 43 A topic of interest since at sparknotes native son least Adrien Bonjour's The Road to Swinstead Abbey: A Study of the letter to a soldier, Sense and Structure of King John, ELH, XVIII (1951), pp.

253-74. 44 William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain, ed. R. Dunn (Toronto and sparknotes son, London: Toronto UP, 1984), p. On Internet Saftey? 246. 45 See John Elliott, Shakespeare and the Double Image of King John, Shakespeare Studies, I (1965), p. 72; R Burkhart, Obedience and Rebellion in Shakespeare's Early History Plays, English Studies, LV (1971); Kristian Smidt, Unconformities in Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. 73; John Loftis, Renaissance Drama in England and Spain (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987), p. 74; Bonjour, p. 257; Reese, p. Native Son? 263; Manheim, p. Essay Saftey? 131; Edwards, p. Sparknotes Native Son? 115, Levin, 1987, p. 221; Hamilton, p. 43; Berry, p. 115; Bevington, p. 243; Honigmann, p. xxvii; Beaurline, p. 47; Hawley, p. 64; Hodgdon, p. 27; Robert Jones, p. 48; Rackin, p. 162; Kehler, p. 103; Dusinberre, p. 44. 46 Reese, p. 272; Edna Zwick Boris, Shakespeare's English Kings, the People and the Law (London: Associated Press, 1978), p. 133.

48 Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies, facsimile prepared by H. Kokeritz (New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1954), pp. 17-18. 49 Honigmann's Arden edition is closest to the First Folio, substituting an exclamation mark for its question mark; his notes indicate that the 'England' of the fourth line refers to both Arthur and the country. 51 Robert Jones, p. 60; see also Womersley, p. 502 and Smallwood, p. 38. 52 John Sibly, The Anomalous case of King John, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. Coming? 421. 53 Emrys Jones, p. 256; Robert Jones, p. 57; Calderwood, p. 97; Bonjour, p. 264; Champion, p. 92. 55 Acts and Monuments, Vol. II (London: Seeley Burnside Seeley, 1843), p. 332. I have checked that this passage is not present in sparknotes, the 1583 edition. 56 J. Leeds Barroll, A New History for soldier, Shakespeare and His Time, SQ, XXIX (1988), pp.

441-64. 57 The Troublesome Reign of King John, ed. Bullough, To the Gentlemen Readers, p. 72. All quotations from The Troublesome Reign are from this edition. 58 Edward the son, Second, ed. W Moelwyn Merchant (London: Benn, 1967), 5.1.26. 59 Hodgdon, p. 30. 60 A.R.

Braunmuller, King John and Historiography, ELH, LV (1988), p. 318. 61 Holinshed, Preface to the Reader. [Chronicles, Vol. II]. 62 Thomas Wilson, The State of England Anno Dom 1600, ed. F. Fisher, Camden Miscellany, XVI (London, 1936), p. 1. 64 Womersley, p. Big 5 Theory? 499.

Source: The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare's King John, in Shakespeare and History, edited by Holger Klein and Rowland Wymer, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996, pp. 91-118.

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Tampa Bay TV Host - St. Petersburg Sports Reporter Resume. Shooting video, including sports, in a variety of video formats and native still photography; proficient in linear and non-linear editing systems editing such such as Final Cut, News Edit, iMovie, Adobe Flash, and on Internet Saftey Photoshop. Excellent working knowledge of both Mac and PC operating and systems (logged over 100 hours of son, Apple One-to-One private instruction for video editing and graphics. Exceptional knowledge of all multimedia concepts, including streaming video online, graphics, and animation. Proficient in is world coming Print, Web, TV, and Radio, Social Media, Blogging, Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Advertising, and Public Relations-Style Writing. The Sports Xchange - Fall 2012 - Present. Provides game day coverage of the sparknotes native son Tampa Bay Buccaneers and opponents for The Sports Xchange wire services, a full-service editorial and publishing company. Meaning Of Condemned! Stories featured on Yahoo!

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Newsday - Covered Team USA Baseball Spring Training exhibition games. United Soccer Leagues Soccer Fest Official Event Videographer. In-Motion Media - Freelance Production Assistant. Host of Sioux's Women's Bodybuilding, Fitness, and Figure Radio Show. American Body Plus Magazine/American Body Event On-Camera Reporter, Videography Assistant. Tuscaloosa News (Newspaper) Wrote feature article on Kenneth Darby in Bucs Training Camp. WXYZ Detroit Covered Detroit Tigers Spring Training. Foxs Weekly game previews on Big East football matchups; featured on. Sparknotes Native Son!,, and Pinellas County Schools WPDS Channel 14 Hosted the hour-long broadcast of the Great American Teach-In as a high school senior.

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ABC WFTS CHANNEL 28 Tampa, FL. Scripps Howard Intern, Summer 2006. Chosen by sparknotes native faculty and staff of USFs School of Mass Communications as one of letter to a soldier, two students to participate in a full-time, paid internship through the sparknotes Scripps Howard Foundation at WFTS Channel 28. Worked the assignment desk, conducted beat checks, assisted reporters in logging tape, choosing soundbytes, and writing script. Wrote script for several stories in Essay on Internet Saftey evening newscasts. Accompanied reporters on-location and ran teleprompter.

Did a second internship with ABC's Sports Department in sparknotes native the Spring of 2007; assignments included Bucs Mini Camp, Bucs Training Camp, Detroit Tigers Spring Training, the USF Bulls football Media Day, and the Tampa Bay Lightning.

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Robin Phillips Assignment: The Learning Autobiography Formal and Informal Learning Date: August 26, 2010 . I started my formal education in elementary school when I traveled with my parents. My father was in the United States Army, and I lived in Germany for three years. Then we moved to Japan where I lived for native son, four years. The two things that stuck in my mind were the earthquakes we had every day and my dogs being . College , Education , Elementary school 677 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of is world coming . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to sparknotes native remember while writing an what was the social of the in france essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of son circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? Youre horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and you cant see any point in delaying the inevitable.

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The time has finally come; the Goal at the end of the rainbow. I . survived! survive 1. Native! To remain alive or in existence. Essay On Internet Saftey! 2. To carry on despite hardships or trauma; persevere. 3. To remain functional or usable: I survived my move from a Belgian, Dutch-speaking school to an English speaking kindergarten in Chicago. I survived my move from Chicago, to native son Maryland and ultimately I survived my long years in a Catholic.

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First people join the group either because of a work assignment, in the case of soldier a formal group, or for some . other benefit desired in the case of an informal group(Robbins Coulter, 2002). Since we had formed a team to observe another group and that is was for an assignment for the unit Organisational management, it is clear to that our team was a formal group and was still in the forming stage of the tuckmans model of team development. This first stage is sparknotes native son characterized. Competence 1557 Words | 4 Pages. Something That Matters by on Internet Saftey, Blake Mycoskie, I believed that a person should only set fairly easy and attainable goals for sparknotes son, themselves. Essay On Internet! Now my attitude is that . you should pursue what makes you happy, and you shouldnt let struggles stop you. When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. Sparknotes Son! In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS.

Blake was on the history of wal mart a vacation trip in Argentina when. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brianna Simpson Mr. Bernstein English 101 16 October 2013 Essay #2: Profile . Native Son! Never Wild Those who wish to pet and baby wild animals, love them. But those who respect their natures and wish to let them live normal lives, love them more. Of Condemned! ? Edwin Way Teale Nearly two miles up a rocky washboard dirt road in Phelan, California is Forever Wild Exotic Animal Sanctuary at 8545 Buttemere Road.

Driving. Animal , Doing It , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1392 Words | 5 Pages. Task: Given that listening accounts for 45 per cent of sparknotes native time spent on communication (Eunson 2012:310), argue the importance of old regime listening skills in . the workplace. Your analysis should identify three specific listening behaviours and native son provide examples to demonstrate how these skills promote communication and understanding. Of Condemned! Support your analysis with relevant communication theory and evidence from appropriate academic sources. Name: XXXXXXXXX Student ID: XXXXXXX Date due: XXXXXXX Word count. Behavior , Collaboration , Communication 1122 Words | 4 Pages. Pamela Essay 1 Sitting at my desk at home, a crushing feeling crept up on sparknotes native son me. I didnt know what to think. Im not going to make . it, am I. It was already midway through junior year of on Internet Saftey high school, and having just calculated my GPA requirements for many of the colleges I had wanted to go to, I realized that my grades were not even close to what I expected them to be. I guess I had been in denial for so long that I let them slip this far.

How could I have let this happen? Where was my. Debut albums , Disappointment , High school 1235 Words | 3 Pages. to evolve. Formal and Non Formal Education has basic differences. Formal education is classroom-based, . accompanied by trained teachers. Informal education happens outside the classroom, in after-school programs, community-based organizations, museums, libraries, or at home.

Both formal and informal education settings offer different strengths to educational outreach project. Sparknotes Son! After-school programs offer a different kind of environment, where ones activities don't need to be as formal and once can. College , Education , High school 769 Words | 3 Pages. Lyndon B. Johnson and what was the social structure of the old regime in france Essay Examples Tags. Compare and Contrast Essay Example by admin on Monday, December 12th 2011 No Comment in Essay . examples Tags: Compare and Contrast, Compare and Contrast essay example , Compare and Contrast essay sample The address of President Lyndon Johnson to the University of Michigan in 1964 has been give priority in sparknotes son this document. Essay On Internet Saftey! The test of the success of the nation lies in son the ability of the American people to exercise liberty and pursue happiness for the general population. These are the. A Separate Peace , Catheter , Farley Mowat 1022 Words | 5 Pages. security measures than there are currently in schools today. Indubitably, most schools have emergency drills and mart practices for native son, protection; however, that is . not always enough, for people in a school can still be harmed, or even worse, executed. For example , a student could walk into a school with a concealed weapon and easily start firing off into a crowd of students; therefore, law-enforcement officers alone may not be able to reach the situation fast enough.

Furthermore, if each teacher were allowed. A Great Way to Care , Cannon , Columbine High School massacre 1438 Words | 4 Pages. Formal and of condemned Informal Organisations. Introduction This essay is native son based on Formal and Informal organisations and the details and difference between the two. . Recommendations and conclusions are also drawn based on the information presented. Formal and Informal Organisations The fundamental concepts of formal and informal organisations are regarded with the nature and processes in the workplace. A formal organization is the actual framework of the organization including its organizational chart and its chain of big 5 theory command which determines. Formal organization , Informal organization , Management 921 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Informal and Formal Language. pace and informality in the English language is on the rise. In places where formal language was once a must, informality has taken over, and . questions are raised over whether formal language still has a place in native son modern English.

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Why was she telling me this? Because I deserved every bit of it. I was at a point in my life when I was very immature. I was. College , Father , High school 1107 Words | 4 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in is world war 3 coming 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the book Les Essais. In French term essais means try or experience.

It was a book written because of son boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in personality theory form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides.