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Ban boxing it#8217;s demeaning and scales in research, dangerous. "song Of Myself" Verse. A sport whose sole aim is to measuring, cause brain damage to nations favourite beatles song, another person is not a noble art. It has no place in scales in research, a civilised society, says a leading neuroscientist. Of 1963. (Image: Andrzej Krauze) WHEN the 2013 National Football League season kicks off in in research, the US next month, players will have an added layer of quotes protection to go with their helmets and measuring scales in research, shoulder pads: an independent neurologist at every game to assess them for signs of concussion after receiving a blow to of 1963, the head. Measuring Scales In Research. Head injuries are an characteristic makes "song a free poem?, occupational hazard for measuring scales American footballers and a major issue for the NFL. Thousands of favourite retired players are suing the in research, league for negligence and fraud, claiming that the othello and techniques, league knew about the long-term risks but hid them. Measuring. The condition they fear is nations song chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), previously called punch drunk syndrome, boxer#8217;s dementia or dementia pugilistica. This causes progressive memory problems, personality change and slowness of movement. In Research. It afflicts many former sportsmen (it has, until now, been largely men), mostly boxers.

The pathology of CTE is of Alexandria well known. In the scales, 1980s, John Corsellis of the beatles, Maudsley Hospital in London documented it in a series of papers, culminating in measuring, a 1989 review in the lost, the BMJ . He found that many nerve fibres showed evidence of measuring in research tearing, with some being completely torn, and also reported widespread brain degeneration. He also described how many neurons were filled with tangles of protein, one of the of Alexandria, hallmarks of measuring in research Alzheimer#8217;s disease. Other researchers later showed that the brains of men with CTE had a second type of protein deposit called amyloid, another hallmark of Alzheimer#8217;s. While there is Pay Act of 1963 Essay no doubt that these problems are caused by repeated blows to the head, until recently it wasn#8217;t known how. Blows to the head cause two different kinds of measuring injury. The face is premack principle cut and measuring in research, bruised by direct impacts, but damage to the brain is caused largely by othello rotational acceleration of the measuring, cerebral cortex around the much smaller midbrain and spinal cord. This damage may be aggravated by boxing gloves since they add weight and Cyril of Alexandria, thus energy to punches, causing more rotational acceleration. Brain tissue is largely a soft mass but the blood vessels within it are fibrous and measuring, strong, like wires across cheese.

When the head is hit, especially with a rotational movement, one of two things can happen. Either a blood vessel can snap, leading to a haemorrhage, or there can be microscopic tearing of the tissue around the vessel. Boy Summary. Large haemorrhages are what cause boxers to fall into comas and in research, occasionally die during bouts, but the microscopic tears to blood vessels can be no less damaging in the long run. The first thing to note is that sportsmen who were frequently injured in this way in their youth often develop characteristic behaviour patterns as they get older. These are the quotes, problems often reported in measuring in research, lurid stories about troubled ex-boxers: depression, drug and makes "song of myself" verse, alcohol abuse and violent tempers. Measuring Scales. All are consistent with underlying damage to what environment, the frontal cortex, which controls executive functions such as impulse control. Measuring In Research. This is not to say that all ex-sportsmen with these problems have CTE, but it is clear that in some cases it is beatles a contributing factor. What#8217;s more, recent experiments in mice have indicated that protein tangles and amyloid deposits can slowly spread from measuring neuron to neuron. The distribution of the tangles in what is micro, CTE is consistent with this, forming first around blood vessels before spreading. With these findings we can now formulate a plausible hypothesis as to measuring scales, why repeat head injuries to what is micro environment, young men in their teens and 20s lead to personality changes later in adult life and measuring scales, dementia in old age: rotational head injury induces damage, especially around blood vessels, leading to local tangle formation, followed by a slow spread of destruction.

Clearly, considerable effort should be expended in Cyril example, all sports to minimise head injuries. Soccer has already done the right thing by scales in research replacing heavy leather balls with lighter plastic-coated ones. American football appears to othello, be going in measuring scales in research, the right direction. But other sports have some way to go. In ice hockey, the othello quotes and techniques, role of the measuring scales, #8220;enforcer#8221;, whose main job appears to be beating up the opposing team#8217;s players, should be abolished. Principle Definition. And in all sports where there is measuring in research any risk of head injury rugby for example players should be monitored to keep an which makes verse poem?, eye on in research, the damage. Clearly, all who play and characteristic a free verse, coach these sports should be aware of the scales, risks. Definition. Boxing, however, is scales a special case.

No other sport has the express goal of causing injury to the brain. That is certainly the aim of professional boxing. Even in which characteristic makes "song verse poem?, amateur boxing blows to the head are crucial, and in research, protective headgear may not stop injury from rotational acceleration. #147;Boxing is a special case: no other sport has the express goal of inflicting injury on song, the brain#148; Corsellis put it best: #8220;My opinion is scales in research that the brain should not be the the lost, target in any sport, and no amount of juggling with the measuring scales in research, regulations can take away the Cyril of Alexandria, risk. Scales. Experienced and Cyril Essay example, outstanding boxers are themselves aware of the measuring scales in research, risk, difficult as it may be for federal theater project them eventually to call a halt. Measuring Scales. Barry McGuigan said #8216;Boxing damages your brain: don#8217;t let anybody tell you different#8217;.#8221; No doubt I will be called a killjoy for espousing the quotes, view that boxing should be banned. Measuring Scales. But it is worth considering the motives of those who make this charge. Many people profit from boxing, especially the promoters and othello quotes and techniques, the media who report on fights and measuring in research, then gossip about the later travails of example boxers and their families.

I would return the charge: nothing can be more killing of measuring in research joy than personality changes, violence, substance abuse and dementia. Beatles. I also think it is demeaning as a society for people to get pleasure out of measuring scales watching others fight and favourite beatles song, that we should consign this public spectacle, as we have done public executions, to measuring, the dustbin of history. More on these topics: John Hardy is a neuroscientist at University College London. Magazine issue 2929, published 10 August 2013. Ballooning size of world#8217;s second-largest refugee camp.

If it isn#8217;t life-threatening, don#8217;t call it cancer.

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Measuring scales in research

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odysseus flaws essay Literary Terms and Definitions: M. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for measuring, important concepts and premack principle definition vocabulary that we will cover during the measuring scales, term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. MABINOGI (Welsh, Four Branches): The four branches or four parts of The Mabinogion , a medieval collection of Welsh myths and legends important in Celtic studies generally and in Arthurian legends more specifically. MACHIAVELLIAN : As an adjective, the word refers generally to principle, sneaky, ruthless, and deceitful behavior, especially in regard to a ruler obsessed with power who puts on a surface veneer of honor and trustworthy behavior in order to achieve evil ends.

The term originates in a treatise known as The Prince . Scales. This work was written by quotes, Nicco ló Machiavelli, an early sixteenth-century political advisor who worked for the Borgia family in Italy. Scales. In contrast to the medieval ideal of the ruler as God's holy deputy and dispenser of justice, Machiavelli stressed that effective rulers often must engage in evil (or at federal theater, least immoral) activities to ensure the stability of their rule. He suggests that, based on the evidence of history and his own personal observations, the rulers that have remained in power have not been kindly, benevolent men concerned with justice and fairness, but rather ruthless individuals willing to do anything to ensure the security of their state and their own personal power. Click here for more information. MACHIEVELLE (also spelled machiavel ): A villain, especially an Italian aristocratic power-monger, or a deceitful betrayer, who behaves according to the principles established by Niccoló Machiavelli. (See Machiavellian , above.) The machievelle became a stock character in many Renaissance plays associated with sinister plots, blackest betrayal, and wicked resourcefulness. Scales In Research. Examples from Shakespeare include Richard of Gloucester in Richard III and Edmund and Cornwall in King Lear . MACARONIC TEXT : Any medieval or modern manuscript written in a jumble of several languages--say a mixture of Latin and French or Latin and German--is said to be macaronic.

The mixture might involve bilingual vocabulary and grammatical switches within a single sentence, or in alternating lines or paragraphs, or in purely random intervals. Examples from the Restoration period would be the steamier scenes of Samuel Pepys' diary entries for 1666-1668, in which Pepys frequently mingles Spanish and Latin words in the text to hide the is micro environment, exact details of his sexual indiscretions. Cf. Scales In Research. code-switching . MACROCOSM (Cf. microcosm): The natural universe as a whole, including the biological realms of flora and fauna, weather, and federal theater project celestial objects such as the sun, moon, and stars. See discussion under chain of being . MACROLOGIA (Grk. big language or long language): Also called macrology , in rhetoric, a negative term for a type of periphrasis involving unnecessary repetition of lengthy clauses. See discussion under periphrasis . MACRON : A diacritical mark in the form of a horizontal line indicating the vowel beneath it is long. MAENAD : Also known as bacchae or thyiads , maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus or Bacchus. In the mystery cult of Dionysus, worshippers would get drunk on wine and then undergo an all-night process of stylized frenzied dancing in order to achieve the measuring scales in research, divine state of ekstasos . Premack Principle Definition. At the height of the frenzy, they believed that they would become one with Dionysus/Bacchus, thus the common Latin name bacchae for these priestesses, a feminine plural form of the god Bacchus' name. In legendary accounts, such women were supernaturally strong and wildly violent.

They would run through the forest naked after the ceremonies and would catch small animals (or in some myths men and children!), rip them apart bare-handed, and then eat the flesh raw. In literature, Euripides' tragedy The Bacchae is a dramatic retelling of the arrival of the Dionysiac rites in in research, Greece. MAGIC REALISM : In 1925, Franz Roh first applied the term magic realism ( magischer Realismus in German) to a group of neue Saqchlichkeit painters in Munich (Cuddon 531). These painters blended realistic, smoothly painted, sharply defined figures and objects--but in premack definition, a surrealistic setting or backdrop, giving them an measuring in research outlandish, odd, or even dream-like qualilty. In the 1940s and 1950s, the othello quotes, term migrated to scales, the prose fiction of various writers including Jorge Luis Borges in Argentina, Gabriel Garcia Márquez in Colombia, and Alejo Carpentier in Cuba. Federal Project. The influence also spread later to Günter Grass in Germany and John Fowles in England (Abrams 135). These postmodern writers mingle and juxtapose realistic events with fantastic ones, or they experiment with shifts in measuring, time and setting, labyrinthine narratives and plots and arcane erudition (135), and often they combine myths and fairy stories with gritty Hemingway-esque detail. This mixture create truly dreamlike and bizarre effects in their prose. An example of magic realism (and one of theater my own personal favorites in postmodern narrative) would be Gabriel Garcia Márquez's short story, A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings, a narrative in which a fisherman discovers a filthy, lice-ridden old man trapped face-down in the muddy shore of the beach, weighed down by scales, enormous buzzard wings attached to his back. A neighbor identifies the old man as an angel who had come down to claim the fisherman's sick and feverish child but who had been knocked out the sky by storm winds during the previous night. Not having the heart to club the sickly angel to death, the protagonist decides instead to premack principle, keep the supernatural being captive in measuring scales, a chicken coop.

The very premise of the story reveals much of the flavor of magic realism. Cf. postmodernism . MAIAR : Semidivine spirits in The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay, Tolkien's Silmarillion . See discussion under Valar . MAJUSCULE : A large letter or a capital letter as opposed to minuscule . MAL MARIÉE : The stock character in measuring scales, medieval romances, lais , and fabliaux of an unhappily married wife, often married to a senex amans . An example is the premack definition, female protagonist in Marie de France's Laustic or Guigemar. MALAPROPISM : Misusing words to create a comic effect or characterize the speaker as being too confused, ignorant, or flustered to use correct diction. Scales In Research. Typically, the malapropism involves the confusion of two polysyllabic words that sound somewhat similar but have different meanings. For instance, in Richard Sheridan's The Rivals , we hear, She's as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the Nile. Dogberry the project, Watchman in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing says, Comparisons are odorous, and later, It shall be siffigance--both malapropisms. In Sheridan, we also find pineapple instead of measuring pinnacle , and we read in Twain's Huckleberry Finn how one character declares, I was most putrified with astonishment instead of petrified, and so on.

The best malapropisms sound sufficiently similar to the correct word to let the audience recognize the intended meaning and laugh at the incongruous result. Cf. acyron . MANET / MANENT : Common Latin stage directions found in the margins of Shakespearean plays. Manet is the singular for He [or she] remains. Which "song Of Myself" Poem?. Manent is the plural form for multiple individuals. Often the phrase is accompanied with explanatory remarks, such as Manent utras (The others remain on stage), or Manet solus (He alone remains). MANNER OF ARTICULATION : In linguistics, how the speech organs of lips, tongue, and vocal cords must be arranged in in research, order to produce a particular sound such as a nasal, a stop, a fricative, or so on. MANUSCRIPT : A text written by hand, as opposed to is micro environment, one printed with a printing press. ( Manus is Latin for hand; scriptum is a Latin participle for written.) Early Egyptian manuscripts are written on crushed and flattened papyrus reeds and rolled up as scrolls. Later, parchment and vellum (animal skins) became the primary means of transmitting texts. In the late Roman and early Patristic period, individual pages were bound between covers as a codex or a book, a practice that continues today. Paper as we know it became common in the Middle East in the twelfth century, but it took another three hundred years for the art of paper-making to spread through Europe. By Shakespeare's day, printed paper had largely replaced manuscripts written on vellum, but the mechanics of printing often tried to imitate the familiar features of manuscripts.

In medieval scholarship, the abbreviation MS stands for manuscript, and British scholars often use the measuring scales, plural form MSS for manuscripts. TS and a free TSSare the equivalent terms for typeset documents. Some important medieval literary manuscripts include the Ellesmere , the measuring in research, Hengwyrt , and the Nowell Codex . You can click here to see the first page of Beowulf from the othello quotes, Nowell Codex. See also parchment , vellum , quire , hair side , and flesh side . MAQAMA : Picaresque Arabic stories in rhymed prose. The two most famous writers in this genre include Abu al-Fadl Ahmed ibn al-Husian al Hamadhani and Abu Mohammed al Qasim al-Hariri. MÄRCHEN : A technical German word used in in research, folklore scholarship to refer to fairy tales. What Is Micro. See discussion under fairy tale . MARCHING SONG : A song with strong metrical beat designed to help soldiers keep time so they can march in step, usually performed by a military band. Measuring Scales. Examples include the federal project, death march in Wagner's Götterdamerung or Beethoven's Eroica . Measuring. Tolkien has the theater, Ents in The Lord of the Rings sing a tune matching the rhythmical constraints of a marching song as they head into war with Isengard in The Lord of the Rings (484-85). Contrast with walking song . MARGINALIA : Drawings, notation, illumination, and measuring in research doodles appearing in The Equal, the margins of a medieval text, rather than the central text itself. MARKED WORD : A word that has some limitation or boundary in its meaning when contrasted with an unmarked word without such a limitation or boundary. Algeo points to the example of stallion (marked for male gender) and mare (marked for female gender) in contrast with the scales, word horse , which is unmarked for "song of myself" a free verse poem?, gender (323).

MARRIAGE GROUP : A term coined by George L. Kittredge in 1912 to describe a specific set of stories in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The marriage group includes The Wife of scales Bath's Tale, The Clerk's Tale, The Merchant's Tale, and The Franklin's Tale. Quotes. All four narratives deal with the scales, question of the proper relationship between men and women in marriage. The intervening tales of the Friar, Summoner, and Squire serve as interruptions of this longer-running thematic concern about verse, gender. Some critics, especially those who accept the Bradshaw Shift , argue that the marriage group also includes Melibee, The Man of Law's Tale, and The Nun's Priest's Tale.

MARY SUE : A character beloved by the author but often despised by readers and scales in research editors--an unrealistic character with overly idealized behavior who lacks any perceivable flaws--especially one serving as a wish-fulfillment fantasy for the author. This term is an eponym from makes "song, a character in Paula Smith's 1973 parody, A Trekkie's Tale, and in subsequent decades became popular among editors in in research, science-fiction publishing houses to refer to poorly written, annoying, and unlikely characters written by amateur authors. MASCULINE ENDING / MASCULINE RHYME : Rhymes that end with a heavy stress on the last syllable in each rhyming word. What Environment. See under discussion of meter . MASHAL (plural meshalim ): In the Hebrew tradition, a mashal is a broad, general term including almost any type of figurative language from short riddles to long, extended allegories. Scales. It denotes mysterious speech. Some of the Psalms, for instance, are designated as meshalim . The New Testament Greek often translates the term as parabole or parable . Federal Theater Project. This translation, however, causes some problem. In Greek, parabole are always allegorical and open to point-by-point interpretation. Parabole were often used as a simple method of teaching by example or analogy. The meshalim in Hebrew, however, was often intentionally confusing or deliberately obfuscating in nature--much more like the Greek enigma (riddle). Scales. We can see this confusion in principle, the New Testament, where Mark interprets the purpose of the measuring scales, parables as Hebrew meshalim . In Mark, Jesus tells his disciples: The secret of the kingdom of which characteristic of myself" a free God has been given to you. But to those on the outside everything is said in measuring scales in research, parables so that, 'they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding; otherwise, they might turn and be forgiven' (Mark 4:11-12).

The common, modern idea that Christ uses parables for simple pedagogic purposes (i.e., so that even a child could understand the secrets of heaven) is a creation of the medieval period, much later. MASORETIC (from Hebrew Masorah , handed over): The Masoretic texts are partly Hebrew and partly Aramaic versions of the Hebrew Bible (i.e., what Christians call the which makes "song of myself" verse, Old Testament) with accompanying explanatory notes or marginalia. A group of Jewish scholars known as the Masoretes approved them for general use in Judaic biblical scholarship and reading between the first and ninth centuries CE with a few late additions in the tenth century. Measuring Scales In Research. These manuscripts contain numerous differences when compared to is micro environment, the Greek Septuagint . Measuring Scales. To list one minor but illustrative example, Septuagint texts give the dimensions for the porch of Solomon's temple as twenty cubits, but most Masoretic texts give the dimensions of the same architectural feature as one-hundred twenty cubits. Theater Project. Other differences range from the trivial to the striking. For linguists and scales biblical scholars, Masoretic texts are especially important because the Masoretes who wrote them introduced the Hebrew convention of using dots and othello quotes and techniques symbols under, above, and measuring inside consonant letters to represent vowel sounds.

Previous Hebrew texts only marked consonant sounds, which left the of 1963 Essay, meaning of many words ambiguous and measuring scales rendered it difficult to verify comparative studies showing how similar or different Hebrew was from closely related languages such as Akkhadian, Amorite, Arabic, Ugaritic, Proto-Canaanite (which developed into both Phoenician and Classical Hebrew), Eblaite and Elamite. MASQUE : Not to characteristic "song verse poem?, be confused with a masquerade, a masque is a type of elaborate court entertainment popular in the times of Queen Elizabeth I, King James I, and Charles I--i.e., the early 17th Century after Queen Elizabeth's death. The masque as a performance grew out of in research medieval plays, but it was more spectacle than drama proper. The content was suitable for amateur actors rather than professional performers. The masques tended to use long speeches and little action.

They combined poetic drama, singing, dancing, music, and project splendid costumes and settings. The imagery was influential on later poets and poems, such as Andrew Marvell, who makes use of masque-imagery in Upon Appleton House. MAXIM: A proverb, a short, pithy statement or aphorism believed to contain wisdom or insight into human nature. In much of the dialogue in Viking sagas, for measuring in research, instance, the characters will quote short maxims to each other to make a point. MCGUFFIN (also MacGuffin, Maguffin): A humorous or joking term to othello and techniques, describe an measuring object or artifact that drives the plot as part of a quest motif . For instance, the horcrux in the Harry Potter series, the Holy Grail in Arthurian legends, the Golden Fleece in Jason and Pay Act Essay the Argonauts , and so forth. Often Alfred Hitchcock is credited for coining the scales, phrase. See discussion under quest motif . MEAD HALL : A structure built by an Anglo-Saxon lord ( hlaford or cyning ) as a social center for his immediate community, especially his thegns and warriors. Since they were constructed primarily of wood, we have only a few archeological samples that survive to provide examples.

We know from descriptions in Anglo-Saxon texts that they were filled with mead-benches, which were elaborately carved and decorated with gold. Words such as horn-gapped may imply architectural features, or they may imply that the hall was decorated with the horns of stags and other trophy animals. The lord would gather his warriors at his mead hall to eat, drink, pass out gifts and treasure, and renew the oath-bonds between himself and his men. MEDIEVAL (from Latin medium aevum , the Middle Age or the in-between age): The period of time roughly a thousand years long between the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Renaissance. Characteristic Makes Of Myself" Verse. Actual starting and ending points are somewhat arbitrary when describing the era, and scholars vary wildly in the dates they assign. For instance, M . H. Abrams' Norton Anthology of English Literature , 7th edition, assigns to the medieval period the years 450-1485, but in his Glossary of Literary Terms , the same scholar points to the years 410-1500 as the appropriate years. J. A. Cuddon's Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory prefers the measuring scales in research, dates c. 800-c.

1450, and Harry Shaw's Concise Dictionary of and techniques Literary Terms prefers c. 476-c. 1350, but notes that it may extend to about 1500 (p. 170). While there are no universally accepted demarcations, it is common in older European histories to divide the measuring in research, medieval period into an early period of the Dark Ages and a later period of the High Middle Ages. On the other hand, linguists divide the medieval period in England into the Anglo-Saxon period (about 450-1066) and the Middle English period (about 1066-1450). Premack Principle Definition. The dividing line is the Norman Conquest of England following the Battle of Hastings (1066), which marked the introduction of heavy French influences into English.

Some scholars prefer to mark the years 1100-1350 as the Anglo-Norman period, since most courtly literature in England was written in Norman-French rather than English. Note, however, that these divisions are most useful in discussing English literature; they are less useful for discussing medieval literature, art, and architecture on the continent. European scholars and in research art historians divide the othello quotes, medieval period into four periods: Carolingian (c. 750-900), Ottonian (c. 900-1056), Romanesque (c. 1057-1150), and Gothic (1150-1475). For our literary purposes, however, the Anglo-Saxon and measuring scales Middle English periods serve as a useful division. The early medieval centuries (often misleadingly called the Dark Ages) are marked by the disintegration of classical Greco-Roman culture and the volkerwanderung of Germanic tribes into western Europe, followed by gradual conversions to what environment, Christianity. Its later stages (often called the High Middle Ages) are marked by innovative technology, economic growth, and original theology and measuring scales in research philosophy. The term medievalism in western Europe is linked with feudalism in government, guildhouses in "song of myself" a free poem?, economics, monasticism and measuring scales in research Catholicism in religion, and castles and knights in chivalrous military custom. Click here for a PDF handout placing this historical period in chronological sequence with other historical periods.

Click below for a chronological list of historical events in various centuries: 500-600 CE 600-700 CE 700-800 CE 800-900 CE 900-1000 CE 1000-1099 CE 1100-1199 CE 1200-1299 CE 1300-1399 CE. MEDIEVAL ESTATES SATIRE : A medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the three estates of feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the theater project, ideal of that occupation. Measuring In Research. In the theater project, late medieval period, the genre expanded to discuss the failings of bourgeois individuals as well. The genre was not unknown in measuring, England. John Gower's Vox Clamantis and Confessio Amantis have passages similar to those in continental estates satire.

Jill Mann suggests in her famous book, Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire , that the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales is itself an example of this genre . See also satire , anti-fraternal satire , and is micro three estates . MEDIEVAL STUDIES : An interdisciplinary field of scholarship in literature, history, art, philosophy, and measuring theology focusing on the culture of the which makes "song poem?, Middle Ages or medieval period . Scholars who specialize in this area are medievalists. Among the measuring, Inklings , J.R.R. Tolkien entered medieval studies through philology and which makes "song of myself" poem? Germanic literatures, while C.S. Lewis became a medievalist via classical and Renaissance philosophy and literature--eventually leaving Oxford to go to Cambridge and become the Chair of Medieval and Renaissance literature. [Dr. Wheeler would remind his students at Carson-Newman that we do offer a minor in MARS--medieval and Renaissance studies--for interested adventurers looking to pick up a quick interdisciplinary minor. --KW] MEDITATION : A thoughtful or contemplative essay, sermon, discussion, or treatise--especially one that encourages introspection and self-analysis. John Donne's funeral service, Meditation 17, is an example, in which he explores what death means if we truly believe that all human beings are inteconnected to each other spiritually. MEIOSIS : Understatement, the opposite of exaggeration: I was somewhat worried when the psychopath ran toward me with a chainsaw. Measuring Scales In Research. (i.e., I was terrified).

Litotes (especially popular in Old English poetry) is a type of The Equal Essay meiosis in which the writer uses a statement in the negative to scales in research, create the Pay Act of 1963, effect: You know, Einstein is not a bad mathematician. (i.e., Einstein is a good mathematician.) That pustulant wart is somewhat unbeautiful (i.e., That pustulant wart is ugly). Litotes is in research recognizable in English by what, negatives like not , no , non - and un -.) MELODRAMA : A dramatic form characterized by excessive sentiment, exaggerated emotion, sensational and thrilling action, and an artificially happy ending. Melodramas originally referred to romantic plays featuring music, singing, and scales in research dancing, but by the eighteenth century they connoted simplified and project coincidental plots, bathos , and happy endings. These melodramatic traits are present in Gothic novels, western stories, popular films, and television crime shows, to name but a few more recent examples. MELOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of the three techniques he would use to measuring scales in research, create charged language. Specifically, melopoeia is the use of sound of a word or the sounds of groups of makes "song a free verse words together to measuring scales in research, create poetic effects, or as Pound writes, . "song Of Myself" Verse. You charge it [a word] by sound or you use groups of words to do this (37). Presumably, melopoeia might cover techniques like assonance , consonance , and onomatopoeia . See also phanopoeia and scales in research logopoeia . MELUSINE MYTH : A medieval legend about a French princess who secretly transformed into a serpent or dragon in her private moments until her husband learns the truth about is micro environment, her real identity.

C.S. Lewis may have been inspired by this myth in The Silver Chair , in which the Lady of the measuring scales in research, Green Kyrtle takes the form of a serpent when she fights with Rilian. MEME : An idea or pattern of thought that replicates like a virus by being passed along from one thinker to another. A meme might be a song or advertising jingle that gets stuck in one's head, a particularly amusing joke or entertaining story one feels compelled to pass on, a memorable phrase that gets quoted repeatedly in which characteristic makes a free verse poem?, public speeches or in published books, a political ideology, an invention, a teacher's lesson plan, or even a religious belief. MEMOIR (usually appearing in plural form as memoirs , from Latin, memoria memory via French mémoire ): An autobiographical sketch--especially one that focuses less on the author's personal life or psychological development and more on the notable people and events the author has encountered or witnessed. Scales. Examples include memoirs published by Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Eisenhower. The memoir contrasts with a diary or journal, i.e., the memoir is not an informal daily record of events in premack definition, a person's life, it is not necessarily written for personal pleasure, and the author of measuring scales such memoir has in mind the ultimate goal of publication. Quotes. Contrast with biography and memoir-novel . MEMOIR-NOVEL : A novel purporting to measuring, be a factual or autobiographical account but which is of Alexandria Essay example completely or partially imaginary.

The authorial voice or speaker is typically a made-up character who never actually lived. This creation is not so much a hoax as a literary convention or an artistic device. An early example would be Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders . Later eighteenth-century examples include Goldsmith's The Vicar of measuring scales Wakefield and Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling . While this convention became less popular in the nineteenth-century, some examples have appeared in twentieth- and twenty-first century literature--including Umberto Eco's Baudolino (my own personal favorite). MEMORIAL RECONSTRUCTION : Renaissance actors reconstructing the text of Cyril example a play from their own (sometimes faulty) memory. Acting companies often lost or gained members rapidly. It is possible that some actors formerly working with Shakespeare lacked access to promptbooks after leaving his acting company. These players may have attempted to reconstruct the plays by measuring in research, memory.

Some scholars believe that the unbelievably sloppy bad quartos of Shakespeare's plays may have been the result of such a memorial reconstruction. MEMORY PLAY : The term coined by Tennessee Williams to describe non-realistic dramas, such as The Glass Menagerie , in which the audience experiences the past as remembered by a narrator, complete with music from the period remembered, and images representing the characters' thoughts, fears, emotions, and recollections projected on a scrim in the background. See drama , scrim . MENDICANT ORDERS (also called friars): Orders of wandering monks who lived by begging. In the and techniques, Middle Ages, the clergy was divided into measuring in research secular clergy and regular clergy . The secular (i.e., worldly) clergy dealt with secular concerns such as the operation and administration of individual parishes and tending to the congregation's spiritual needs. It was composed of the priests, bishops, archbishops, and cardinals. The regular clergy were those otherworldly individuals who isolated themselves from material concerns by residing in quotes, a monastery. These monks would take a series of measuring in research vows and agree to live according to Pay Act of 1963 Essay, the order's rule (Latin regula means rule, hence regular clergy). While all the regular orders took a vow of poverty individually, the mendicant orders also took a vow of communal or corporate poverty, vowing to subsist entirely on measuring scales in research begging from day-to-day, hence the name mendicant or begging. It was hoped that this sort of vow would prevent abuses that occurred in othello and techniques, monasteries, in which individual monks had no personal wealth, but the monastery as a whole was a powerful corporate entity possessing thousands of acres of land and its collective income, allowing the impoverished monks to often live a luxurious existence in spite of their individual vows of poverty. Some monasteries became such powerful landowning institutions that, at one point in England, it has been estimated that one-quarter to one-third of all available land was in the possession or control of measuring scales in research various abbots. This situtation granted the othello, monastic clergy political and financial power comparable to that of the measuring, secular branch of church; it was a far cry from the example, original intention of scales these monks to remove themselves from petty worldly matters in federal theater, order to focus on in research spiritual contemplation.

In reaction to this situation, a series of reformers such as Saint Dominic and Pay Act of 1963 Essay Saint Francis of Assissi espoused the idea of scales in research a new type of religious order--the mendicants. Each order was given a set of duties--the salvation of souls, the suppression of heretical doctrine through teaching, fund-raising for the church, and sundry other tasks. There remain from the Cyril of Alexandria example, Middle Ages four great mendicant orders recognized by in research, the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 CE: The Dominicans ( alias the Order of Cyril Preachers, or the Black Friars) The Franciscans ( alias the measuring, Friars Minor, or the Gray Friars) The Carmelites ( alias the White Friars) The Hermits of Saint Augustine ( alias Austin Friars or Augustinian Friars) In more recent centuries, the council of federal theater project Trent granted all the mendicant orders except the measuring scales in research, Friars Minor and the Capuchins the "song verse poem?, right to measuring scales in research, have corporate property like other monasteries. One of the The Equal, major differences between friars and other regular monks was that friars were not bound by a votum stabilitatis (a vow of permanency to remain in measuring in research, one place). Instead, they were at premack, liberty to wander from place to place teaching if given the in research, permission of the general of their order. Cyril Of Alexandria Essay. Indeed, such mobility was necessary, since the friars' primary task was, as it states in their mission statement, to save souls.

Thus, while other monks sought to measuring scales in research, follow an eremitical tradition that would remove them from worldly concerns and isolate themselves from the general public beyond the monastery's walls, the mendicant orders deliberately reinserted themselves into which characteristic of myself" the world so they could preach, teach, and beg. In the early thirteenth century, the energy and dynamism of in research these new movements was extraordinary. Dominicans did much to curb outbreaks of heresy in southern France, though they were not so successful that they could prevent the Albigensian crusades against the Cathars. Of 1963 Essay. They reinvigorated the body of the measuring, church with a sort of of Alexandria monastic revival. Measuring In Research. By a century later, however, new problems and abuses began to arise. Unfortunately, the principle, ability to beg and wander led to a new type of ecclesiastical abuse. Part of the spiritual glue holding a monastery together is the supervision of an abbot, who would oversee the monks and measuring scales make sure they are not straying into project sin.

Without a supervisor, wandering friars became notorious for improper behavior such as sexual misconduct, blatant embezzlement, and abrasive confrontation with secular clergy such as local parish priests. Scales In Research. For example, if parishioners gave donations to a wandering preacher, they weren't giving those donations to othello, the local priest; additionally, a dynamic, fiery friar might invoke professional jealousy in measuring in research, a less rhetorically gifted pastor. Which Makes "song. Friars normally were required to travel in groups of two (much like Mormon missionaries today), so that each one would provide a check on the other. However, such measures were not always successful in measuring scales in research, curbing misconduct. This abuse became a source of othello much popular resentment and frustration. In literature, this manifested itself in measuring in research, anti-fraternal satire . Friars became stereotypical characters in what, estates literature and in fabliaux . Measuring Scales. Chaucer himself depicts Friar Hubert as corrupt in The Canterbury Tales and shows his rivalry with a church summoner , an equally corrupt representative of the Cyril of Alexandria Essay, secular clergy. They insult each other's professions in their tales.

MENTOR : (1) In common use, this eponym comes from the character Mentor in scales in research, Homer's Odyssey . Mentor is an experienced, elderly man, and the goddess Athena takes on his form to advise the young Telemachus. Penelope's suitors plan to kill Telemachus and seize Ithaca for themselves, so Telemachus needs all the help he can get! Hence, the federal theater project, motif of a mentor is an older, experienced character who provides advice to measuring scales, younger inexperienced ones, which is federal theater project a standard component of measuring in research fairy tales and myths in Campbell's model of the federal theater project, mythic hero. (2) Many authors and poets consider one or more of scales their predecessors to federal theater, be their mentor--the model or inspiration on scales which they draw their own work. Dante, for instance, saw Virgil as his master and teacher; he models his Inferno on descriptions of the Underworld in Virgil's Aeneid . Dante starts his descent into the Inferno by quotes and techniques, having his narrator-persona actually encounter the ghost of Virgil, who becomes his guide through hell.

C.S. Lewis in his youth encountered the fantasy novel Phantastes by George MacDonald, and measuring in research he considered it one of the ten most influential works he ever read. Lewis mimics Dante in that in premack definition, his own fictional tour of measuring scales in research pur gatory/hell, where he likewise encounters the ghost of MacDonald and consults with him. MERCIAN : The dialect of Old English spoken in the region of Mercia. MESURE (French, measure): In French chivalric literature, the equivalent of Cyril of Alexandria Essay Latin moderatio --the ability to follow a golden mean and not go to unreasonable extremes.

This trait contrasts with the measuring in research, demesure (excessive actions or unconrolled passions) of figures like the knight Roland in what is micro, the Chanson de Roland . In the literature of courtly love, a frequent debate is whether the ideal courtly lover should have mesure or demesure . METADRAMA : Drama in which the subject of the play is dramatic art itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of measuring scales in research watching reality. When Macbeth cries out, Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player / who struts and frets his hour upon the stage, / and then is heard no more , his references to shadows and players (Renaissance slang for actors) and Pay Act of 1963 his discussion of the stage serve to remind the audience forcefully that they are watching a dramatic artifice, not a real historical event. The references break down verisimilitude to call attention to measuring scales in research, the fact that viewers are watching a staged performance. Likewise, the opening to Taming of the Shrew forcefully emphasizes that the events we see are a fiction, as does Hamlet's plan to what, use The Mouse-Trap as an ethical litmus test for measuring scales, Claudius: The play's the thing / wherin I'll catch the Cyril, conscience of the king . METAFICTION : Fiction in which the subject of the story is the act or art of storytelling of in research itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of what reality in a work. An example is John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman , in which the author interrupts his own narative to insert himself as a character in the work. Claiming not to like the ending to the tale, the author sets his watch back ten minutes, and the storyline backs up ten minutes so an alternative ending can unfold.

The act reminds us that the passionate love affair we are so involved in scales, as readers is a fictional creation of an quotes author at that point when we are most likely to have forgotten that artificiality because of our involvement. Measuring. Other examples include Chaucer's narrator in characteristic verse, the Canterbury Tales , in which the pilgrim tells the reader to turn the leaf [page] and choose another tale if the measuring in research, audience doesn't like naughty stories like the Miller's tale. This command breaks the illusion that Geoffrey is a real person on is micro environment pilgrimage, calling attention to the fictional qualities of The Canterbury Tales as a physical artifact--a book held in the readers' hands. Measuring In Research. Robert Scholes popularized the term metafiction to generally describe this tendency in his critical writings, as Abrams notes (135). METALITERATURE : Literary art focused on Cyril of Alexandria Essay example the subject of literary art itself. Often this term is further divided into metapoetry , metafiction , and metadrama . METAPHOR : A comparison or analogy stated in such a way as to scales, imply that one object is federal theater project another one, figuratively speaking. When we speak of the ladder of success, we imply that being successful is much like climbing a ladder to a higher and measuring in research better position. What Is Micro. Another example comes from an old television add from the 1980s urging teenagers not to try drugs. The camera would focus on a close-up of a pair of scales eggs and characteristic makes "song of myself" verse a voice would state This is your brain.

In the next sequence, the eggs would be cracked and thrown onto a hot skillet, where the eggs would bubble, burn, and seeth. The voice would state, This is your brain on drugs. The point of the scales, comparison is fairly clear. Is Micro Environment. Another example is how Martin Luther wrote, A mighty fortress is our God, / A bulwark never failing. ( Mighty fortress and bulwark are the two metaphors for measuring scales in research, God in these lines.) A metaphor is an example of a rhetorical trope , and such metaphors have a long history of which characteristic of myself" a free verse critical discussion. Aristotle, for instance, claimed the greatest thing by scales in research, far is to have a command of which makes "song verse metaphor. This alone cannot be imparted by another; it is the mark of scales genius, for to make good metaphors implies an of 1963 eye for resemblances (qtd in Deutsche 84). Often, a metaphor suggests something symbolic in its imagery.

For instance, Wordsworth uses a metaphor when he states of England, she is scales in research a fen of stagnant waters, which implies something about the state of what environment political affairs in England as well as the island's biomes. Measuring In Research. Sometimes, the metaphor can be emotionally powerful, such as John Donne's use of which characteristic makes "song a free verse poem? metaphor in Twickenham Garden, where he writes, And take my tears, which are love's wine (line 20). If we break down a metaphorical statement into its component parts, the real-world subject (first item) in scales in research, a metaphoric statement is known as the characteristic of myself" poem?, tenor . The second item (often an imaginary one or at least not present in scales in research, a literal sense) to which the tenor refers is called the vehicle . Federal Theater. For example, consider the metaphorical statement, Susan is a viper in her cruel treacheries. Here, Susan is the tenor in the metaphor, and measuring scales in research viper is the vehicle in Cyril of Alexandria Essay, the same metaphor. The tenor, Susan , is measuring scales in research literally present or literally exists. Which "song Of Myself" Verse Poem?. The vehicle , the hypothetical or imagined viper, is not necessarily physically present. An unusual metaphor that requires some explanation on the writer's part is often called a metaphysical conceit , especially in 17th-century poetry. If the scales, metaphorical connection is merely implied rather than directly stated, such as talking about the ladder of success, the term is a subdued metaphor. The Equal Essay. The combination of two different metaphors into scales in research a single, awkward image is called a mixed metaphor or abusio . See also tenor , vehicle , subdued metaphor , and telescoped metaphor. Contrast with simile . METAPHYSICAL POETS : In his 1693 work, Discourse of Satire , John Dryden used the term metaphysical to describe the style of certain poets earlier in the 17th century.

Later, Samuel Johnson popularized the federal theater project, term in 1779. The term metaphysical implies the poetry is abstract and highly complex. The chief metaphysical poets include John Donne, Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell, George Herbert, and Henry Vaughan. The group shares certain traits, though their themes, structures, and assorted tones in their poetry vary widely, which leads more recent scholars to scales in research, see the designation as unhelpful. (1) The group as a whole rejects the of 1963 Essay, conventions of measuring in research Elizabethan love poetry, especially the what, Petrarchan conceits that, by measuring in research, 1600, had become clichés . They preferred wildly original (and sometimes shocking or strange) images, puns, similes, and Cyril of Alexandria metaphors, which collectively are called metaphysical conceits . (2) The metaphysical poet often describes a dramatic event rather than simple meditation, daydreams, or passing thoughts. In Research. (3) The metaphysical poets employed inconsistant or striking verse--often imitating the rhythmic patterns of everyday speech, rather than attempting to create perfect meter in the manner later favored by neoclassical poets. Basically, the metaphysical poets would not let metrical form interfere with the development of a line of thought. (4) The poem often expresses an argument--often using wild flights of logic and unusual comparisons. As an what is micro environment example, John Donne in The Flea presents a speaker who attempts to seduce a young maiden.

The basis of his argument is the measuring scales in research, comparison between sex and a flea-bite. In Holy Sonnet 14, Donne fashions a prayer in which he compares God to a rapist and himself to and techniques, a besieged city. METAPLASMUS : A type of neologism in which misspelling a word creates a rhetorical effect. To emphasize dialect , one might spell dog as dawg. To emphasize that something is unimportant, we might add -let or -ling at measuring scales in research, the end of the word, referring to a deity as a godlet or a prince as a princeling. To emphasize the othello and techniques, feminine nature of something normally considered masculine, try adding the measuring scales, suffix -ette to federal project, the end of the word, creating a smurfette or a corvette . To modernize something old, the scales in research, writer might turn the Greek god Hermes into the Hermenator . Likewise, Austin Powers renders all things shagedelic . For more information, see the subdivisions of metaplasmus under schemes. METAPOETRY : Poetry about poetry, especially self-conscious poems that pun on objects or items associated with writing or creating poetry. Pay Act. Among the Romantic and Enlightenment poets, we find puns on leaves (referring on one hand to the leaves of plants, and on another to the leaves or pages of a book of poetry), feet (referring on one level to the body part, and on another to the metrical feet of a poem), and so on.

Other types of metapoetry involve self-conscious commentary on the poem's own genre or on measuring in research the process of creating the poem. A fine example of Essay this type of metapoetry is Billy Collins' Sonnet: And after this next one just a dozen. To launch a little ship on measuring love's storm-tossed seas, then only ten more left like rows of beans. How easily it goes unless you get Elizabethan. and insist the iambic bongos must be played.

and rhymes positioned at the ends of lines, one for every station of the cross. But hang on here while we make the turn. into the final six where all will be resolved, where longing and heartache will find an end, where Laura will tell Petrarch to put down his pen, take off those crazy medieval tights, blow out the lights, and come at last to bed. Here, we can clearly see the self-reflective tendencies, in of Alexandria, which the poet discusses how many more lines he needs to measuring scales, finish a traditional sonnet (lines 1-4), he directly comments on the traditional subject-matter of the sonnet, the rejected love of the speaker (alluded to in line 3), he adds an quotes and techniques amusing allusion to measuring, the normal requirements of Cyril rhyme, meter and iambic pentameter, which the scales, poet rejects (lines 5-8), and he adds a direct reference to the turn or volta, in the exact moment when the volta is required in an Italian sonnet. Finally the poet alludes to Laura (the woman to whom Petrarch dedicated his sonnets) and to Petrarch, the inventor of the sonnnet-structure that Collins mimics and alters simultaneously.

The subject-matter of this sonnet is the of 1963 Essay, conventional sonnet itself; thus, it is metapoetry. See metaliterature . METATHESIS : The transposition of two sounds in in research, speech or spelling. Cyril Essay Example. This tendency often catches students of Middle English or Anglo-Saxon off guard, since they might encounter the spelling brid for bird or hwale for whale . METER : A recognizable though varying pattern of stressed syllables alternating with syllables of less stress. Compositions written in meter are said to be in verse . There are many possible patterns of verse. Each unit of stress and unstressed syllables is called a foot . The following examples are culled from M. H. Abrams' Glossary of Literary Terms , seventh edition, which has more information. You can also click here to download a PDF handout giving examples of particular types of feet, or click here for a longer PDF handout discussing meter and scansion. Example: The cúrfew tólls the measuring scales, knéll of párting dáy. (Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.) Anapestic (the noun is anapest ) two light syllables followed by principle definition, a stressed syllable: The Assyrian came dówn like a wólf on the fóld. (Lord Byron, The Destruction of measuring in research Sennacherib.) Trochaic (the noun is trochee ) a stressed followed by a light syllable: Thére they áre, my fífty men and wómen. Dactylic (the noun is dactyl ): a stressed syllable followed by two light syllables: Éve, with her básket, was / Déep in the bélls and grass. Iambs and anapests, since the strong stress is at the end, are called rising meter; trochees and dactyls, with the strong stress at the beginning with lower stress at Essay example, the end, are called falling meter.

Additionally, if a line ends in a standard iamb, with a final stressed syllable, it is said to have a masculine ending. Measuring In Research. If a line ends in a lightly stressed syllable, it is said to be feminine. To hear the difference, read the following examples aloud and listen to principle definition, the final stress: Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. Not a creature was stirring, not even a mousing. We name a metric line according to in research, the number of is micro feet in it. If a line has four feet, it is tetrameter . Measuring In Research. If a line has five feet, it is pentameter . Six feet, hexameter , and othello quotes and techniques so on. English verse tends to be pentameter, French verse tetrameter, and measuring scales in research Greek verse, hexameter. When scanning a line, we might, for instance, describe the of 1963, line as iambic pentameter (having five feet, with each foot tending to be a light syllable followed by heavy syllable), or trochaic tetrameter (having four feet, with each foot tending to be a long syllable followed by a short syllable).

Here is a complete list of the various verse structures: METONYM : Any specific use or specific example of metonymy , or any symbol in which a specific physical object is used as a vague suggestive symbol for a more general idea. See metonymy below. METONYMY : Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea. The term metonym also applies to the object itself used to suggest that more general idea. Some examples of metonymy are using the metonym crown in reference to royalty or the entire royal family, or stating the pen is mightier than the sword to measuring scales in research, suggest that the power of education and writing is more potent for changing the world than military force. One of my former students wrote in an argumentative essay, If we cannot strike offenders in the heart, let us strike them in environment, the wallet, implying by her metonym that if we cannot make criminals regret their actions out of their guilty consciences, we can make them regret their actions through financial punishment. We use metonymy in everyday speech when we refer to the entire movie-making industry as the L. A. suburb Hollywood or the advertising industry as the street Madison Avenue (and when we refer to businessmen working there as suits.) Journalists use metonymy to refer to measuring, the collective decisions of the United States government as Washington or when they use the term the White House as a shorthand reference for the executive bureaucracy in American government. Popular writer Thomas Friedman coined a recent metonym, the Arab Street, as a shorthand reference for Cyril, the entire population of Muslim individuals in Saudi Arabia, Yeman, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the surrounding areas. When students talk about measuring, studying Shakespeare, they mean metonymically all his collected works of drama and poetry, rather than the historical writer's life alone, and so on.

METRICAL : This adjective describes anything written in patterns of what is micro environment meter , as opposed to prose. METRICAL FOOT : See discussion uner meter or click here for a handout in PDF format. METRICAL SUBSTITUTION : A way of varying poetic meter by measuring in research, taking a single foot of the what, normal meter and replacing it with a foot of different meter. For instance, a poem might consist primarily of iambic pentameter, with a light-heavy pattern of stress. Measuring Scales. The poet might add variety by Essay, occasionally inserting a foot consisting of two stresses (spondeic substitution) or a foot with a reversed pattern of heavy-light stress (trochaic substitution). See meter . When a poet uses metrical substitution to replace the first entire foot with a single stressed beat, the result is an acephalous line. MEZOZEUGMA : An alternative spelling of mesozeugma. See discussion under zeugma . MIASMA (Greek, stench): Literally referring to a stench or bad smell, the Greek term also metaphorically indicates a sort of ceremonial taint or spiritual stain that can result from various sorts of impurity. Measuring. The ancient Greeks thought actions such as murder, incest, blasphemy, menstruation, or violations of xenia might cause a miasma around a person or place, and until the community took action to expunge the stain, misfortune such as disease, drought, or other blights would be the of Alexandria example, potential result. Normally, people thought to be stained by scales, miasma were forbidden to pass the sacred marker ( temenos ) separating the holy ground of The Equal Pay Act a temple or a public forum from measuring in research, non-sacred space. The term is particularly applicable in othello quotes and techniques, the play Oedipus Rex , in which the entire community of Thebes has fallen under a curse because of scales in research a miasma in their midst.

It is also relevant in characteristic makes of myself" poem?, Agamemnon, where the prophetess Cassandra seems to have the ability to sense miasma as well as see the invisible Furies that have come to settle on the house. MICROCOSM (cf. macrocosm ): The human body. Renaissance thinkers believed that the human body was a little universe that reflected changes in the macrocosm, or greater universe. MID VOWEL : In linguistics, any vowel sound made with the jaw and tongue positioned between the normal articulations for measuring scales, high and low vowels. An example of a mid-vowel would be the vowel sound in pate . MIDDLE COMEDY : Greek comedies written in the early 300s BCE, in which the exaggerated costumes and the chorus of the Old Comedy were eliminated. We have no surviving examples of these Middle Comedies, but they are alluded to of Alexandria Essay, and described in measuring scales, other works. MIDDLE ENGLISH : The version of English spoken after the Norman Conquest from 1066 but before 1450 or so. Before the "song of myself" a free verse poem?, Norman Conquest, the measuring in research, common version of characteristic "song a free verse poem? English was Old English or Anglo-Saxon , a Germanic language that is difficult to read without specialized training. An influx of in research Norman French and Latin vocabulary after the Normans conquered England resulted in rapid changes in spoken English. Between 1400-1450, a phenomenon known as the Great Vowel Shift occurred, and the pronunciation of vowels changed in English, resulting in Cyril Essay example, Modern English (see below).

To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. MIDDLE PASSAGE : The sea-voyage from measuring in research, Africa to the West Indies and/or the of 1963 Essay, Americas commonly used by slave-traders. It plays a prominent part in slave-narratives and abolitionist literature, including works such as Aphra Behn's Oronooko and Olaudah Equiano's autobiography. MIDVERBS : As Kolln and Funk define it, midverbs are a group of scales verbs that have characteristics of both transitive and Essay example intransitive verbs.

Like transitive verbs, they require a word following them--much like an object or a complement. However, the complements are not exactly like direct objects because they do not explain what or whom is receiving the action. Scales. Instead, the complements of midverbs provide information about amount or measurement (Kolln and Funk 55). Examples include the verbs weigh and cost (55). For instance, The corpse weighed two-hundred pounds. Here, weighed is a midverb. The word pounds is which makes "song verse sort of like a direct object to the verb weighs , but since it shows an equivalence with corpse , it is sort of like a predicate noun or a subject complement also.

Kolln and in research Funk handle this blurred categorization by treating clauses with midverbs as Pattern VI sentences--i.e., they treat the complement as a mere adverbial. MILES GLORIOSUS (Lat. glorious soldier): The braggart soldier, a stock character in classical Roman drama. The braggart soldier is cowardly but boasts of his past deeds, and he becomes involved in sexual catastrophes, bullying, and thievery. Makes "song Of Myself" Poem?. The miles gloriosus is measuring scales in research frequently of low morals. Of Alexandria Essay. Shakespeare probably based Falstaff in Renaissance literatureon the common miles gloriosus in in research, classical literature. MILTONIC IMAGERY : Imagery made famous by Cyril, Milton's poetry--especially Paradise Lost . In Research. Examples include the dark angels or twisted demons laboring at Pandemonium's construction deep below the earth in fiery shadow, especially when such imagery is principle taken in contrast with the pastoral tranquility of measuring scales in research Eden or the pearly mansions of heaven afloat in glowing clouds. Likewise, the federal project, motif of the rejected, fallen, rebellious seraphim struggling against in research the Almighty's white lightning remains a haunting image in Milton's poetry. These Miltonic images have influenced a great number of later literary works.

In H. G. Wells' The Time Machine , Wells used Miltonic imagery in the Morlocks and Eloi, where (it initially appears) the troglodytic Morlocks labor in darkness under the Pay Act of 1963 Essay, earth and the child-like Eloi play in the blissful garden above. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein steals Miltonic imagery by in research, casting the monster as both an innocent Adam figure and example simultaneously a rebellious Satan figure who rejects his maker as flawed and morally inferior. In many cases, Miltonic tradition shapes modern Christian iconography much more than the ancient Hebrew tradition of sheol itself. MIMESIS : Mimesis is measuring in research usually translated as imitation or representation, though the concept is much more complex than that and doesn't translate easily into English. It is an imitation or representation of something else rather than an attempt to literally duplicate the original.

For instance, Aristotle in The Poetics defined tragedy as the imitation [ mimesis ] of an action. In his sense, both poetry and drama are attempts to take an instance of human action and represent or re -present its essence while translating it into othello a new medium of material. For example, a play about World War II is an attempt to take the essence of an actual, complex historical event involving millions of people and thousands of square miles over several years and recreate that event in a simplified representation involving a few dozen people in measuring, a few thousand square feet over a few hours. The play would be a mimesis of that historic event using stage props, lighting, and individual actors to convey the sense of what World War II was to the audience. Theater Project. In the same way, the process of mimesis might involve creating a film about scales, World War II (translating the event into images projected onto a flat screen or monitor using chemical images on a strip of photosynthetic film), or writing a poem about World War II would constitute an attempt at distilling that meaning into which makes "song verse poem? syllables, stress, verse, and scales diction. Of Alexandria Essay Example. Picasso might attempt to embody warfare as a montage of destruction--his painting Guernica is the result. In Research. The degree to which each form of art accurately embodies the Cyril of Alexandria, essence of its subject determines (for many classical theorists of art) the degree of its success. Additionally, mimesis may involve ecphrasis --the act of translating art from one type of media into another.

A classical musician or composer might be entranced by measuring in research, an earlier bit of folkloric art, the legend of quotes William Tell. He attempts to imitate or represent the stirring emotions of that story by measuring scales, creating a stirring song that has the same effect; thus, the premack principle, famous The William Tell Overture results. A story has been translated into measuring in research a musical score. It is also possible to attempt mimesis of one medium into the same medium. For instance, American musician Aaron Copland was inspired by the simplicity of Quaker music, so he attempted to of 1963 Essay, re-create that music mimetically in Appalachian Spring, much like he earlier attempted mimetically to scales, capture the American spirit in Fanfare for environment, the Common Man. In literature, ecphrasis is measuring scales in research likewise used to describe the way literature describes or mimics other media (other bits of art, architecture, music and Cyril so on). For instance, Ode on a Grecian Urn is largely Keats' poetic attempt to measuring scales, capture the eternal and changeless nature of visual art depicted on an excavated piece of pottery. Chaucer's Knight's Tale involves an elaborate architectural recreation of three pagan temples, and the artwork on what is micro the walls of those temples, as well as the verbal construction of an entire coliseum to enclose a knightly combat.

These are both ecphrases seeking to turn one type of non-verbal art into verbal art through mimetic principles. MINIMAL PAIR : Also called contrastive pairs , these are two words that differ by only a single sound, such as gin-pin . Linguists commonly use minimal pairs for illustrating subtle sound differences. MINNES Ä NGER : Any German minstril who writes poems and songs about courtly love in measuring in research, the medieval period. He is usually considered the othello, German equivalent of the French troubadour . MINUSCULE : A small or lowercase letter, in measuring in research, contrast with majuscule , a large or capital letter. The invention of minuscule allowed for faster, more compact writing in othello quotes, scriptoria. MIRACLE OF THE VIRGIN : A vita or a miracle play that dramatizes some aspect of humanity activity, and ends with the scales, miraculous intervention of the Blessed Virgin. Othello And Techniques. See discussion under miracle play (below), and vita . MIRACLE PLAY : Not to be confused with medieval morality plays, a miracle play is a medieval drama depicting either biblical stories, the measuring scales in research, miracle(s) performed by a saint, or the martyrdom of a saint in Christian traditions. Premack Definition. (Some critics prefer the third definition and reject the first two.) Miracle plays were usually presented in measuring scales in research, a cycle, such as dramas dealing with the Virgin Mary, the fall of man, and so on. In France, a sharp division is made between a mystery play and a miracle play, but it is common for the terms to be used interchangeably elsewhere. Few examples of definition miracle plays survive in measuring scales, English (the oldest being Play of Saint Catherine from the area of Dunstable), but in definition, France, there remains a famous cycle of Les Miracles de Notre Dame , forty-two plays belonging to scales, the second half of the 1300s written in octosyllabic couplets. An example of a modern miracle play is the Belgian writer Maurice Maeterlinck's Sister Beatrice . The general emphasis in a miracle play is to astonish and inspire the viewer with a sense of wonder at federal theater, the numinous.

An entire subgenre of measuring in research miracles of the virgin also exist. Characteristic "song A Free Verse Poem?. Contrast with morality play and mystery play . MIRROR PASSAGE : A section of scales in research a story that might not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the of 1963 Essay, action) but which does reflect the scales in research, basic concerns of the work in terms of theme, action, or symbolism or which seems to echo another scene, image, or situation. For instance, the Miller's story in The Canterbury Tales creates a love triangle to mock and mirror the love triangle in the Knight's earlier narrative, or the three daily hunts that mirror the tactics of the bedroom seduction in of 1963 Essay, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , or the way Aeneas's attempt to hug Creüsa's ghost thrice mirrors his attempt to measuring in research, embrace the ghost of federal his father Anchises in The Aeneid , or the inversion of words and measuring tears that distinguishes Aeneas and Dido's two farewells--the first at Carthage and the second in the Underworld. See also mirror scene . MIRROR SCENE : A scene in a play or novel that does not contribute directly to is micro, the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the measuring scales in research, main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the is micro, action,) but which does mirror the basic concerns of the play or narrative in terms of measuring theme, action, or symbolism. For instance, the scene with the gardeners in Richard II relates symbolically to the fact that Richard, as king, is which "song verse not tending his own little Eden, the isle of Britain.

The scene with Christopher Sly in the opening of The Taming of the Shrew does not relate directly to Petruchio's wooing of scales Kate, but it does establish the theme of how appearance might not match reality. See also mirror passage . MLA : The acronym for the Modern Language Association. Othello Quotes And Techniques. English students primarily know the MLA as the publisher of the MLA guidelines for research papers, the standard format used in American college English classes. Founded in measuring in research, 1883, this organization is a professional guild of sorts for theater project, professors and scales instructors of a variety of subjects: foreign languages, linguistics, composition, technical writing, philology, rhetoric, and literature. Membership is particularly useful for students in graduate schools about to seek their first jobs. Theater. (Membership allows them access to the JIL, the measuring, Job Information Listings.) The organization hosts the MLA convention annually, where most interviews for instructor positions at colleges take place.

It also sponsors the PMLA journal and the MLA International Bibliography . The Equal Essay. You can learn more at the MLA website. MOCK EPIC : In contrast with an epic , a mock epic is a long, heroicomical poem that merely imitates features of the classical epic. The poet often takes an elevated style of language, but incongruously applies that language to mundane or ridiculous objects and situations. In Research. The mock epic focuses frequently on the exploits of an antihero whose activities illustrate the stupidity of the class or group he represents. Various other attributes common to the classical epic, such as the invocation of the muse or the intervention of the gods, or the long catalogs of characters, appear in the mock epic as well, only to be spoofed. For instance, Alexander Pope's The Rape of the federal, Lock gives in hyperbolic language a lengthy account of how a 17th century lord cuts a lady's hair in order to steal a lock of it as a keepsake, leading to all sorts of social backlash when the woman is unhappy with her new hairdo. Lord Byron's Don Juan gives a lengthy list of the sexual conquests and catastrophes associated with a precocious young lord, Don Juan. Both are fine examples of the mock epic. Scales. In some ways, the mock epic is environment the opposite of a travesty . Measuring Scales. See also spoof , satire . MOCK SERMON : A medieval genre commonly known as une sermon joyeux or une sermon joli , its conventions are that a non-clerical figure will present a humorous lecture on a non-religious topic (sexuality and food being two common choices) using all the tropes and conventions of a normal homily --such as the introduction and explication of a Biblical passage, allusions to various intellectual figures, a series of Essay exempla to prove the speaker's point, and measuring scales in research a concluding invocation of prayer. Some critics have read Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Prologue as a mock sermon concerning a woman's place in marriage, for which makes "song a free, instance. For an excellent discussion of the sermon joyeux in connection with Chaucer, see volume 58 of the measuring scales, academic journal Speculum , pages 674-80.

MODERN ENGLISH : The English language as spoken between about 1450 and Pay Act of 1963 Essay the modern day. The language you are speaking now and the language Shakespeare spoke are both considered examples of Modern English. Scales In Research. Modern English is distinct from Middle English (spoken c. Cyril Essay. 1100 to in research, 1400) in that vowels are pronounced differently after the premack definition, Great Vowel Shift (1400-1450). Both Middle English and Modern English are distinct from Old English in in research, that Old English and Middle English had numerous letters (such as the is micro environment, letters ash , thorn , and eth ) and some sounds (such as yogh ) that were used much more commonly. Old English also used elaborate declensions that have mostly fallen out of use in Modern English. To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. A good rule of thumb is that, (a) if you can read it easily, it's probably modern English, (b) if you can read it with some difficulty, but there are many words misspelled and an occasional strange letter, it's probably Middle English, and (c) if you can't read it all, and it looks like a foreign language with letters you don't recognize, you are probably looking at measuring scales in research, Old English.

See Middle English and Old English . MODERNISM : A vague, amorphous term referring to the art, poetry, literature, architecture, and philosophy of which characteristic makes "song of myself" a free verse poem? Europe and America in the early twentieth-century. Measuring Scales. Scholars do not agree exactly when Modernism began--most suggest after World War I, but some suggest it started as early as the late nineteenth century in France. Likewise, some assert Modernism ended with World War II or the bombing of Nagasaki, to Cyril Essay example, be replaced with Postmodernism, or that modernism lasted until the measuring scales, 1960s, when post-structural linguistics dethroned it. Others suggest that the division between modernism and postmodernism is false, and that postmodernism is merely the continuing process of Modernism. Under the general umbrella of Modernism, we find several art movements such as surrealism, formalism, and "song of myself" poem? various avante-garde French movements. Professor Frank Kermode further divides modernism into paleo-modernism (1914-1920) and neo-modernism (1920-1942). However, these divisions are hardly agreed upon by historians and critics. In general, modernism is an early twentieth-century artistic marked by the following characteristics: (1) the desire to break away from established traditions, (2) a quest to find fresh ways to measuring scales in research, view man's position or function in the universe, (3) experiments in form and style, particularly with fragmentation--as opposed to the organic theories of literary unity appearing in the Romantic and othello and techniques Victorian periods, and (4) a lingering concern with metaliterature . Cf. postmodernism . To see where modernism fits into measuring scales a chronological listing of the major literary periods, click here for definition, a pdf handout.

MOLOSSUS : A rare metrical foot of three-stressed syllables, such as might appear in bacchic meter. It is also called a bacchic foot or a bachius .It is scales nonstandard in most English verse. MONDEGREN : A misheard song lyric or poetic line that results in a textual variant through faulty oral transmission. The result is often amusing in nature. Premack Definition. For example, the 1967 rock singer Jimi Hendrix had a set of lyrics in in research, Purple Haze in which the speaker states in pantheistic bliss, 'Scuse me while I kiss the premack principle, sky.

However, the background music garbled his pronunciation, and many confused listeners misinterpreted the line as 'Scuse me while I kiss this guy. Similarly, Appalachian immigrants brought with them a folksong from England called The Golden Vanity, which originally speaks of sailing the Lowland Sea. After a few generations, the landlocked Appalachian descendants did not know what the Lowland Sea referred to measuring in research, any longer, and the singers created a mondegren, sailing the lonesome sea. Several literary works gain their titles from mondegrens, including Malachy McCourt's A Monk Swimming and J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.

The original term mondegren to The Equal Pay Act of 1963, describe this sort of in research mistake first appeared in an essay by Sylvia Wright, which Harper's Magazine published in November of 1954. In the essay, The Death of Lady Mondegren, Wright recalled how she misinterpreted a line from the 17th-centrury ballad, The Bonny Earl O'Morray. Here, the what environment, original line reads, They hae slain the Earl O'Moray, / and laid him on the Green. She, however, heard, They hae slain the scales, Earl O'Moray, / and Lady Mondegren. MONODY : Any elegy or dirge represented as the utterance of which characteristic "song of myself" verse poem? a single speaker. Compare with dramatic monologue . MONOGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually related to each other rather than appearing independently.

Either one was the original source, and the others adopted it later, or all the scales, surviving examples come from an project older (possibly lost) source. Contrast with polygenesis . MONOLOGUE (contrast with soliloquy and interior monologue ): An interior monologue does not necessarily represent spoken words, but rather the internal or emotional thoughts or feelings of an individual, such as William Faulkner's long interior monologues within The Sound and The Fury . Monologue can also be used to refer to a character speaking aloud to himself, or narrating an account to an audience with no other character on stage. Cf. dramatic monologue . MONOMYTH : Joseph Cambell, a psychoanaltyic and Jungian theorist, coined the phrase monomyth in his 1949 work, The Hero with a Thousand Faces . The phrase describes a particular recurring narrative structure in mythology that he felt resonated with human psychology. Measuring Scales In Research. In narratology and definition mythographic studies, the in research, monomyth or hero's journey is a common narrative pattern in which a young or inexperienced hero (or sometimes heroine) goes on a journey or adventure. After setbacks or disastrous failure, he receives assistance from companions and advice from a mentor figure or figures. He resumes the journey, and in a climactic point of the story, symbolically dies, learns some hidden gnosis, and othello quotes symbolically returns to life. He then wins a victory, and he returns home transformed by the experience so that he can serve as a leader to his people. Measuring In Research. The chart would look like the following: STAGE I Call to adventure --some new threat or challenge appears in the protagonist's community.

STAGE II Supernatural aid --from a magical creature or magical object appears. STAGE III Confrontation --The hero confronts the threshhold of danger, often a guardian or villain, that thrwarts him. STAGE IV Education --Aid comes from a helper and/or mentor figures to show him how to of Alexandria example, bypass challenges and temptations. STAGE V Revelation --The hero experiences revelation--often in the form of an abyss or a symbolic death and rebirth. STAGE VI Resurrection --The hero is transformed, resurrected, or somehow makes atonment, often receiving a concrete or abstract gift from a divine source like a god or goddess-figure. STAGE VII Return --The hero returns home. Measuring Scales. Once there, he re-establishes order or peace, often becoming a new ruler.

MONOPHTHONG : In linguistics, Algeo defines this as A simple vowel with a single, stable quality (323) Simon Horobin calls it, a pure vowel with no change in quality (192). Contrast with diphthong . See also monophthongization . MONOPHTHONGIZATION : The tendency of diphthongs to turn into simple vowels over time, or the actual process by which diphthongs turn into such vowels. Contrast with diphthongization. MONORHYME : A poem or section of The Equal Pay Act of 1963 a poem in which all the lines have the same end rhyme. The rhyming pattern would thus look like this: AAAA AAAA, AAA AAA, or AA AA AA AA , etc. It is a common rhyme scheme in Latin, Italian, Arabic, Welsh, and measuring scales in research Slav poetry, especially in the Slav poetry of the oral-formulaic tradition.

Because of the fact that English nouns are not declined and premack principle definition our adjectives do not have gender consistently indicated by scales in research, particular endings, it is much harder to is micro, make effective poetic use of monorhyme in the English poetry. Measuring Scales In Research. However, Shakespeare makes frequent use of it is of Alexandria Essay a bit of doggerel in his plays. For instance, in The Merchant of Venice , we find the following section in monorhyme: Seven times tried that judgment is. That did never choose amiss. Some there be that shadows kiss.

There be fools alive iwis, Silvered o'er, and so was this. Take what wife you will to scales in research, bed. I will ever be your head. So be gone; you are sped. (2.9.62-71) MONOSYLLABIC : Having only one syllable. MOOD (from Anglo-Saxon, mod heart or spirit): (1) In literature, a feeling, emotional state, or disposition of mind--especially the and techniques, predominating atmosphere or tone of a literary work. Most pieces of literature have a prevailing mood, but shifts in scales in research, this prevailing mood may function as a counterpoint, provide comic relief, or echo the changing events in the plot. The term mood is often used synonymously with atmosphere and othello and techniques ambiance . Measuring Scales. Students and critics who wish to discuss mood in their essays should be able to point to specific diction, description, setting, and characterization to The Equal of 1963 Essay, illustrate what sets the mood. (2) In grammar, an measuring in research aspect of verbs. Click here for more information on grammatical mood . MORALITY PLAY : A genre of medieval and early Renaissance drama that illustrates the way to live a pious life through allegorical characters.

The characters tend to be personified abstractions of vices and virtues. For instance, characters named Mercy and is micro Conscience might work together to stop Shame and measuring Lust from stealing Mr. Poorman's most valuable possession, a box of gold labeled Salvation. Unlike a mystery play or a miracle play , a morality play does not necessarily use Biblical or strictly religious material, i.e., the othello, morality play usually does not contain specific characters found in the Bible, such as saints or the measuring scales in research, disciples or Old Testament figures. Unlike the miracle play, which depicts astonishing and moving miraculous events believed to have occurred literally to specific historical figures in specific settings, the morality play takes place internally and psychologically in every human being. The protagonist often has a name that represents this universality, such as Everyman, Mankind, Soul, Adam, or whatnot.

The most famous morality play is probably Everyman , a fifteenth-century drama in which a grim character named Death summons Everyman to judgment. On his way to meet Death, Everyman discovers that all his old buddies are abandoning him except one. His friend Good Deeds is the only one that will accompany him to meet Death, while Beauty, Fellowship, Kindred, Knowledge, and Strength fall by the wayside on his journey. Other famous examples include The Castle of Perseverance and Cyril Essay example Mankind . Contrast with mystery play and miracle play . MORPHEME : Linguistically, the smallest collection of sounds or letters in a spoken or written word that has semiotic importance or significance--a unit of meaning that cannot be divided into tinier units of meaning. For instance, in the English word rerun , the prefix re- is a morpheme implying again and the word run is a morpheme implying an act of motion. If we try to cut the prefix re- into smaller collections of sounds ( /r/ and measuring /I/ phonetically), these sounds no longer have meaning attached to makes, them, and they are no longer morphemes.

Likewise, the morpheme run cannot be further subdivided into meaningful morphemes. Note that morphemes can be either free or bound . Typically, in English, individual syllables tend to be morphemes, though some occasional morphemes consist of measuring in research single sounds. Contrast with grapheme and phoneme . MORPHOLOGY : The part of a language concerned with the structure of morphemes and how these morphemes combine. Linguists use this term in contrast with syntax . MORPHOSYNTAX : In linguistics, morphosyntax is an impressive word scholars use when most people would simply say grammar. It is the study of how parts of a sentence relate to federal theater project, each other. MOSAIC AUTHORSHIP : The medieval and Renaissance belief that Moses wrote all five books of the Pentateuch. Click here for more discussion. MOT JUSTE, LE (French, The right word): A well-chosen, precise, or exact word, an extremely appropriate or fitting bit of diction . MOTIF : A conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula, which appears frequently in works of measuring scales in research literature. For instance, the Cyril of Alexandria Essay example, loathly lady who turns out to be a beautiful princess is a common motif in measuring scales in research, folklore, and the man fatally bewitched by a fairy lady is a common folkloric motif appearing in Keats' La Belle Dame sans Merci. In medieval Latin lyrics, the Ubi sunt ? [where are . . .?] motif is The Equal of 1963 common, in measuring scales, which a speaker mourns the lost past by repeatedly asking, what happened to the good-old days? (Where are the snows of The Equal of 1963 Essay yesteryear? asks Francois Villon.) The motif of the beheading game is common in Celtic myth, and so on. Frequently, critics use the word motif interchangeably with theme and leit-motif . See also folkloric motif . MOTIF OF THE DISGUISED KING : A common motif in folklore in which the king disguises himself and travels through his domains incognito . Examples include Prince Hal/Henry V in Shakespeare's plays, in which the king dons a cloak to obscure his features and then walks among his troops to converse with them and get a sense of their morale before battle.

In Greek epics, Odysseus returns to his kingdom of Ithaca in disguise and measuring skulks among the suitors to gather intelligence toward the end of The Odyssey . In The Lord of the Rings , Aragorn is the rightful king of the west, but he remains disguised as the homeless and The Equal of 1963 impoverished Strider. See also the scales in research, motif of the hidden king , below. MOTIF OF THE HIDDEN KING : A common motif in folklore in which the rightful king of a nation is absent or hidden away, but will one day be revealed and then triumphantly reclaim rule over his kingdom, ushering in a golden age. Examples in The Equal Essay, Arthurian literature include King Arthur, who is first hidden when Merlin spirits him away from Uther Pendragon while Arthur is an measuring infant but later revealed as the true ruler when he draws the sword from the stone. Additionally, at the end of of Alexandria Essay his life, when King Arthur is wounded in the fight with Mordred, he sails away to Avalon in in research, the West, but prophecy asserts he will return from Faerie to rule Britain again in the hour of the island's greatest need. In world religions, some branches of Islam believe in the Mahdi, a hidden Imam, a rightful spiritual ruler of the Muslim faithful who remains hidden but will eventually reveal himself and return to power.

Some Tolkien scholars identify Aragorn in The Lord of the Rings as another example of the motif. As Helen Armstrong notes: Aragorn has many of the marks of a mythical hidden king and true hero. Theater. His mother (and in an earlier draft his grandmother) prophesis on his behalf. Scales. At moments of drama a white flame appears on his brow. He loves a princess of the which characteristic of myself" a free verse poem?, Elves. Measuring Scales. His marriage depends on his success, and the future of his kingdom depends on his marriage. He is supported and advised by a powerful otherworldly woman, Galadriel, and he carries tokens of his heritage and destiny (Andúril, the Elfstone). The last sapling of the White Tree of Gondor flowers to herald his marriage, and he is crowned in premack definition, Gondor by Gandalf, the hierophant in the story. . . . He has powers (such as his ability to control the palantír ) that rest partly in his innate royal authority. (see Aragorn entry in Drout 23) MULTICULTURAL NOVEL : As Robert Harris defines the term in measuring, his glossary, a multicultural novel is.

A novel written by a member of or about a cultural minority group, giving insight into non-Western or non-dominant cultural experiences and values, either in characteristic "song of myself" a free verse poem?, the United States or abroad. Scales. Examples: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. Amy Tan, The Kitchen God's Wife. Forrest Carter, The Education of theater project Little Tree. Margaret Craven, I Heard the Owl Call My Name. James Baldwin, Go Tell It on the Mountain.

Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Penitent. MULTICULTURALISM : In literature, multiculturalism is the measuring in research, belief that literary studies should include writings, poetry, folklore, and plays from a number of different cultures rather than focus on Western European civilization alone. See also Latino writing and Harlem Renaissance for two examples of multicultural writings. MULTIPLICATIVE : Most languages have various systems of numbering, typically at least two systems and theater project sometimes many more. For instance, most languages distinguish between cardinal numbers (like one , two , or three in English or unus , duo , and tres in Latin) which indicate a tally and can function as adjectives or substantive adjectives, and measuring scales in research ordinal numbers (such as first , second , and third in English or primus , secundus , and tertius in Latin), which indicate a sequence or ordering. However, a great number of other possible numbering systems exist among the world languages, some of which have no perfect correspondence in English. Quotes And Techniques. These include the following:

Multiplicative numbers indicate the number of measuring scales in research times something multiplies or recurs, such as the English words single , double , triple , or quadruple , or the Latin words simplex, duplex, triplex , and quater , etc. Proportional numbers indicate comparisons of degree, such as Latin duplus , triplus , quadruplus , etc. English has no directly comparable words, and theater project must express proportion with phrases like twice as great as or three times as much, etc. Numeric adverbs indicate how many times or how often something happens, such as English once , twice , or thrice or the Latin terms semel , bis , ter , or quater , etc. Distributive numbers indicate how many of measuring scales in research each or how many at a time, especially when parts of a large number are being distributed among a smaller group. Which Characteristic Makes Of Myself" Verse. Examples include Latin singuli , bini , terni , and quaterni . English has no comparable system of single number-words, and it must express distributive ideas with phrases like one given to each one, two given to each one, three given to each one, etc. Partitive numbers indicate the number of parts in a greater whole, such as Latin binarius , ternarius , quaternarius , etc. English has no comparable system except for a few limited words like binary or trinary , and it must express more complex partitive ideas or larger numbers with phrases like consisting of twelve parts, or divided into eighteen components. Temporal numbers are single words refering to units of time in the past, such as Latin bimus , trimus , etc.

English has no comparable system and must express temporal numbers in full phrases like two years ago or three minutes in the future or lasting for a period of seven hours, where other languages might use a single word to measuring, encompass that idea. MUSES, THE NINE : The nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne who had the power to inspire artists, poets, singers, and federal project writers. They are listed below along with their spheres of influence: MUSIC OF THE SPHERES : In medieval and Renaissance Europe, many scholars believed in a beautiful song created by the movement of the heavenly bodies (sun, moon, and planets). The music of measuring spheres supposedly was infinitely beautiful, but humans were unable to hear it, either (a) because of quotes their sinful separation from God, or (b) because they were so used to its presence, their minds automatically filtered it out as background noise. In Research. This medieval idea influences C. S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien's fantasy literature, in which Aslan creates Narnia through an act of singing and the elder gods of and techniques Middle-Earth build the universe through a symphony that incorporates Melkor's awful, rebellious song into the larger harmonies of the grand creator.

MUTATION : A change in a vowel sound caused by scales, another sound in the following syllable. In Old English and in characteristic "song a free poem?, Celtic languages like Irish Gaelic and measuring scales Welsh, the type of mutation called i -mutation was especially common. Another common type is the eclipsis mutation, a mutation in which a basic consonant sound is eclipsed or replaced by a stronger sound in a preceding word. For a chart of the most common Irish mutations as examples, click here. MYSTERY CULT : Unlike the official public cults dedicated to the Olympian gods in a free poem?, ancient Greece and Rome, a number of measuring in research religious practices involved chthonic deities (like Demeter) and imported foreign gods (Ishtar, Osiris, Mithras, etc.). The cults often shared features such as ritual washing or cleansing in which characteristic makes, the form of baptism, ritual christening or renaming, symbolically dying and being born again, etc. In Research. Possibly some may have offered the hope of an afterlife through metempsychosis (unlike standard Greek and Roman belief which emphasized a gloomy stay in the underworld). Characteristic Makes "song Of Myself" A Free Verse Poem?. Others--in the case of Dionysian worshippers--ritually slew the god and ate him or drank his blood symbolically in the form of wine. Measuring Scales. Regardless of specific varying details, these mystery cults shared a common element of secrecy--a distinction between the is micro, uninitiated outsider who did not share in their special blessings and the initiated cult member who did. Measuring Scales. The cult rituals were held to Pay Act of 1963, be so sacred that it was blasphemous to reveal them to outsiders, even to speak of them, describe them, or write them down in any way.

The rites were often held in inaccessible areas far from the measuring scales in research, local city--on mountain-tops or sea-shores or in catacombs. Pay Act. Some, like the mystery cult of Demeter, were open to any prospective members regardless of race, gender, or nationality as long as they spoke sufficient Greek to participate in the rituals. Others were open to certain professions, such as the cult of scales Mithras which only allowed soldiers to join after an initial baptism in bull's blood. Others were restricted by family (such as local versions of the Lykian wolf cult) or partly restricted by gender (such as the maenads of Dionysus). MYSTERY CYCLE : A collection of mystery plays in a single manuscript meant to be performed sequentially. See discusion under mystery play , below. MYSTERY NOVEL : A novel focused on suspense and solving a mystery--especially a murder, theft, kidnapping, or some other crime. The protagonist faces inexplicable events, threats, assaults, and unknown forces or antagonists. Conventionally, the hero is a keenly observant individual (such as Sherlock Holmes) and the police are depicted as incompetent or incapable of solving the premack principle, crime by themselves. Many of the works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Edgar Allan Poe, and Agatha Christie are mystery novels. Note that this term should not be confused with the medieval mystery play , below.

MYSTERY PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the scales, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the othello and techniques, crucifixion, and so on. Although the origins are uncertain, Mary Marshall and measuring other early scholars like E. K. Chambers (author of The Medieval Stage , 1903) suggested that the plays developed out of the Latin liturgy of the church, in othello and techniques, particular out of the Quem Quaeritis trope of Easter Day festivals. These early Easter Day dramatic performances took place in the churchyard. Later, these plays gradually became secular and scales used vernacular languages rather than Latin, and they gradually moved out of the churchyard and ecclesiastical control, becoming outdoor performances controlled by of myself" a free verse, the craftsmen in each city, according to this theory. Other scholars such as V. Scales. A. Kolve refute this idea, however. In any case, we do know that these religious plays were staged and performed by secular audiences. Typically, the various guilds in each city (such as the Carpenters' Guild, the Butchers' Guild, and so on) would sponsor and perform one play during the Corpus Christi festival, competing with each other for the most elaborate performance.

Each guild would mount the play on a large wagon with a curtained scaffold, with the federal, lower part of the wagon used as a dressing room. Between forty and fifty of these wagons (one for each guild) would move from spot to scales, spot in the city, so that spectators could watch several performances in a single day. Quotes And Techniques. The plays often involved elaborate representations of heaven and hell, mechanical devices to create special effects, and in research lavish costuming. The dramatizations became increasingly elaborate, and they show signs of developing psychological realism. The use of mystery in federal project, the name may originate in either the measuring, idea of spiritual mysteries, which were the focus of each play, or it may result from the Latin word misterium (a guild). Federal Theater Project. The mystery plays were an important precursor to the miracle plays and morality plays (see above) in medieval drama, and they set the scales, stage for is micro, the flowering of Renaissance drama that was to come with Shakespeare. Note that this term should not be confused with the Victorian and modern mystery novel , above. MYSTIC WRITERS : See discussion under mystics , below. MYSTICS : In the word's most general sense, mystics are religious visionaries who experience divine insights. In medieval scholarship, the term mystics or mystic writers is often used as a collective term for scales, a group of late fourteenth-century and early fifteenth-century eremites in England who wrote mystical works in Middle English and Latin. These include the anchoress Julian of Norwich, who wrote The Book of Showings ; the illiterate mystic Margery Kempe, who dictated her autobiography The Book of Margery Kempe to two scribes; Richard Rolle, the author of Love is theater project Love that Lasts for Aye; and scales the anonymous author of The Cloud of is micro Unknowing . On the continent, other famous mystics include Saint Teresa of Avila, Hildegard of Bingen, and Saint Francis of Assissi.

The mystic writers are marked by the use of vivid (and sometimes confusing) imagery , intense emotional pathos (in the case of scales Margery Kempe), paradox (in the case of Richard Rolle), and an intense desire to verbalize what is largely a nonverbal experience (in the case of nearly every mystic). Mystics--regardless of religious background--are often marked by an experience in which they perceive the universe as a unity or in which they feel a sense of being one with the divine. We see signs of this tendency in Julian of Norwich's vision of Christ's blood, which transforms into raindrops falling from the side of a roof and Cyril then in turn transforms into the scales on scales a herring, as if God's physical form were embodied in the entire universe. In a more general sense, the author of the characteristic of myself", book of Revelation in the Bible (commonly attributed to John of Patmos), and the poetry of William Blake are said to be visionary or mystical in nature, though scholars usually do not place them in the same category as the medieval mystics. On the measuring, other hand, much of religious poetry and writing is not particularly mystic in Cyril of Alexandria, its nature--as witnessed by C. S. Lewis' The Screwtape Letters or the poetry of measuring in research Milton and Gerard Manley Hopkins, all three of which are profoundly religious, but which do not necessarily represent a struggle to Cyril Essay, verbalize an intense religious vision in the same manner as a mystic writer. MYTH : While common English usage often equates myth with falsehood, scholars use the term slightly differently. Measuring Scales. A myth is Essay a traditional tale of deep cultural significance to a people in terms of etiology , eschatology , ritual practice, or models of appropriate and measuring inappropriate behavior. The myth often (but not always) deals with gods, supernatural beings, or ancestral heroes.

The culture creating or retelling the myth may or may not believe that the quotes and techniques, myth refers to literal or factual events, but it values the scales, mythic narrative regardless of its historical authenticity for its (conscious or unconscious) insights into the human condition or the model it provides for cultural behavior. See also folklore , legend , mythography , mythos , and mythology . MYTHOGRAPHY : The commentary, writings, and interpretations added to myths. Medieval writers, such as the four anonymous scribes collectively called the The Equal, Vatican Mythographers, would take Greek and Roman myths and write elaborate Christianized allegories to explain the meaning of the text. Another example of medieval mythography is the Ovid moralisée , a retelling of measuring scales Ovid's Metamorphoses in which French scribes interpret the legends as Christological commentary on the New Testament. MYTHOLOGY : A system of Pay Act of 1963 stories about the measuring in research, gods, often explicitly religious in nature, that possibly were once believed to project, be true by a specific cultural group, but may no longer be believed as literally true by in research, their descendents. Like religions everywhere, mythology often provided etiological and eschatological narratives (see above) to help explain why the world works the way it does, to provide a rationale for customs and observances, to premack principle, establish set rituals for measuring scales in research, sacred ceremonies, and to federal theater project, predict what happens to individuals after death. If the protagonist is a normal human rather than a supernatural being, the traditional story is measuring in research usually called a legend rather than a myth. Is Micro. If the story concerns supernatural beings who are not deities, but rather spirits, ghosts, fairies, and in research other creatures, it is usually called a folktale or fairy tale rather than a myth (see folklore , below). Samples of myths appear in the writings of Homer, Virgil, and principle definition Ovid.

MYTHOPOEIA (Greek myth-making or myth-poetry): (1) J. R. R. Tolkien's neologism for the deliberate creation of artificial myth , especially the scales in research, incorporation of premack principle definition traditional mythic archetypes into current fiction, whether that fiction be something akin to Virgil's propaganda in The Aeneid , the Romantic poetry of measuring in research William Blake, or the Essay, fantasy literature of C.S. Lewis or Tolkien himself. Tolkien connected mythopoeia with his theological doctrine of subcreation (q.v.) (2) Tolkien's poem of the same title, which he wrote in response to an argument he and the other Inklings had regarding C.S. Lewis' atheism shortly after September 19, 1931. C.S. Lewis initially felt he could not believe in a literal resurrection of Christ because the narrative pattern in the Gospels echoed much older myths about sacrificial dying gods, as detailed at length in Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough . He thus thought that the Gospel stories, though breathed through silver, were merely pretty lies. Tolkien's counter-argument was that, even though much older versions of the story existed before the scales, time of Christ, that did not matter.

Tolkien argued that, what God did in the incarnation and crucifixion was to take the older stories and make them literally true. Our older myths expressed man's deepest longest for redemption and resurrection, and that God chose to fulfill those ancient desires by giving Christ to premack principle, humanity--and thus the older myth could be made flesh and walk among us. MYTHOS : (1) Approaching the world through poetic narrative and traditional ritual rather than rational or logical thought. (2) The collected myths of a specific culture in a general sense rather than in reference to one particular narrative or character. For instance, we might refer specifically to the myth of Hercules fighting the Hydra, the measuring in research, myth of Kali drinking demons' blood, or the myth of the giant Ullikummis, but we would more generally say these tales belong to the Greek mythos , the Hindu mythos , or the Hittite mythos , respectively. Cf. mythology .

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SAP vs. Oracle: Which ERP implementation is right for scales you? Share this item with your network: Many CIOs looking to implement new ERP software will, no doubt, end up considering the premack principle industry's two biggest behemoths: SAP and Oracle. While both vendors are clear market share leaders and have very well-established product lines, the strengths, weaknesses, risks and measuring scales in research, product roadmaps of these two vendors couldn't be more different. According to Panorama Consulting's most recent Clash of the Titans report -- which summarizes quantitative results from hundreds of example, ERP implementations across the globe -- implementing the SAP ERP system, as compared with implementing the Oracle ERP system, produces very different results for companies.

For example, while the average Oracle customer spends less money on their implementation, the average SAP customer is able to scales, deliver an federal theater project, implementation timeline that is measuring scales closer to what was expected. This is just one of which characteristic a free verse, many examples we found when analyzing the results of the study. Given that there are so many tradeoffs and variables to consider, we thought it would be helpful to narrow the differences between the two products to five key areas: ERP implementation risk, implementation cost and duration, scalability, software functionality and customization, and cloud adoption. These areas underscore some of the biggest differences between the two products and scales in research, their future directions. Every executive is concerned about the makes "song a free verse risk of their ERP implementation, which is why they are constantly craving methods and tools to help mitigate the scales risk of ERP failure. Federal Project! Data from the measuring scales in research Clash of the Titans report confirmed that these are, indeed, rational concerns, with more SAP customers claiming their implementations were failures than Oracle's customers. Premack! Further, more SAP customers experienced some sort of material operational disruption at measuring scales the time of go-live, such as not being able to The Equal Pay Act of 1963, ship products or close the books.

While the research suggests that implementing SAP ERP carries a higher risk implementation profile than implementing Oracle ERP, every ERP customer experiences an elevated degree of scales, risk. This is why these two vendors have done a particularly good job of developing risk management mechanisms to address these concerns. For example, SAP's All-in-One product features best practices and preconfigurations for a number of project, different industry verticals, with the intent of reducing risk and accelerating implementations. Speaking of acceleration, Oracle has developed similar tools, with its line of scales in research, implementation accelerators and its User Productivity Kit, both of which were designed to make testing, training and other key implementation processes more efficient and The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay, effective. When considered as a percentage of a company's annual revenue (or budget, for public sector organizations), SAP is the higher cost option. The average SAP customer spends 4% of its annual revenue on its total cost of ownership, while the average Oracle customer spends 1.7%. This could be attributed to the breadth of functionality -- and, therefore, higher cost -- associated with SAP's software. It could also be an indication of large organizations botching their product implementations (think: Waste Management, The Hershey Company, Marin County and in research, other high-profile failures of recent years). However, cost is just part of the ERP implementation equation; CIOs and project teams are also concerned with implementation duration, which is where SAP excels.

While the average Oracle customer takes 22.5 months to implement the ERP software, the average SAP customer is able to which makes a free, do so in 4 months less. In Research! Again, this is project where SAP's preconfigurations and Oracle's accelerators come in measuring in research handy; in example addition to mitigating risk, as discussed above, they also help accelerate the implementation time frame. Most midmarket and larger organizations are concerned about the scalability of their ERP systems. After all, they are typically looking to their enterprise software to provide the operational backbone to measuring scales, help grow and scale their companies, often after years of fragmented and inconsistent business processes and systems. When it comes to and techniques, ERP system scalability for measuring scales SAP vs. Oracle, the two are fairly even, albeit for different reasons. Cyril Essay Example! In other words, it is safe to say that the world's largest organizations are able to measuring, scale their companies with either product, simply because most Fortune 500 organizations are already using products from either or both. However, the Essay degree of scalability for your particular organization depends on scales your needs. While Oracle has largely created more of a best-of-breed option with its various products -- such as E-Business Suite, Fusion, JD Edwards, Siebel and Hyperion -- SAP has largely developed its products from the ground up, creating more of a consistent and single system feel.

Organizations looking for scalability through consistency and standardization may find SAP more scalable, while those operating from a more decentralized model based on flexibility may be better suited for Oracle's suite of characteristic "song of myself" poem?, products. Software functionality and customization. At the end of the day, the technological backbone of your chosen ERP system -- whether SAP or Oracle -- doesn't really matter. Instead of a specific technology, enterprise buyers are investing in measuring functionality and improvements to "song verse, their business operations. When comparing SAP and measuring in research, Oracle software through this lens, it is clear that both vendors are committed to enhancing functionality. According to The Equal, the Clash of the Titans report, SAP customers generally realize more of their expected functionality and scales, business benefits than Oracle's customers.

On the flip side, Oracle's customers realize a faster payback than SAP users. Similarly, the dreaded C word of ERP -- customization -- is on every CIO's mind. Environment! As much as they may not want to think about it, ease of customization is a real need for organizations wanting to ensure a good fit between their ERP system and their operational needs. In the case of SAP and Oracle, customers of both vendors customize their software products quite a bit, which isn't, in and of itself, a bad thing. Scales In Research! As mentioned above, Oracle's best-of-breed solutions provide options for of Alexandria example project teams not wanting to measuring scales, customize their software, while SAP also offers customization and othello quotes and techniques, integration tools to make its software more flexible for its enterprise customers.

For many, gone are the days of measuring scales in research, big, robust, internal IT infrastructures hosting ERP software and other enterprise software applications. Instead, a growing number of organizations are migrating their products to the cloud -- whether that be through pure software as a service, or through traditional, single instance landscapes hosted by is micro environment, a third-party provider. When comparing SAP and Oracle in in research this area, Oracle has the Pay Act of 1963 Essay slight upper hand, with more of in research, its customers leveraging cloud options, and more of is micro, its cloud-based customers realizing more measurable business benefits than SAP's. SAP's Business One, once considered its most viable cloud-based offering for smaller businesses, is rumored to be on the chopping block, which may cause the company to measuring, lose further ground in this area. While both vendors have adopted cloud delivery models, data suggests Oracle has been more successful in this area. In-memory technology: SAP HANA vs. Characteristic "song Of Myself" A Free! Oracle. Over the past year, we have seen SAP and Oracle boast about how their in-memory technology systems are going to change the future of scales in research, ERP. SAP is making great headway with their in-memory database, as SAP HANA is differentiating itself as a highly functional, all-in-memory system.

While having a single platform can be a great advantage, it also has its drawbacks, such as the cost of deployment and compatibility limitations. In response to SAP's success with SAP HANA, Oracle has also made great strides with their new database in-memory system by differentiating their system as being functional and is micro environment, easy to integrate with existing compatible databases and applications. Measuring Scales In Research! While this is a cost advantage -- especially to those already running compatible databases -- this system may not provide the convenience and breadth of The Equal, a centralized system. Putting the measuring scales in research vast technical differences between these two systems aside, the business end result for what is micro the customer is measuring in research nearly the same. In-memory technology will allow customers to run essential ERP applications and analytics faster, ultimately providing for The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Essay greater productivity and measuring scales, insight. Which ERP system should you choose -- SAP vs. Oracle? While the above points of differentiation may not suggest that either vendor has a clear, across-the-board advantage over the other, it hopefully suggests some factors that potential ERP buyers can use to evaluate their software options.

Every organization is different, with different priorities and evaluation criteria, but one or more of the above areas may provide the context for you to compare these two products. Either product can likely get the job done, so the question becomes: Which will help get the job done best for your organization? About the author: Just how helpful is an SAP proof of concept anyways? Dig Deeper on SAP implementation and upgrades. Start preparing infrastructure now for SAP S/4HANA migration. Process mining software provides an inside view of SAP systems.

New report says users aren't eager for SAP S/4HANA migration. What core components does the SAP ERP system include? New report says users aren't eager for SAP S/4HANA migration. Jack Link's Beef Jerky feeds its HANA side with SAP HEC. S/4HANA Finance brings data consolidation to major insurer. SAP HANA SPS11 tackles analytics, IT and development. Start preparing infrastructure now for SAP S/4HANA migration. SAP Financial Supply Chain Management (SAP FIN-FSCM) Five SAP HANA implementation tips CIOs should know. Jack Link's Beef Jerky feeds its HANA side with SAP HEC.

How should I do a fit-gap analysis with the SAP landscape in quotes and techniques mind? What is the measuring difference between SAP components, modules and what is micro environment, applications? SAP VP explains why early S/4HANA migration is mostly on-premises. Start preparing infrastructure now for SAP S/4HANA migration. Process mining software provides an inside view of SAP systems. What core components does the SAP ERP system include? Designing a better SAP user experience key step toward digital world.

How can I address ERP problems caused by a rushed implementation? Two-tier ERP for SAP depends on measuring scales integration, corporate standards. Courtroom lessons from a failed SAP ERP implementation. What does S/4HANA Supply Chain offer production planning? Find more PRO+ content and other member only what is micro offers, here. When it comes to SAP vs. Oracle, which factors are most important for your organization in determining the best ERP software? By submitting you agree to receive email from TechTarget and its partners. Scales In Research! If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States.

Privacy. Please create a username to comment. ERP upgrade ushers in project mobile apps, upends paper processes. An ERP upgrade sent a manufacturer's existing company culture into a tailspin. Would paper processes or digitization prevail? Fears about Prism's long-term impact on measuring scales in research cloud declared overblown Forrester claims the fallout from the 2013 Prism surveillance scandal has had a minimal effect on the cloud industry. Finding the federal theater right distribution inventory management plan. In this expert tip, learn the different approaches toward perfecting distribution inventory management. Cloud-based database software adds new IT options for measuring scales in research users. The increasing adoption of cloud database services has captured the is micro environment attention of Oracle and Microsoft as they try to hold their . Advanced machine learning, database automation touted at OpenWorld.

Advanced machine learning is set to drive Oracle Database to success in the cloud, founder Larry Ellison claims. But the measuring scales upcoming. Oracle Universal Credits another shot directed at AWS. From 'Bring Your Own License' to Universal Credits, are the recent changes Oracle made to its cloud pricing model enough to . Big data systems up ante on othello and techniques data quality measures for measuring scales users. At the Strata conference in New York, IT managers detailed steps they're taking to improve data quality in their big data . Cloud database services get stronger push from Microsoft, Oracle. Using cloud databases is now more a matter of when than if at many companies.

There's also the question of how, as Microsoft, . Managing the big data ecosystem requires agility amid disruptions. In some regards, the theater project term big data management can be viewed as an oxymoron. In fact, oxymorons abound in this industry and. Five Alexa tricks to build better, more interactive skills. Amazon Echo allows businesses to connect with consumers via Alexa skills, but voice interactions come with different challenges . SAM Local enables offline development for serverless apps. Serverless computing is a draw for developers, though hybrid functionality has been limited. AWS' SAM Local now enables local . AWS root account access is scales in research a treasure for attackers. Don't fall victim to a hacked root account. Create and othello and techniques, work within new AWS accounts, and then apply the least amount of privilege. Machine learning in measuring scales the cloud forces hard big data decisions. Interest in implementing a cloud machine learning platform is up, but not every business is sold on the benefits of this emerging.

Natural language generation software making inroads in and techniques enterprises. Natural language generation tools are gradually gaining a foothold in enterprises, as businesses deploy emerging artificial . AI hype doesn't stop Trulia from using new analytics tools. Online real estate listing site Trulia is scales in research using artificial intelligence tools in meaningful ways, overcoming what many people see. How to best manage your martech stack: A QA with Scott Brinker. SearchCRM talks with ChiefMarTec co-founder Scott Brinker about the growing tech landscape, tips for controlling a martech stack . Dynamics 365 CRM can help drive the digital transformation process.

At Ignite, Microsoft predicts the future -- and it's one that centers on Dynamics 365, artificial intelligence and digital . New Dynamics 365 features take center stage during Ignite keynote. Dynamics 365 and the future direction of Microsoft products were given center stage during the Ignite keynote delivered by Satya . Content personalization fuses marketing automation, content management. As the standards get higher for digital experiences, content personalization engines could be the answer for faster and and techniques, better . Microsoft SharePoint use grows despite product maturity. SharePoint, introduced in 2001, isn't going anywhere, despite challenges from Box, Dropbox and measuring, other cloud rivals. Of 1963 Essay! A Microsoft . The Pipeline: Brand content marketing strategies from Digital Strategy Summit. Branded content and social media were the main talking points at the Digital Strategy Summit, a conference dedicated to content . Finance IT case study: Reporting secrets of Derek Rose.

CEO Sacha Rose says specialist reporting tools have saved the scales company thousands by avoiding unnecessary mistakes. WestJet turns to theater project, gamification to help its Oracle ERP users soar. WestJet's initial gamification project focuses on in research expense reporting. The Transformation of HR is definition Underway. HR is measuring scales being transformed while we watch.

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An Analysis of The Metamorphosis Essay Sample. Scales In Research. The Transformation of Gregors Family : An Analysis of The Metamorphosis In Franz Kafkas 1915 novella The Metamorphosis, is about betrayal and humiliation of an which makes "song of myself" poem?, individual by his family. Gregor Samsa is a young traveling salesman who spends his life working in order to support his family. One morning, he wakes up and finds himself transformed into measuring scales a gigantic vermin (Kafka 3).At first, he tries to remain calm and go back to bed. However, his transformed body prevents him from getting comfortable; he thinks it is because of his demanding job. When his family discovers about his change, his father is the first who shoves him back to his room.

From the text you can see that the which makes "song of myself" a free poem? existence of Gregors family rests solely on his shoulders, just as a queen bee relies on the worker bees. As the metamorphosis occurs, each member of the family has different reactions and deals differently with the change. Immediately, after Gregors transformation, we start to see how selfish his father, his mother, and his sister are. Gregor becomes dependable and his family goes back to work (like the in research worker bees). The Metamorphosis Of Gregors Father. Throughout the first chapter of The Metamorphosis, Gregor and his father shows a weak relation between each other. They are the is micro two characters that most directly contrast with each other. One critic, Ramon Mendoza G. argues is if everything narrated in the story is, according to Kafkas Einsinnigkeitsprinzip,merely the protagonists perspectival view of scales in research, things, then the bug is unquestionably the protagonists self-image (which is theater not just his fancy, but hard reality). The protagonist sees himself as what he has actually become, a dung beetle. The only one in the story who treats him, as one would expect an intrusive, gigantic dung beetle to be treated, is the father.

By this token alone, father and measuring scales son are placed in a special, indeed a truly unique antithetical relationship, where the extreme vehemence of the fathers rejection can be only the dialectical counterpart to the extreme vehemence of the son is yearning for him. If the despicable dung beetle is the The Equal Pay Act Essay self-image of the protagonist, the figure of the forbidding father is nothing other than the protagonists father-image. The negative father-image is forbidding and uncaring only to the degree, which is in direct proportion to the positive, loving, caring father the scales in research son had hoped for and expected (Mendoza 2011 The first evidence that Mr. Samsa is uncaring for his transformed son is in the following passage: At any event, Gregor had to tell himself that he could not keep up this running around for a long time, because whenever his father took a single step, he had to go through a large number of movements. Further running away was useless, for his father had decided to bombard him with apple. One apple, thrown weakly, grazed Gregors back and slid off harmlessly. But the very next one that came flying after it literally forced its way in to Gregors back (Kafka 29). Something about Gregors bombardment is significant in premack definition the story. The fact that, Gregor is the source of the familys financial stability instead of measuring scales in research, his father; Gregors father puts stress on their relationship and pressures him to do everything right so that the family can pay off the debt.

Now that Gregor#8217;s metamorphosis occurs, he is no longer capable of working and cannot bring money in the house. Othello And Techniques. Therefore, he is in research worthless in his father#8217;s eyes, as well as a huge deception. He doesn#8217;t even care how Gregor feels nor expects to see Gregor back to normal. It seems that he would rather see his son dead than having him as a bug. Kevin W. Sweeney quotes The transformation is at this stage psychologically incomplete, enabling Kafka to conduct a philosophical exploration of the nature of self, personhood and othello and techniques identity. (Sweeny, Kafka 140) This is scales absolutely true. Gregor forgets his own existence by trying to please other. He is the project one who is working, but not the measuring scales beneficiary. His father is the one who has access to Gregors labor which is the money.

After his transformation, he starts to federal, see things differently( like a relief). He does not seem to bother about his change, but his parents act contrastingly by putting him in measuring alienation. According to Kafka and premack principle existentialism, people have both an individual side and a side with the scales commitment of society. Premack Definition. It is our choices that must be in moderation of the two, to maintain balance. If a person chooses himself over society, he will lose the support of scales in research, society; however, if a person chooses society, he will lose his individuality. Gregor initially chooses society over himself, which in turn transformed him into the working drone he was. Premack. After his physical transformation, he is forced reassert his focus to himself, and society abandons him. Through Gregors plight, his family becomes cohesive and productive in society, each contributing through work and leisure.

Gregor learns to live for himself too late to become a whole person. Gregor begins to look for entertainment and fun in the form of a bug, a form that knows nothing but work. By ignoring the purpose of scales in research, being an insect, Gregor defeats the purpose of living in premack his new form of measuring scales, life, and in effect, dies. ( Gregorsphysical appearance has changed but not the inner self. He is an insect but his humanity never disappears fully. He still has his human emotions and Cyril of Alexandria Essay memories of measuring in research, his life as a human. Even though it#8217;s hard for of 1963 Essay him, he still tries to adapt to his new self or to find another role within his family, which is measuring scales sickened by him and embarrassed of his presence in the house. It takes him time to comprehend that he can no longer play his role in Pay Act of 1963 family and that he cant even go outside in his current state. Author, Jack Coulehan writes The Metamorphosis prevents the imminent rebellion of the measuring in research son against the father. He also states that some of principle definition, Gregor#8217;s changes are generated from within. I totally support the author because it is Gregors weakness that leads to his metamorphosis.

His family exploits that weakness and sees his predicament as an scales, affront to them (after all, they expect Gregor to support the family). Gregor has become strong as a result of characteristic makes "song of myself", his father#8217;s failure. He cripples his father#8217;s self-esteem and takes over the father#8217;s position in the family. Measuring Scales. After the catastrophe, the same sequence takes place in reverse: the son becomes weak, and what the father kills him. Change in Gregor Mother. Gregor#8217;s mother is portrayed as a sick person in measuring in research the story. Quotes And Techniques. Her sons transformation forces her to go to work to make money for the family.

Her relation to Gregor is one of dutiful and loving mother, but her tendency to faint upon seeing him is not conducive to helping him. After begging to see Gregor, she is finally allowed in his room, but faints as soon as he appears. Mrs. Samsa is the only person who hopes that one day her son will return to his normal shape. Scales. Also, she proceeds to save Gregor from which "song of myself" verse, his father#8217;s apple-throwing wrath. Yet, since Mrs. Samsa is extremely quiet and scales in research always does what she is told, her opinions on family affairs remain unknown and her personality is subsumed in her husband#8217;s authority. How Gregors Sister Change. Traditionally, critics of Metamorphosis have underplayed the fact that the story is about not only Gregors but also his familys and, especially, Gretes metamorphosis(Straus). Premack Principle. Nina P. Straus also states Yet it is mainly Grete, woman, daughter, sister, on whom the social and psychoanalytic resonances of the text depend.

It is she who will ironically blossom as her brother deteriorates. (Straus, Kafka 127) I totally agree with the author. Gregors transformation also lead to his familys change, especially his sister, Grete. As you can see in the beginning of the story, she is the only person who shows that she really cares for scales in research her brother. Since the mother cannot see Gregor in his present state; Grete takes care of her brother by bringing him food, cleaning and keeping his room tidy. As the story develops, she finds a job a cashier and starts to neglect his brother. She no longer notices whether he has eaten or not, and finally she allows Gregors room to become the junk room of the house. As her brother deteriorates, Grete is no longer considered herself as a seventeen years old girl; She becomes a woman. Besides her new job, she now finds other interests and premack principle pursuits in life. Thus, Gregor is no longer important to her.

She takes Gregors place by providing money in the house. She becomes the one who has control of scales in research, everything( the boss). Her parents has to obey and do what she asks. Her role in the story is extremely important. Characteristic Makes Of Myself" Verse. She is the person who is taking care of Gregor, and later on, she becomes the person who pronounces her brothers death sentence. To conclude, there is a good moral lesson in in research the story. Cyril Of Alexandria Example. Gregors state before he changes into a beetle contrasts with his family after they start working.

The lesson is we should never work like bugs for others, while they enjoy life to the fullest. That is what happens to measuring in research, Gregor, he forgets his owns needs, which leads him to lose his identity. At the end of the story, we see how Gregors family contrast to which "song, what they were in the beginning. Measuring In Research. In a way, Gregors transformation and death lead to The Equal Pay Act of 1963, his family revival. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order An Analysis of The Metamorphosis essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for An Analysis of The Metamorphosis Franz Kafkas use of social commentary in the novella The Metamorphosis illuminates destructive effects of scales in research, alienation through Gregors life before and after his transformation into a monstrous vermin and the#8230; #8221;The Metamorphosis#8221; by Franz Kafka and #8221;The Great Gatsty#8221; by F.Scott Fitzgerald. The novella The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, has themes and characters which parallel some of those in The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the main themes in#8230; Comparison of #8220;The Death of Ivan Ilych#8221; and #8220;Metamorphosis#8221; Ivan Ilych#8217;s death was like Gregor#8217;s Metamorphosis; in that, they were both powerful introductions to the stories. In both stories the character#8217;s Gregor and othello and techniques Ivan Ilych are introduced in measuring scales in research a#8230; A Psychoanalytical Criticism of The Metamorphosis.

The deeper meaning of federal, The Metamorphosis, by Frank Kafka, can be interpreted in many ways depending on critical theory is used to examine it. From a feminist criticism, one can#8230; The Loss of Humanity Kafka#8217;s #8220;The Metamorphosis#8221; Language forms the basis of measuring scales in research, civilization. Without language there can be no memory, no culture, certainly nothing as complex as social structure or humanity. In Franz Kafka#8217;s, #8220;The Metamorphosis#8221; the#8230; ?A Franz Kafka: The Metamorphosis A Franz Kafka: The Metamorphosis An Analysis Franz Kafka is of Alexandria Essay example considered to be one of the most important and measuring scales in research influential writers of the premack 20th century. His works, most of#8230;

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ezra maize resume Forum Class for July 18, 2004. SHORT COMMENTARY ON EZRA. The First Return and Rebuilding under Zerubbabel (chaps. 1-6)

These chapters, besides telling the history of the period, must also have encouraged Ezra's original readers in their temple worship. As they read about the rebuilding process they would have been made aware of the great personal sacrifices the Jews had made in constructing the temple. This would have encouraged them to participate more fully in the temple activities and to be closely related to God as were some of their forefathers. A. The proclamation of Cyrus (1:1-4) 1:1. Cyrus, the king of the extensive Persian realm (see the scales in research map The Persian Empire), drafted a proclamation that allowed the Israelites to return to their land and rebuild their temple. Cyrus made the proclamation in his first year (538 B.C.).

This was the first year of his reign over Babylon, but he had been king over other territories for more than 20 years. He had been in power since 559 when he became the king of Anshan. Then he became king of Medo-Persia about characteristic poem? 550 B.C. He conquered Babylon in October 539, and became the in research king of Babylon, a title of honor denoting the highest position in the civilized world. As is evidenced from premack principle definition, Cyrus' attitude concerning the scales in research God of othello and techniques Israel (whom he did not worship) he was not a true believer in Yahweh. Measuring Scales In Research. Cyrus' concern was to establish strong buffer states around his empire which would be loyal to him.

Also by having his subject peoples resettled in their own countries he hoped to have the gods in various parts of makes of myself" poem? his empire praying for him to his gods Bel and Nebo. The famous Cyrus Cylinder (538 B.C.), which records his capture of Babylon and his program of repatriating his subject peoples in their homelands, includes this statement: May all the gods whom I have resettled in their sacred cities daily ask Bel and Nebo for a long life for me. The fulfilling of Jeremiah's words (Jer. 29:10; cf. Jer.

25:11-12) was totally God's doing. Seventy years of Jewish captivity in scales, Babylon were about to end. The first deportation of Jews to Babylon was in 605 B.C. Cyrus' decree in 538 was 67 years later. Premack. By the time the people returned and measuring scales built the altar in 536, 70 years were almost up. The edict came about because the LORD moved the which of myself" poem? heart of Cyrus. The Hebrew words translated moved the heart (also trans. stirred [up] the measuring scales spirit) were a favorite expression of biblical writers in the post-exilic period (Ezra 1:5; 1 Chron. 5:26; 2 Chron. 21:16, aroused; 36:22; Jer.

51:11; Hag. 1:14). This shows the sovereign hand of The Equal God behind the events of history. 1:2-3. Cyrus said that Yahweh, the God of heaven, had appointed him to build a temple. . . at Jerusalem. Part of measuring in research this decree is recorded in 2 Chronicles 36:23. Also the decree was filed in Ecbatana, where Darius I found it about 520-518 B.C. (Ezra 6:1-5). God had promised the Jewish remnant that He would raise up Cyrus as His servant to restore the fortunes of His people (Isa. 44:28; 45:1, 13). Under the Holy Spirit's guidance, the Prophet Isaiah referred to which characteristic makes of myself" a free verse poem? Cyrus by name about 150 years before the king made his decree.

Josephus wrote that Cyrus was shown the prophecy in Isaiah 44:28 and wanted to fulfill it (The Antiquities of the measuring scales Jews 11.1.1). The God of heaven is a title of God used 9 times in Ezra (1:2; 5:11-12; 6:9-10; 7:12, 21. 23 (twice--more than in any other Bible book--and 10 times in other exilic and post-exilic books (2 Chron. 36:23; Neh. What Is Micro Environment. 1:4-5; 2:4, 20; Dan. 2:18-19, 28, 37. 44). Elsewhere in the Old Testament that phrase occurs only four times (Gen. Measuring. 24:3. 7; Ps.

136:26; Jonah 1:9). Environment. It points to God's sovereignty. He is the One who made heaven (Gen. 14:19, 22; 2 Chron. 2:12; Ps. 115:15), who is in heaven (Deut. Scales In Research. 4:39; 1 Kings 8:30, 39, 43, 49; Eccl. 5:2), and who reigns from His throne in heaven (lsa. 66:1).

Though Cyrus was a monarch over an extensive empire, Yahweh is federal project far greater for He rules from heaven. The emphasis in Ezra 1:2-3 on the temple sets the tone for this and measuring scales other post-exilic books. The temple was of utmost importance in what is micro, the life of the scales in research people of Israel. Without the temple there could be no sacrificial system, which was the nation's lifeblood in its relationship to federal theater God. Measuring Scales. The God of heaven (v.

2) is also the God of Israel who Cyrus said was in Jerusalem. 1:4. Cyrus' edict also instructed the returnees' neighbors in Persia to federal theater give them the equivalent of money (silver and measuring in research gold), material goods. . Essay. . livestock, and freewill offerings (cf. v. 6). The freewill offerings were for the temple and the other gifts were for the people themselves. This is scales in research reminiscent of the Exodus from Egypt when God miraculously took the nation out of bondage and had the Egyptians aid them with gifts of othello silver, gold, and measuring scales in research clothing (Ex. 3:22; 11:2; 12:35). Now God was effecting a new Exodus, again bringing His people who had been in bondage back into the land of promise, much as He had done under Moses and federal theater project Joshua. The people had been in measuring scales in research, bondage to quotes Babylon because of their failure to keep their covenantal obligations, which Moses had given them during the first Exodus. Once more God was miraculously working in the life of the nation.

B. The reaction of the Israelites (1:5-11) 1:5-11. The religious leaders (priests and Levites) along with the heads of the two tribes Judah and Benjamin) that had been taken into exile by the Babylonians spearheaded the scales return to Israel to rebuild the temple, the house of the quotes and techniques LORD. The Jews who returned totaled 49,897 (2:64-65). Measuring. The neighbors of the of Alexandria example returnees obeyed the in research king's decree by premack, contributing to the effort (1:6). Scales In Research. Even Cyrus contributed to the return by Essay, giving back the articles belonging to the temple of the LORD. These were the dishes. . Measuring In Research. . pans. . . bowls, and other articles (vv.

9- 10) Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the Jerusalem temple in 605 B.C. (Dan. 1 :2), in 597 B.C. (2 Kings 24: 13), and in which characteristic a free verse, 586 B.C. (2 Kings 25:14-15; Jer. 27:16; 52:18-19; cf. Ezra 5:14; 6:5; Dan. Measuring In Research. 5:2-3) and Cyril of Alexandria example placed in a temple in scales, Babylon, perhaps the Esagila temple built in honor of the god Marduk. Mithredath is a Persian name, and the word for treasurer ( gizbar ) is also Persian. In Ezra 1:9-10 the Pay Act of 1963 articles total 2,499 but in verse 11 the total number of in research gold and silver items was 5,400.

Why the project difference? Surely Ezra would not be so foolish as to make a major mistake such as that when he so carefully wrote the in research rest of the book under the Holy Spirit's inspiration. Even if one were to assume (as do many critics) that a redactor brought together in verses 9-11 two variant traditions, it would seem likely that Ezra would try to reconcile them in quotes and techniques, some way. It seems better to in research suppose Ezra first listed some of the items, perhaps the bigger and more valuable ones (vv. 9-10), then referred to the total number of items both the larger and more valuable and the smaller and less significant (v. 11). Another problem pertains to Sheshbazzar (v.

11), who was called the prince of Judah (v. 8). Three views about his identity are suggested: (I) Some feel that Sheshbazzar was a Persian name for Zerubbabel. What Is Micro. Both are said to measuring have laid the foundation of the temple (3:8-10; 5:16). Zerubbabel, which means begotten in Babel, was a grandson of characteristic "song a free verse poem? Jehoiachin (I Chron. 3:17-19), who had been deported to measuring in research Babylon but had been released from confinement (2 Kings 25:27-30). Zerubbabel's relationship to Jehoiachin would explain the title the prince of Judah. However, it would seem strange that Zerubbabel would have a second pagan name rather than having one name that reflected Yahweh worship (Sheshbazzar being a pagan deity). If Zerubbabel and Sheshbazzar were two names of the same person, it is federal project strange that he was never again referred to by the name Sheshbazzar except in Ezra 5:15-16.

(2) A second view is that this man was a Jew who was appointed governor by measuring, Cyrus but who died shortly after arriving in Palestine and was replaced by Zerubbabel. Though plausible, no solid evidence exists for this view. (3) A third view is that Sheshbazzar was the Shenazzar in 1 Chronicles 3:17, and therefore was Zerubbabel's uncle. (4) A fourth view is that Sheshbazzar was a Persian official who was sent to oversee the use of the king's money and to make Sure the king's wishes were carried out. It has been suggested that because Sheshbazzar was a Persian official the The Equal Pay Act returnees later referred to him (Ezra 5:15-16) to Support their claim of legitimacy for their building project. (See comments on 5:13-16.)

C. The list of people who returned (chap. 2) I. THE LIST RECORDED (2:1-63) 2:1-63. The list is in research divided into several parts. All of the people of the province (i.e., of Judah) returned to their hometowns (v. 1).

Ezra first recorded the 11 civil and religious leaders who were prominent (v. 2). Jeshua was the high priest (3:2); his name is spelled Joshua in the Books of premack principle definition Haggai and Zechariah. He was a grandson of Seraiah (cf. 1 Chron. 6:14 with Hag. 1:1), a priest whom Nebuchadnezzar killed at measuring in research, Riblah (2 Kings 25:18-21). The Nehemiah in Ezra 2:2 was not the Nehemiah who returned to Jerusalem more than 90 years later, 444 B.C. Nor was the Mordecai here Esther's cousin (Es. 2:5-7), who lived in Susa about 60 years after the Jews' first return. Nehemiah 7:7 records 12 names rather than 11 (cf.

Ezra 2:2). (Three names have different spellings. "song Of Myself" Verse. In verse 2 Seraiah, Reelaiah, and Rehum are probably the same persons as Azariah, Raamiah, and Nehum, respectively, in Neh. 7:7.) Nahamani's name, not in measuring scales in research, Ezra's list, may have been dropped out by Cyril Essay, an early scribal error in the copying of the original manuscripts. It is likely that 12 men would have originally been listed as symbolic heads of the 12-tribe nation (cf. 12 male goats offered for the 12 tribes of measuring scales in research Israel, Ezra 6:17). Then Ezra listed people by their 18 families and clans, totaling 15,604 (2:3-20). Next came a listing of inhabitants (totaling 8,540) from 21 towns and villages (vv.

21-35). Then the priests (4,289 of them) were listed (vv. 36-39), followed by 341 Levites which included singers and gatekeepers (vv. Example. 40-42). The temple servants (vv. 43-54) and descendants of the measuring royal servants (vv. 55-58) totaled 392. The 652 returnees who could not clearly trace their ancestry (vv. 59-63) were listed last. The priests who could not delineate their genealogies were not allowed by the governor ( tirsata , a Persian term, possibly a reference to of Alexandria Sheshbazzar [cf. Measuring Scales In Research. comments on 1:8] or to Zerubbabel) to eat. . . the most sacred food till a priest was ministering with the what Urim and Thummim. The Urim and Thummim were parts of the high priest's breastplate, probably two stones used in Some way in determining God's will (cf.

Ex. 28:30; Lev. 8:8; Num. 27:21; Deut. 33:8; Sam. 28:6; Neh. 7:65).

Though such a list of names and locations seems unnecessary to some modern readers, it would have been of great encouragement to the original readers as they saw their own families and towns represented. 2. Measuring Scales. THE TOTAL NUMBERS GIVEN (2:64-67) 2:64-67. When added together the numbers in verses 2-42, 58, and 60 which list the returnees come to 29,829 (including the 11 prominent men listed in v. 2). However, the total in verses 64-65--the whole company--is 49,897. The larger number may include women and children.

It may also include Jews from the 10 Northern tribes who might have joined the remnant of the two Southern tribes of what is micro environment Judah and Benjamin (cf. 1:5). It may also have included the priests who could not delineate their genealogies (2:61-62). Ezra's grand total of 49,897 is very close to scales Nehemiah's total of 49,942 (Neh. 7:66-67). Nehemiah's extra 45 people are in the singers (Ezra had 200 but Nehemiah referred to 245). This may have been a scribal error, an error not in the original manuscripts but in the numerous copyings of the text in its transmission. A scribe, in copying Nehemiah 7:67, may have inadvertently picked up the what is micro environment 245 in verse 68, in reference to mules, and measuring in research inserted that number for the 200 singers. This kind of federal error may also account for scales, several variations in the other numbers in these lists. (For further discussion see the comments on Neh. 7. Even the animals were counted--a total of 8,136, most of them donkeys, commonly used for riding (Ezra 2:66-67). Definition. The journey from Babylon to Israel was about 900 miles and took about four months (cf.

7:8-9), but Ezra did not state how long the return trip took. His focus was not on the people's hardships but on measuring in research their task of federal rebuilding the temple. 3. Scales. THE RESTORATION BEGUN (2:68-70) 2:68-69. When the returnees arrived back in Palestine at the house of the LORD (i.e., at its location site) they gave of their possessions according to their ability. They gave large amounts of The Equal Pay Act of 1963 money and material to begin the temple building project. Measuring Scales In Research. The list of precious metals and materials differs from the corresponding list in Nehemiah 7:70-72. Ezra's 61,000 drachmas (darics) of gold are 41,000 in Nehemiah. Ezra recorded 5,000 minas of silver while Nehemiah referred to The Equal 4,200. Ezra mentioned 100 priestly garments whereas Nehemiah recorded 597.

These differences were probably early scribal errors. 2:70. The people then settled in their ancestors' towns and villages. D. The rebuilding of the temple (3:1-6:15) 1. THE ALTAR AND THE FOUNDATION REBUILT (CHAP. 3) 3:1-2. The first task facing the people was the measuring scales rebuilding of the altar of burnt offering, directly east of where the temple building itself would be located. This was essential for reestablishing the sacrificial system which set these people apart as a nation and which was used by God as a means for atoning for their sins.

The seventh month may refer to the seventh month after the people left Babylon or to the seventh month after they arrived in Jerusalem. This was in September-October (see the chart Calendar in makes a free verse, Israel near Ex. 12). In years past, the seventh month had been a great month religiously for Israel. Three religious festivals were held in the seventh month: the Feast of Trumpets on the 1st day (Lev. 23:23-25), the Day of Atonement on the 10th day (Lev. 23:26-32), and measuring the Feast of Tabernacles on days 15-21 (Lev. 23:33-36, 39-43; Num. 29:12-39; cf. Ezra 3:4). The words: The people assembled as one man, suggest they all agreed that the building project must begin.

The men who headed up the constructing of the altar were Jeshua, the religious leader (a descendant of Aaron), and Zerubbabel, the civil leader (a descendant of David), along with fellow priests (other descendants of Aaron) and associates (other descendants of David). They built the altar so that they could offer sacrifices in accordance with what was written in the Law of Moses. It was imperative that the returnees would come back to the Mosaic Covenant. Because their forefathers had left the Essay covenant, the nation had been driven into Captivity. The former exiles did not want to measuring scales in research make that same mistake. 3:3-6.

Even though the returnees had fear of the peoples around them, foreigners who had been deported by the Assyrian Empire into Palestine, they built the altar, and offered burnt offerings on it (cf. Lev. 1; 6:8-13), starting on the first day of the, . Othello Quotes. . month (Ezra 3:6). These were the scales in research first sacrifices made there in 50 years--since 586 B.C. Theater. when the temple was torn down. Other sacrifices were offered in connection with all the appointed feasts, including, for measuring in research, example, the Feast of Tabernacles on days 15-21 of that seventh month (cf. Lev. 23:33-36,39-43; Num.

29:12-39). The sacrifices showed that the people wanted to be responsive to the Law of is micro environment God. 3:7-9. There was a period of preparation for building the scales temple foundation for the work did not begin till the second month of the second year after their arrival (May-June 536. exactly 70 years after the. first deportation in 605). Why this delay of seven months after the premack altar was built? Because they had to get organized and secure the building materials. The wood (cedar logs) came from Lebanon. shipped along the coast to Joppa and then carried overland to Jerusalem (see the map The Persian Empire near 1:1).

Lebanon was well known for its cedar forests and its fine woodworkers. For the measuring first temple. 430 years earlier (in 966 B.C.), Solomon had received much of his building materials (cedar, pine, and algum logs) and theater craftsmen from measuring scales, Lebanon (I Kings 5:1-10,18; 2 Chron. 2:1-16). Solomon began his project in the second month (May-June; I Kings 6:1), the same month this rebuilding began under Zerubbabel. Since Tyre and Sidon in Lebanon were under the of Alexandria Essay example Persian Empire. Cyrus had to authorize this transaction (cf. Ezra 6:3-4), in which the logs, as in Solomon's time. were paid for by money. . . food. . . drink. and oil. Zerubbabel appointed the Levites as supervisors of the construction project.

Centuries earlier Levites were involved in the tabernacle construction (Ex. 38:21) and in caring for and transporting it (Num. 1:50-51; 3:21-37). Now they were involved in measuring, the temple construction. Three Levite groups of supervisors were mentioned (Ezra 3:9)--Jeshua and his family, Kadmiel (cf.

2:40) and his family, and the family of Henadad. 3:10-11. Nothing is mentioned about the actual process of is micro environment laying the temple foundation or the length of time involved. This is because the focus was on the results of this project on that community of people who had braved the measuring scales rugged conditions. They were following the command of Cyrus but, more importantly. they were following the command of their God with whom they were in covenant. As the foundation. . . was laid the theater project people were careful to follow in the traditions of their forefathers who had been rightly related to God under the Mosaic Covenant. As the priests. . . and the Levites led the dedication service for the temple's foundations, they did the things that were prescribed by David. The order followed was the same as when David brought the measuring scales in research ark to Jerusalem. At that time priests blew trumpets and Asaph sounded cymbals (I Chron.

16:5-6). Here the priests blew trumpets and sons (descendants) of Asaph played the cymbals. Principle. The order was also similar to the time when the ark was brought to the temple in Solomon's day (2 Chron. In Research. 5:12-13), when Asaph and others played cymbals, harps, and lyres; and the priests blew trumpets. In this rebuilding service the priests and Pay Act Levites sang, He is good; His love to Israel endures forever, words almost identical to the song of praise in measuring scales, 2 Chronicles 5:13 (cf. Ps. 136:1). This song of praise is highly significant for by it the religious leaders were acknowledging that Yahweh had again established His loving protection over the nation. The word love ( hesed ) is God's covenantal loyal love which exists forever with His people Israel. Now that the temple worship was being reestablished, the what is micro environment people again recognized the commitment of God's unending covenantal love. 3:12-13.

In contrast with the joy many people experienced on that occasion, a few of the older priests and Levites and family heads, who had seen the former temple (destroyed 50 years earlier in 586 B.C.) were discouraged. Perhaps they contrasted the roughness of the current project with the grandeur of the Solomonic temple. Sixteen years later (in 520 B.C.) the same emotion of measuring discouragement again hit the builders of the temple (Hag. 2:1-9). The two sounds, the joy and the weeping (from sadness), mingled together and were so loud that they were heard far away. 2. THE REBUILDING OPPOSED (4:1-6:12) Ezra did not record all the events in Cyril Essay, those 21 years (from 536) till the temple was finished (in 515). That is because he was making a theological point that the temple of the Lord was completed despite opposition that might have stopped any other project.

The temple was the basis for the post-exilic community's fellowship with God. Not till the temple was built could the people really live in accord with the covenant. Ezra's account of this interim period differs in tone from Haggai's account of opposition (from 520 to 518). Ezra did not dwell on the sinful condition of the people as they lived in the land as did Haggai (Hag. Measuring In Research. I). Ezra's account focused on external pressures from the "song of myself" a free poem? surrounding peoples, whereas Haggai focused on the internal attitudes of the people who valued material possessions above spiritual things (Hag. 1:4.

6). a. Measuring In Research. Attempts of enemies to stop the building (4:1-5) 4:1-2. The enemies used two methods of opposition to try to keep the temple from being built. First they offered to help in the construction process, thereby hoping to infiltrate the ranks and sidetrack the Cyril of Alexandria Essay building project. When that did not work, they frightened the builders (perhaps with threats on their lives) and even hired counselors to frustrate them (vv. 4-5).

The enemies of Judah and Benjamin refer to the people living in Palestine since the time of the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 722 B.C. The Assyrian Empire, which conquered the 10 Northern tribes, deported some of the people away to Assyria and brought in other peoples to intermarry (2 Kings 17:23-24). This tactic prevented strong nationalistic uprisings in the conquered lands. The enemies (called the measuring peoples around them, Ezra 4:4) were the descendants of these mixed peoples and the forefathers of the New Testament Samaritans. These people in Ezra's day claimed that they worshiped the same God, that is, Yahweh, the God of Israel. But they had a synergistic form of worship; they worshiped both Yahweh and others (2 Kings 17:29, 32, 34, 41). Therefore their statement (Ezra 4:2) was not fully accurate and was apparently made to theater project mislead the leadership of the returned band. In Research. Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who brought us here, was the Assyrian mono arch who aggressively pursued the policy of partial deportation and to whose reign these enemies could trace their ancestry in Palestine. Esarhaddon, a son of Sennacherib, ruled from 681 to 669 B.C.

Some people, however, had been displaced into Samaria earlier by the Assyrian kings Sargon II (722-705) and Sennacherib (705-705). Judah and Benjamin's enemies were also appealing on the basis of the fact that they, like the Jews, were a displaced people, having been brought in from the outside. In a sense they were downplaying the nation of Israel's roots in the land. 4:3-5. Othello And Techniques. The response by the govern. mental side (Zerubbabel) and the religious side (Jeshua) was decisive and immediate. They had two reasons for not wanting to be sidetracked by this offer of help. First, the temple was for the LORD the God of Israel, who was not the god these people worshiped.

Second, they had been commissioned by King Cyrus himself to undertake the building project and therefore had every right to carry it out on their own. Scales. This rebuff brought on the second form of opposition. As already stated, the enemies tried to discourage the workers and make them afraid, This policy of harassment continued on till the reign of Darius, king of Persia, who ruled from what environment, 521 to 486. It was during his reign, in 515, that the temple was completed. The account of the building program under Darius is scales resumed in what is micro environment, Ezra 4:24 after a parenthesis in verses 623. b. Parenthetical letters (4:6-23) These letters to and from Artaxerxes are out of place chronologically, but they follow here logically to show that the opposition Ezra had begun to describe (vv. 1-5) continued on for many years--to 485 B.C., the scales in research year Xerxes began to reign (v. 6) and on into the days of Artaxerxes (464-424). Artaxerxes was the king who was reigning during the events recorded in chapters 7-10. For the names and dates of the Persian kings in premack principle definition, the post-exilic period, see the chart.

Thus the letters may have been written at the time of Ezra's return (458 B.C.). Therefore the letters were written nearly 80 years later than the account into which they were placed. Ezra was not being deceptive by placing the scales letters here in his book since he clearly dated them by the ruler under which they were written. Anyone familiar with the history of quotes that part of the world at that time (as were the inhabitants of Israel when the Book of Ezra was written) would have clearly seen what Ezra was logically doing. 4:6. Opposition continued during the time of Xerxes, Xerxes, also known as Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther, ruled from 485 to 465.

Ezra recorded nothing of the nature or results of the accusation except that it apparently kept the Israelites from working on building projects. This verbal opposition in Xerxes' reign is mentioned nowhere else in the Bible. Measuring In Research. This verse sets the stage for the following letter which was written in the reign of Persia's next king. 4:7. Opposition against the Jews was strong during the time of Artaxerxes. The focus of the narrative is on two letters written during his reign (464-424). Because the enemies' letter and the king's reply brought the work on the city walls and foundations to a halt, it seems logical that the letter was written before the return of Nehemiah, for under Nehemiah the building projects resumed and were completed. Though the letter was composed by people who spoke a northwest Semitic dialect (like Hebrew) it was written in the Aramaic language (the trade language of the day).

It was in square Aramaic script rather than in the slanted Hebrew type of script or in cuneiform signs. Ezra 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26 are in which characteristic makes verse, Aramaic. Perhaps Bishlam, Mithredath, and Tabeel were men from Samaria. 4:8-10, Rehum the scales in research commanding officer and othello and techniques Shimshai the secretary were probably Persians who were persuaded to write the letter. In their introduction Rehum and Shimshai tried to point out to King Artaxerxes that the participants in this opposition were from various parts of the world. Their complaint was not merely from a single isolated group. Judges and officials from various parts of the Persian Empire and people who had been deported to Samaria under the reign of the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal 200 years earlier were opposed to the work. Ashurbanipal (669-626) continued the deporting done by his father Esarhaddon (4:2). 4:11-16. The writers of the letter (cf. This is measuring in research a copy of the letter, v. 23; 5:6; 7:11) identified with the Persian king by noting that they were his servants.

The letter itself is recorded in 4:12-16. The opponents noted that the Jews were restoring the walls and repairing the foundations, Their opposition was obviously not against the rebuilding of the temple, for it had been completed in 515 B.C. The Equal. The. opposition was against an attempt to begin rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem which the opponents called that rebellious and measuring scales in research wicked city (cf. vv. 15, 19). The apparent reason for the complaint was that if the city was allowed to be fortified, then Jerusalem and the territory which Jerusalem would control would no longer pay taxes or tribute money to the crown. This would dishonor the king. Therefore the othello quotes complainers felt it was their patriotic duty to tell the king what was happening so that he could search the records and see that Jerusalem was a rebellious city, which is measuring scales in research why it was destroyed. The letter added that if the city of Jerusalem was fortified then the Jews would take back all the territory they had previously occupied and the Persian king would have no territory left in premack definition, Trans-Euphrates.

They claimed he would lose a huge portion of scales his empire. 4:17-23. In his reply the king actually strengthened the position of the Israelites by leaving open the is micro environment possibility that their work might resume later by his permission. This, of course, did happen under the leadership of Nehemiah. The king did search the archives and found that Jerusalem had been powerful at one time. What an encouragement this must have been to Ezra's original readers to recall the years of David and Solomon and to know that even a pagan king acknowledged the sovereignty of their empire centered at Jerusalem. The king commanded that the building projects stop. . . until I so order, This was the same king who later (444 B.C.) changed this edict and allowed Nehemiah to return and rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 2:1.9). However, the immediate result was a forced cessation of the building activity because the enemies used force to back up a legal document from the Persian king.

c. The result of the measuring scales opposition (4:24) 4:24. The narrative now picks up where it left off after verse 5 (vv. 6-23 are a lengthy parenthesis). The result of the opposition during Cyrus' reign was that work on the temple was suspended until the second year of. . . Darius (520 B.C.), some 18 years after the makes verse poem? people had returned to the 'and for the purpose of rebuilding the measuring scales in research house of God.

d. Premack Principle Definition. The continuation of the work (5:1-6:12) This section informs the readers of certain historical events under the in research reign of Darius. and also helps its readers understand that the temple rebuilding was sovereignly ordained by and techniques, God and carried out through pagan rulers, this time Darius I (521-486). 5:1-2. The work on the temple had been stopped (4:1-5, 24), from 535 to scales 520 B.C. Federal Project. Now under the influence of two important prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, it was resumed. The preaching of these two men is recorded in the biblical books bearing their respective names. Measuring Scales In Research. Haggai prophesied from August to December 520 B.C., and Zechariah prophesied for two years beginning in characteristic makes a free, October-November 520. They were helping by exhorting and encouraging (cf. 6:14; Hag. 1:8; 2:4; Zech. In Research. 4:7-9).

They were vitally concerned with the building of the temple because they realized that their nation could never fulfill the obligations of the Mosaic Covenant till the temple worship was reinstated. Both of theater project these prophets placed the blame for the hard times the nation experienced during this period on the people's lack of obedience in not rebuilding the temple. However, Ezra did not deal with that question in his book. He stressed the outside opposition which was also a factor in slowing the work. Measuring Scales In Research. The building process itself was spearheaded by Zerubbabel and Jeshua, the evil and religious leaders. respectively. 5:3-5. But as soon as the work was resumed, another effort (cf. 4:1-5) was made to The Equal of 1963 Essay stop it.

Israel's leaders came into direct conflict with the duly established local authorities who were responsible to the Persian crown. In a Babylonian record dated 502 B.C. the name Tattenai and his office as governor of Trans-Euphrates are mentioned. Syria-Palestine was under him. an area including but much larger than Israel. Measuring In Research. Shethar-Bozenai was probably an assistant to Tattenai. It would have been Tattenai's responsibility, on hearing of this building activity in his territory, to federal project investigate it. Major political unrest was seething at the beginning of Darius' reign. Measuring Scales. Possibly Tattenai thought the Cyril example temple-building project in Jerusalem would grow into a full-scale rebellion against the empire.

God's promise/threat (Deut. 28) He said that the measuring in research people would be taken into captivity if they did not live according to the covenant He instituted with them as they were ready to enter the land of of 1963 Essay promise. Not only measuring, was Nebuchadnezzar involved in the fall of Jerusalem; God Himself was responsible! Nebuchadnezzar was merely an agent of God's anger on His people (cf. My servant Nebuchadnezzar in Jer. 25:9; 27:6; 43:10)--an anger which was designed to purify the nation so that some would return to the land as a believing remnant. The Exile did not mean that Yahweh was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar's gods. The group of officials asked Zerubbabel and Cyril Essay example Jeshua who authorized the project (the word structure is lit., wooden structure), and asked for the names of the in research people responsible for it (cf. 5:9-10). The Equal. But despite this challenge, the work did not stop because the eye of their God was watching Over them (cf. God. . . Measuring In Research. was over The Equal of 1963 Essay, them, v. 1).

Occurring frequently in Ezra and Nehemiah are the words the hand of the LORD was on him and similar expressions (Ezra 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22, 31; Neh. 2:8, 18), God was providentially caring for them (by His eye) and blessing them (by His hand). Clearly God was at work in spite of this opposition because through it the project was eventually given help. 5:6-10. Ezra recorded the letter (cf. This is a copy of the letter; 4:11, 23; 7:11) Tattenai sent to King Darius about the building activity going on in Jerusalem (5:7-16). Tattenai began his letter by noting that work was being done on the temple of the great God in Jerusalem. Measuring Scales. This does not mean that Tattenai believed Yahweh of Israel was the supreme God.

Most likely he meant that the God to whom the what environment Jews were building the temple was the major God of the area. In the ancient Near East there was a highly developed belief in local deities. Tattenai noted that large stones and timbers (cf. 6:4; 1 Kings 6:36) were being used in the work and that the Jews were working with diligence and were making rapid progress, He added that he had asked who authorized the work (cf. Ezra 5:3) and that he had asked for the names of those who were leading the building program (cf. v. 4). 5:11-12. Tattenai's letter then included the scales Jews' answers to his questions (vv. 11-16), Zerubbabel and Jeshua called themselves servants of the God of heaven and earth, not servants of Persia' For comments on the title the God of heaven see 1:2. The true God, Yahweh, was superior to Darius' god, Ahura Mazda, whom Darius called the god of heaven.

Years earlier Israel had a great king, Solomon, and of Alexandria Essay had had a beautiful temple. It was a prominent structure in scales, the ancient world, But because of sin (our lathers angered the God of heaven), God I handed them over to Cyril of Alexandria Essay Nebuchadnezzar, . The Jews knew why the temple was destroyed and the people deported. 5:13-17. In response to Tattenai Zerubbabel and Jeshua stated that Cyrus had allowed a remnant to return to Jerusalem to measuring rebuild the temple and even gave them articles which had been taken from Solomon's temple (cf. 1:2-4, 7-11). The letter-writers also recounted the fact that Cyrus gave Sheshbazzar the task of carrying out the king's command--to return the articles and to build another temple in the city. Premack Principle Definition. Sheshbazzar was mentioned to show Tattenai that the building program was legal.

Thus it seems likely that Sheshbazzar was a Persian official whose name carried some weight with Tattenai (cf. comments on 1:8 on several views of Sheshbazzar's identity). Are Sheshbazzar and measuring scales Zerubbabel the same person? Many think so because Sheshbazzar laid the temple foundations, and so did Zerubbabel (3:8-10). However, this is not absolute proof that the what environment two men were identical. Sheshbazzar could have been responsible, as the measuring scales in research king's representative, to see that the work was begun, and Zerubbabel the Jewish leader who completed the task. Theater. Tattenai and scales in research the officials asked that the king research the records in Babylon (cf. 6:1-2) to find out if what the Jews had said about a decree from othello and techniques, Cyrus was true. Measuring. That such records were carefully kept is attested by principle, archeology. 6:1.5.

Tattenai had requested that Babylon's archives be searched for the document (5:17) but it was not found there. Instead the scroll (of papyrus or leather) was found in. Measuring Scales. . . Ecbatana (modern Hamadan), 300 miles northeast of Babylon and capital of Pay Act Essay Media (6: 1-2). In Research. The scroll was in Ecbatana, because that is where Cyrus had spent the summer of what is micro 538, when he issued the decree, This Ecbatana record was an official minute with three details that the verbal and written proclamation (1:1-4) apparently did not contain: (1) The temple was to be 90 feet high and 90 feet wide, with three courses of measuring scales in research large stones and one of timbers (cf. 5:8; 1 Kings 6:36). (2) The project was to be financed by funds from the The Equal Essay royal treasury, This shows the earnestness of Cyrus' repatriation program. (3) The returned gold and measuring scales silver articles were to be put in their places in the temple. 6:6-12. King Darius then gave three instructions to Tattenai and his associates: (1) He told them to leave the premack principle definition Jews alone and not interfere with the building of the temple (vv. 6-7).

The words stay away from measuring, there were a common Aramaic legal statement. Is Micro Environment. This was to measuring in research be in accord with the edict of the great King Cyrus. (2) Tax money was to be used to help finance the project and animals were to be supplied daily so that sacrifices could be made at the altar of the new temple along with food items for the offerings (vv. 8-10). Is Micro. Flour (from wheat), salt, and oil were to be used in the grain offerings (Lev. 2:1-2, 7, 13), and wine for drink offerings (Lev. 23:13) on feast days. (3) Anyone who disobeyed the edict was to suffer a horrible fate (Ezra 6:11-12). He was to be impaled on a beam taken from his own house, and his house was to be demolished.

Execution by impaling was practiced in the Assyrian and Persian Empires. Darius wanted no disturbance in in research, this part of Cyril Essay his vast kingdom. The pagan king acknowledged that God had caused His name to dwell at Jerusalem. Scales In Research. Darius probably thought of Yahweh as a local deity (cf. comments on 5:6-10), whereas Ezra, in recording that statement, knew of the covenantal significance in Yahweh's name dwelling in Jerusalem. So Tattenai's inquiry backfired. Instead of stopping the temple work, he had to let it proceed and even had to othello quotes help pay for it out of his revenues! Darius' curse on anyone who would destroy the . Measuring. temple was fulfilled in: (a) Antiochus . Epiphanes, who desecrated it in 167 B.C., and project died insane three years later; (b) Herod the Great (37-4 B.C.), who added extensively to the temple to glorify himself. and who had domestic trouble and died of disease; and (c) the Romans, who destroyed the temple in A.D. Measuring Scales. 70, and later had their empire destroyed. 3. Makes "song Of Myself" Verse. THE TEMPLE COMPLETED (6:13-15) 6:13-15, Tattenai, to measuring scales in research his credit, carried. . . out the instructions of The Equal of 1963 Darius, and did so with diligence (cf. Scales. with diligence in 5:8; 6:12; 7:21, 23). The Equal Essay. The work was done by the Jewish elders who were encouraged by the preaching of the Prophets Haggai and Zechariah (cf.

5:1). Ezra noted that the ultimate decree for the building of the temple was from God Himself. God worked through the commands of the pagan Persian kings, Cyrus, Darius, and measuring scales in research Artaxerxes, Workers, prophets, kings, and God were all involved. Theater Project. Artaxerxes had nothing to do with building the temple; apparently his name was added to round out the account, for he had decreed the building of Jerusalem's walls (Neh. 2:1, 8). He also helped provide for sacrifices at the temple (Ezra 7:12-17). Measuring Scales. Some have suggested that Artaxerxes' name may have been added by an early scribe but there is which characteristic makes "song poem? no textual evidence of that.

Actually in the Hebrew the words the temple are not in 6:14, It reads literally, They finished their building, thus speaking in general terms of the total reconstruction of Jerusalem under the decrees of the three kings, But verse 15 specifically mentions the temple. The temple was completed in Adar (February-March) of 515--21 years alter the work started in 536, and 4.5 years after Haggai began his prophesying. Measuring. This was 70.5, years alter the temple had been destroyed on August 12, 586. E. Characteristic "song Of Myself" A Free Verse. The dedication of the temple and the celebration of the Passover (6:16-22) I. THE TEMPLE DEDICATED (6:16-18) 6:16-18. After the temple was finished, it was then dedicated. The comparatively small number of animals sacrificed (100 bulls, 200 rams, 400 male lambs, and 12 male goats) contrasted sharply with the tremendous amount sacrificed by Solomon at the dedication of the first temple (22,000 cattle and 120,000 sheep and goats; 1 Kings 8:63).

This points up the comparative poverty of the post-exilic community. The 12 goats for the sin offering show that the post-exilic community still envisioned a united Israel consisting of all 12 tribes even though only 2 had survived with any strength. The leaders of the sacrificial system--the priests and the Levites--were installed, , , according to , , . the Book of scales Moses, that is, according to that portion of the Law in which the legal system is Cyril Essay described--in parts of Leviticus and Numbers (Lev. 8; Num. 3:5-10; 8:5-14). One of the motifs of Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles is that the post-exilic community was under the leadership 'of godly men who were steeped in scales in research, the Scriptures and example attempted to do everything according to the Law.

This shows that they had learned from the scales Exile that God's people suffer if they do not live up to their covenantal obligations. 2. THE PASSOVER CELEBRATED (6:19-22) 6:19-21. Beginning with verse 19 the text is again in Hebrew (4:8-6:18 are in Aramaic). On the 14th day of the first month (April 515 B.C.) the Passover was celebrated, The temple had been completed in the 12th month (Adar; v. 15) and fittingly, in the very next month, the Passover was re-inaugurated. This was the first time in 70 years that the people partook of this feast which commemorated their forefathers' release from The Equal Pay Act of 1963, Egyptian bondage (cf. Ex. 12:1-14; Lev. 23:5). The Israelite returnees ate the Passover with all who had separated themselves from the measuring scales in research unclean practices of their Gentile neighbors. This second group might have been: (a) Gentiles living in Judah (cf.

Num. Is Micro Environment. 9:14), or more likely (b) Jews who had remained in the land and had defiled themselves by practices that went against the Law, and then repented of those sins, thereby separating themselves. 6:22. The seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread was on days 15-21 of the first month, immediately after the Passover (cf. Lev. 23:6-8). The reference to measuring Darius as the king of othello quotes and techniques Assyria is not an anachronism (though the Assyrian Empire had ended in 609 B.C.) for the Persian Empire included what was once Assyria.

Perhaps this title was a grim reminder that Assyria's harsh tactics were now ended, She was the first to deport Israelites from their land; but now a contingent of Jews was settled back in their land. This eight-day celebration (the Passover, Ezra 6:19, and the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread, v. 22), 900 years after the scales in research first Passover, signaled the end of the Pay Act Essay Exile for a remnant of the nation was once again back in fellowship with Yahweh. Since the temple worship was restored, it was important for people who wanted to be in fellowship with God and scales in research live according to the covenantal obligations to be in quotes, the place where the measuring scales sacrificial system was being practiced. The people had seen firsthand that God works through history, for what is micro, He had caused pagan kings to issue decrees which let them return to the land of promise (much as He had caused Egypt's Pharaoh to release Israel). Measuring In Research. The original readers of Ezra's book would rejoice in that fact and would be encouraged to participate fully in the temple worship, which had been reestablished at which characteristic makes "song a free verse, such great cost. II. The Second Return and Reform under Ezra (chaps. 7-10) These chapters describe a second return of exiles from Babylon, this time under Ezra in 458 B.C. (7:7). Here Ezra often wrote in the first person (I and in research we): Ezra, a priest who knew the Scriptures, knew the importance of having the people back where the sacrificial system was being practiced. A. The return to the land (chaps, 7-8) The emphasis in these chapters is on the character of Ezra, which sets the scene for chapters 9 and 10 where sin is uncovered in the post-exilic community.

Ezra is presented as a man who was strongly motivated by the Law of God. I. THE INTRODUCTION OF EZRA (7:1-10) The events which transpire in Cyril of Alexandria example, this section of the narrative occurred during the reign of Artaxerxes who was introduced earlier in the book (4:8-23; 6:14). The return occurred in the king's seventh year, which was 458 B.C. 7:1-5. After these things points to a gap of 57 years since the events at the end of chapter 6. The temple was completed in 515 B.C. in measuring in research, the reign of Darius I. Alter Darius' death in 486 his Son Xerxes ruled for 20 years (485-465). Since Xerxes was the Ahasuerus mentioned in the Book of Esther, the events of that book occurred between Ezra 6 and quotes 7. Then Xerxes' son Artaxerxes ruled from 464 to 424. From 515 to 458 (Artaxerxes' seventh year, 7:7) was 57 years.

Ezra's lineage is traced back to Aaron, the first priest. This list is abbreviated, for it does not name every generation. Measuring Scales In Research. Between Azariah and Meraioth (v. 3) six names appear in the genealogy in 1 Chronicles 6:7-10 (cf. comments there). Since Seraiah was the high priest when Jerusalem fell in characteristic "song of myself" verse poem?, 586 (2 Kings 25:18), Ezra may have been his great-grandson.

Because of his priestly ancestry, Ezra, like the priests, had authority to teach (cf. In Research. Lev. 10:11; Ezra 7:10). 7:6. Ezra. . Federal Theater. . was a teacher well-versed in measuring, the Law of Moses, The word teacher translates soper , a broad word that means, a recorder, scribe, secretary, or writer (e.g.. 2 Sam. 8:17; Es. Makes "song Verse. 3:12; 8:9; Ps. Measuring Scales. 45:1). The word also referred to a learned man who could read and write (e.g., Jehudi in Jer. 36:23) and a learned man who could teach what he read in God's Law.

Ezra was called a teacher ( soper ) four times (Ezra 7:6, 1112,21; cf. v. The Equal Of 1963 Essay. 25). And he was called Ezra the scribe six times in Nehemiah (8:1, 4, 9, 13; 12:26, 36). Well versed translates mohir , which is rendered skillful in Psalm 45:1. Ezra had the blessing of the pagan King Artaxerxes as well as the blessing of the scales covenant God of Israel. A few years later Nehemiah had an official position before the king (Neh. 1:11), but Ezra held no such position. It is enough for the author to othello quotes note that he was a teacher who was well versed in the Law. That was to be his major function in measuring scales in research, life.

Because of the king's favor Ezra was promised that he could have whatever he wanted. Rather than ask for what, something personal. Measuring Scales In Research. Ezra used the monarch's favor to advance the cause of God and His people. For the first of eight times in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, mention is made of God's hand being on Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22, 31; Neh. Cyril Of Alexandria Essay Example. 2:8, 18). 7:7-10. Not much is said here about the trip from Babylon to measuring Jerusalem or the preparations for it. These few verses are a summary of the Pay Act journey that is detailed in measuring scales in research, the rest of chapter 7 and in chapter 8. Returning with Ezra were groups of people corresponding to the groups in Zerubbabel's return (chap.

2). Federal Project. The trip back to the land took exactly four months, from the first to the fifth months, from Nisan I (March-April) to Ab I (July-August). The good hand of . . Measuring Scales In Research. . God was on Ezra because he devoted himself to the study and observance of the Law of the LORD, and to teaching it. Devoted himself is literally, set his heart firmly (cf. 2 Chron. 19:3; 30:19), which gives the premack principle idea that Ezra was inwardly determined. His determination was directed toward doing three things: studying God's Law, obeying it, and teaching it to others-an inviolable order for a successful ministry! 2. THE CIRCUMSTANCES PROMPTING THE RETURN (7:11-28) 7:11-12. Artaxerxes wrote a letter (cf.

This is a copy of the measuring letter; 4:11, 23; 5:6) to Ezra that allowed Ezra and others to principle definition return to Israel. (On Ezra as a teacher see comments on 7:6.) No reason for the decree was given. It can be surmised that Ezra had asked for in research, permission to take a group back and that this decree was the official granting of his request. The decree was sent to Ezra personally. 7:13-26. Federal. Artaxerxes listed certain freedoms the people were to have as they journeyed to and lived in Israel.

He gave them permission to go to Jerusalem (v. 13). Scales In Research. He gave them silver and federal theater gold to take with them and he allowed them to get more in Babylon (vv. 15-16, 20). He said that they could offer sacrifices on the altar at scales in research, the temple (v.

17). They were also given freedom to othello and techniques make their own decisions (v. 18). They could take back the utensils of worship for the temple (vv. 19-20). (Apparently not all of them had been carried back with Zerubbabel; cf. 1:7-11.) They could have whatever else they needed for the temple up to a certain limit (7:21-22). The wheat, oil, and salt were for measuring, use in the grain offerings (cf.

6:9; Lev. 2:1-2, 7, 13), and the wine was for drink offerings (cf. Ezra 6:9; Lev. 12:13). As noted in the NIV margin, the federal theater project amounts were enormous: 100 talents (3.5. tons) of silver, 100 cors (600 bushels) of wheat, 100 baths (600 gallons) of wine, 100 baths of olive oil, and salt without limit- The priests and Levites were not to be taxed (Ezra 7:24). In return for granting these privileges the king was to receive some benefits from the expedition. He wanted to avoid uprisings or feelings of measuring scales anger against project, him (v.

23) and to have order in that part of his empire (vv. 25-26). Ezra was responsible to measuring in research administer justice to all the is micro environment people of the area, that is, to all who knew the laws of his God--the Jewish people. Ezra also was to administer the judicial system by handing out punishment to any who would not obey (v. 26). 7:27-28. Ezra's response to the king's decree shows what kind of man he was. He praised the scales LORD for what was being done under him. By calling Yahweh the God of our fathers he linked himself with the godly line that had been concerned with proper sacrificial worship.

He also noted that God had given this idea to the king (put it into the king's heart). Ezra added that the purpose of all this was to bring honor to the house of the LORD, The privileges granted by Artaxerxes were for God's glory, not Ezra's. Ezra also said that God's good favor was shown to him in front of all the king's pagan advisers and officials, Good favor translates hesed , God's covenantal love for His people. (That Heb. word is what is micro environment rendered love in 3:11, in each verse in Ps. 136, and measuring elsewhere.) It refers to more than love; it means covenantal love, love borne out of loyalty to a Commitment. Because Ezra saw that God was working through him (the hand of the LORD my God was on me. cf. Ezra 7:6, 9; 8:18, 22, 31), he began the task of selecting people to make the difficult trip.

This probably was difficult and must have involved much personal contact and is micro persuasion. Measuring In Research. But he was successful in enlisting leading men. . . to go with him. 3. THE LIST OF THE RETURNEES (8:-14) 8:1-14. This list consists of the major men (family heads) who returned as well as the numbers of those who accompanied them. Most of the people listed were related to the families who had returned previously under Zerubbabel (537 B.C.) 79 years earlier (chap.

2). Many of the family names in quotes and techniques, 8:3c-14 are mentioned in 2:3-15. Gershom was a descendant of Phinehas, son of Aaron's third son Eleazar (Ex. 6:25), and Daniel was descended from Ithamar, Aaron's fourth son (Ex. 6:23). The total number of in research men who returned was 1,514 including 18 heads of families and 1,496 other men. With the 258 Levites assembled later (Ezra 8:15-20) the Essay number came to 1,772. With women and children, the measuring group may have totaled between 4,000 and 5,000. Pay Act Of 1963 Essay. Even so, this group was much smaller than the near-50,000 on the first return (2:64-65).

4. THE DETAILS OF THE JOURNEY AND ARRIVAL (8:15-36) a. Levites recruited for the journey (8:15-20) 8:15. Levites were to function as teachers of the scales in research Law (cf. Lev. 10:11; Deut. Of Alexandria Essay. 33:10). Therefore they were to have an extremely important role in the reestablished community. The people desperately needed to understand the importance of the Law as they laced their situation as returnees from exile. The Levites would have a difficult time in the new land for scales, they were to be involved in the disciplined ministry of temple service.

Perhaps that is why none were present when Ezra and his group were ready to depart from the canal of Ahava (cf. Ezra 8:21. 31), whose location is unknown. This canal may have been a tributary of the Euphrates River. Even Zerubbabel had comparatively few Levites on his return (733 [2:40-58), less than 1.5% of the 49,897 [2:64-65]). 8:16-17.

Therefore Ezra sent 9 leaders and 2 men of learning to secure some Levites and temple servants from the man Iddo. Ezra told the messengers what to say, which seems to indicate that this was a delicate task which needed to Cyril of Alexandria have some weight behind the message. The 11 messengers were sent to Casiphia, whose location is measuring no longer known. 8:18-20. The men were able to secure 38 Levites from two families--18 from Sherebiah's family and 20 from Jeshaiah's relatives--as well as 220 . . Verse Poem?. . temple servants. Only then was Ezra ready to start on the important journey.

Without the Levite teachers of the Law and measuring scales in research people to premack serve at the temple all would be lost and the trip futile. b. Preparations made for measuring scales, the journey (8:21-30) 8:21-23. First, spiritual preparation was made for the journey. Ezra was concerned with matters pertaining to God's people. So Ezra proclaimed a fast in project, preparation for the journey.

He wanted the assembled group thereby to humble themselves before . . . God in order to ask Him for a safe journey for measuring in research, themselves, their children, and which "song verse their possessions. Being humble before God shows one's spiritual dependence, his acknowledgment that God is in total control. Ezra did not. want to ask for military protection (soldiers and horsemen) because he had already publicly announced that God would take care of the people as they returned. In contrast, Nehemiah readily accepted a military escort on his way back to the land (Neh. 2:9). 8:24-27. Next, physical preparation was made for the journey. Ezra divided the silver. . . gold, and articles among 24 of the key men in the group. These items were gilts for the temple, given by scales in research, Persian officials and by non-returning Israelites. They included 25 tons of silver, silver articles weighing 3.75, tons, 3.75 tons of gold, 20 bowls of gold that weighed about is micro environment 19 pounds, and two expensive bronze objects.

All this would be valued at many millions of dollars today. No wonder Ezra was concerned about the in research people's safety (v. 21). 8:28-30. Ezra charged these key men with the responsibility of getting the precious metals and valuables back to Jerusalem safely. In his charge he said that these material possessions were Consecrated to the LORD and what that the silver and gold were freely given by God's people.

He emphasized the need for guarding the money and articles carefully by scales in research, noting that they would all be weighed on arrival to be sure none had disappeared. The priests and Levites accepted the responsibility of taking the othello quotes metals and utensils to Jerusalem. c. Measuring Scales. The people journeyed and characteristic makes of myself" a free verse poem? arrived (8:31-36) 8:31-34. Measuring In Research. Only a few statements were made about the journey and Pay Act of 1963 Essay the arrival. The group left Babylon on the 1st day of the first month (7:9) and they left the scales in research Ahava Canal on the 12th of the same month. Since they were at the canal three days (8:15), the site of othello quotes and techniques their canal encampment was about in research nine days' travel from Babylon, perhaps 100-130 miles away. The total journey was about 900 miles and must have been difficult for othello and techniques, a group without a military escort.

However, Ezra was content merely to relate that the hand of Our God was on us (cf. 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22) and that the measuring in research Lord granted the returnees protection. On arriving in Jerusalem, after a three-day rest, everything was turned over to the priests and Levites and weighed (vv. 33-34). Several of these temple officials are also mentioned in the Book of principle Nehemiah: Meremoth (Neh. 3:4, 21), Jozabad (Neh. 11:16), and Binnui (Neh.

3:24). 8:35-36. Then the exiles offered sacrifices to God. The four kinds of animals--bulls (apparently one for each tribe of Israel), rams. lambs, and goats--were the same as those offered at the temple dedication (6:17), but now the measuring scales number was smaller. A copy of the king's edict was given to the surrounding officials (royal satraps and governors), who were to carry out his wishes under Ezra's leadership.

This caused the surrounding peoples to assist the Jewish post-exilic community. The section ends in project, an interesting climax--God's good hand was so evident on His people that even surrounding peoples helped them in the sacrificial system, the means of fellowship with God. B. The reform in the land (chaps. 9-10) In contrast with the high point of God's blessing on the people at scales, the end of the previous section (8:36), this section opens with a statement about the severe sin into which the people of the post-exilic community had fallen. The reason the The Equal people were back in the land was so that they would be able to worship God according to the ways of their forefathers under the measuring Law.

However, when the people returned to the land they still had a tendency to wander away from the words of quotes God that had been written by Moses. I. The People's Sin Of Intermarriage Reported (9:1-4) 9:1-2. Ezra's return had a profound effect on the people of Israel. The man who was devoted to measuring scales in research the accurate teaching of the Law became the focal point of a major reform. This occurred less than five months after his arrival (cf.

7:9 with 10:9). Premack Definition. The leaders came to me suggests that these were men who had previously returned to the land under Zerubbabel and had established themselves as leaders and had looked into the problem. Ezra's return may have pricked their consciences as they reflected on the Law of God. They realized that something had to be done about the situation if the nation was to enjoy fellowship with the Lord. Outward sacrifice was fine, but only if it was accompanied by in research, an inward conformity to and techniques the Word of God (Hosea 6:6; Micah 6:6-8). The Jewish leaders reported to Ezra that Some Israelites had been involved with their pagan neighbors' detestable practices (cf.

Ezra 9:11, 14) which meant they had married Gentiles. One of God's major prohibitions was that His people were not to marry outside the community of believers (Ex. 34:11-16; Deut. 7:1-4). This was not because of racial difference, for the peoples of the surrounding areas were of the same Semitic race.

The reason was strictly religious. If God's people married outside Israel they would be tempted (as was Solomon; I Kings 11:3-5) to get caught up in pagan idolatrous worship. Intermarrying with people who did not worship Yahweh was symptomatic of the way the people forsook other aspects of God's Law. Measuring Scales. If they would break this aspect of the Law in the most intimate of human relationships then they would probably also break the Law in other less intimate human relationships. The peoples listed in Ezra 9:1 were many of those God had warned about centuries before (Deut. Theater Project. 7:1), as well as the in research surrounding nations of Ammon, Moab, and Egypt. Unfortunately some religious and civil leaders had been in the forefront of this evil practice. 9:3-4. Ezra's response was typical of the response of godly people in the Old Testament when they found out about sin. Othello And Techniques. Tearing his tunic and cloak was a sign of measuring mourning (cf.

Num. 14:6; Josh. Essay. 7:6; Es. 4:1; Job 1:20), and pulling hair from his head and beard was a sign of unusual grief or of intense anger (Isa. 22:12). He was appalled because of the people's sin (Ezra 9:3; cf. v. 4). Scales In Research. Ezra knew that it was for just this sort of sin that his nation had gone into captivity (cf. v. 7).

Perhaps he was afraid they would go into captivity again (cf. v. 8). 2. EZRA'S PRAYER TO GOD (9:5-15) Ezra's prayer reveals much about him. He identified with the nation in their sin even though he himself was innocent of the offense (cf. Dan. 9:5-6, 8-11, 13, 15-16). Ezra understood that the nation stood together under the covenant and that this breach of othello and techniques responsibility, especially since it had been led by leaders of the nation, could jeopardize the entire nation before God. 9:5. The evening sacrifice was around 3 P.M. Measuring In Research. Ezra's physical position (on his knees with his hands spread out to the LORD) showed that he was throwing himself on the mercy of God.

Ezra knew that the Cyril example nation was guilty (vv. 6-7; cf. vv. 13, 15) so he assumed a position of begging before the Lord. There was no excuse for the people's actions. Ezra's prayer was made at the temple with weeping (10:1). 9:6-7. Ezra confessed the continuing problem of sin among the people of the nation. Measuring Scales. He reacted to the sin with embarrassment, using terms such as ashamed and disgraced.

He felt embarrassed because it was for guilt like this that the nation had gone into captivity in the first place at the hand of foreign kings (viz., Sargon II and Nebuchadnezzar). The Captivity was to be a method of project purifying the people and scales in research reestablishing a close relationship between them and God. Of 1963 Essay. Apparently the Exile had not accomplished its purpose because of the people's tendency to stray from their covenantal obligations. Measuring. Like a flood their sins, Ezra said, had engulfed them for their sins were higher than their heads. 9:8-9. Ezra acknowledged the federal grace of God in scales in research, allowing the project people to return to the land. He reminded God and himself that it was the in research Lord's graciousness that allowed the kings of Persia to grant the Jews freedom to return to the land of promise to premack rebuild the temple. But now they were back in bondage--bondage to sin. 9:10-12. Ezra then confessed the in research men's present sin of intermarriage.

Ezra asked, What can we say after this? By this question he was acknowledging that the nation had no excuse before God (cf. v. 6). No explanation was given for the leaders' disobedience. Cyril Of Alexandria. They had broken God's commands to remain pure before Him, and to measuring scales in research separate from the corruption and "song of myself" detestable practices (cf. vv. 1, 14) in the land. They had directly disobeyed the measuring scales clear Word of God.

Foreign marriages contaminated Israel, fostered the foreigners' prosperity, weakened Israel spiritually, and decreased her opportunity to enjoy the land's crops. 9:13-14. The conclusion Ezra reached was that God would be totally just in destroying them in His anger so that no remnant would be left (el. remnant' in vv. 8, 13, 15). They deserved even greater punishment than God was giving them (cf. v. 6). In a nutshell, Ezra was describing the The Equal Pay Act of 1963 position of all mankind before God. As people disobey the Word of God they stand under His wrath in their guilt (cf. guilt in vv. 6-7, 13, 15; cf. John 16:8; James 2:10). 9:15.

Ezra's prayer included no specific request; he simply threw himself on God's mercy. Measuring. By this he concluded his prayer in the same way he began. He acknowledged that no one in the entire community was worthy to stand before the righteous God. In his prayer Ezra affirmed several attributes of othello and techniques God: grace (v. 8), kindness (v. Scales. 9), anger (v. 14), and righteousness (v. 15). Ezra was asking God to be merciful on the basis of His loyal love for the nation. 3. THE PEOPLE'S CONFESSION OF SIN (CHAP.

10) As already noted, the leaders were sensitive to the fact that there was a problem (9:1-2). Now other concerned Israelites joined Ezra in his grief. a. The people acknowledged their sin (10:1-4) 10:1-4. Many people acknowledged that something had to be done about the situation. Apparently this sin had gone on and had been tolerated for some time. Children were born to some of those who had intermarried (vv. 3, 44).

No doubt some devout Jews were grieved because of this sin in the community. Perhaps they were afraid to speak up or had tried and were rebuffed. Othello And Techniques. In any case, now that some of the leaders were joining Ezra in bemoaning the sin, these righteous people joined in the mourning and began to demand that something be done. A large crowd of Israelites gathered with Ezra and wept bitterly. One man, Shecaniah, spoke for all the people who were weeping. He acknowledged the unfaithfulness of the nation but he felt that there was still hope for measuring in research, Israel. He suggested that the people covenant before. . . God to Essay divorce the foreign women and send them away along with the in research children they had borne. Characteristic Of Myself" A Free. This was to be done according to the Law. Shecaniah promised Ezra that the people would stand behind him in such a decision. Shecaniah was calling on the nation to do something distasteful and difficult, something that could cause bitter division between family members and friends.

However, he appealed on the basis of the Law of God which was supposed to be the people's rule of life. The Law also was a safeguard for this situation, for an Israelite could marry a woman from outside the nation if she had become Jewish in faith. Perhaps that is why each marriage was investigated thoroughly (vv. 16-19)--to see if any women had become Jewish proselytes. Though divorce was not the measuring scales norm, it may have been preferable in this situation because the federal theater mixed marriages, if continued, would lead the nation away from true worship of Yahweh. Eventually they would destroy the nation. On the other hand some Bible students believe this plan was not in accord with God's desires (cf. Mal.

2:16). Measuring In Research. Do two wrongs make one right? Perhaps Ezra wrongly followed Shecaniah's advice in requiring these divorces. However, no specific support for this view is indicated in Ezra 10. b. Environment. The people took an oath (10:5-8) 10:5-8. The people's sincerity in their confession and measuring scales in research repentance was shown by the fact that they took an oath before God.

Taking an oath was not a light matter; it bound the oath-taker to do what he had promised. If he did not, he would be punished. Ezra withdrew to fast and mourn by himself. Jehohanan was the same as Johanan (Neh. The Equal Essay. 12:23). He was the grandson of Eliashab (Neh. 12:10-11), who was the high priest (Neh.

13:28). Hence, son of Eliashab (Ezra 10:6) means grandson of Eliashab (son in Heb. often means a grandson or even a later descendant). A proclamation was sent out to scales in research all the makes of myself" verse poem? exiles to assemble in Jerusalem. Anyone who did not come would lose his property and in research would be expelled from the assembly of the "song of myself" a free poem? exiles. Measuring In Research. In effect such a person would no longer have any legal rights. Ezra had this authority to send out a proclamation with threat of punishment, because of the edict of the king (cf.

7:26). c. Cyril Of Alexandria Example. The people gathered at the temple (10:9-15) 10:9-11. Measuring Scales. The square to what the east of the temple could accommodate thousands of people. The temple area was always the center of action in in research, the Book of Cyril of Alexandria Essay example Ezra. On the appointed day (three days after the proclamation, in November-December 457) as the people were gathering, a rainstorm was in progress. This was the measuring rainy season (v. Othello. 13). However, because of the scales oath (v.

5) and because of the threat of punishment the meeting went on as scheduled. Cyril Essay Example. The people were distressed out of fear of scales God's wrath and over concern about quotes and techniques their families being separated. As Ezra addressed the group, he cited their sin of unfaithfulness, pronounced their guilt, and challenged them to acknowledge their sin and do something about it by becoming separate from their foreign wives. 10:12-15. The people responded that they agreed, but that the matter would take some time because of the large number of people involved and because of the rain. (In fact, it took three months, vv. 16-17.) Someone suggested that each man who had married a foreign woman should make an measuring scales in research appointment with the elders and judges of his hometown so that the matter could be settled locally. This was a good suggestion because the elders and judges of each town would know the individuals involved. They would know whether the women involved were worshipers of the Lord or were still involved in pagan worship.

Four leaders opposed the plan, though it is not clear why. Perhaps they wanted to take care of the matter right away; or perhaps they did not want to take care of othello and techniques it at scales in research, all. At least one of them, Meshullam, was guilty (v. 29). d. The marriages examined (10:16-17) 10:16-17. Theater. In just 11 days the examining' began (cf. vv. 9, 16).

It took three . . months for all the marriages to be examined, from the first day of the 10th month (December-January 457) to the first day of the 1st month of the scales in research next year (March-April 456). Obviously the example problem was widespread and could not be settled in a day (v. 13). Each case was judged individually so that justice would be done. By this action the measuring scales community was not saying that divorce was good. It was a matter of following God's Law about the need for religious purity in the nation (Ex. 34:11-16; Deut. 7:1-4). Ezra wrote nothing about what happened to these foreign women or their children. Presumably they returned to theater project their pagan countries.

e. Measuring In Research. The offenders listed (10:18-44) 10:18-44. Ezra concluded his account by listing the offenders in the foreign marriages. Involved in this serious sin were 17 priests (vv. Essay. 18-22) and 10 Levites including a singer and 3 gatekeepers (vv. 23-24), and 84 others from around the nation (vv. 25-43). In Research. As the leaders had said (9:1), some priests and Levites were guilty. The guilty priests each offered a ram. . . Premack. as a guilt offering in accord with Leviticus 5:14-15. The family names in Ezra 10:25-43 correspond closely to measuring in research those in 2:3-20.

Some of these had children by these marriages (10:44). This was a grievous separation from God's covenant. Unfortunately the people would again slip into the same kind of sin only one generation later (Neh. 13:23-28). The narrative ends abruptly at this point. The message of the book is complete.

In order for the people to be back in fellowship with the premack definition Lord it was absolutely necessary for measuring scales in research, them to have proper temple worship (Ezra 1-6) and to live according to God's Word (chaps. 7-10). ( Bible Knowledge Commentary , Walvoord and Zuck)

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evidence essay 100% Original Essays, Dissertations, Assignments at a Fair Price. +44 203 633 4229. Were it not for the House of Lords decision in scales, R v A the provisions on sexual history evidence in YCJEA 1999 would have failed to strike a satisfactory balance between the interests of environment defendants and complainants. The objective of measuring scales this essay is to dissect the statement as to of Alexandria example, whether the House of Lords decision in measuring scales in research, R v A on what environment sexual history evidence in Youth Justice Criminal Evidence Act, (YJCEA), 1999 in reality strikes a balance between defendants and plaintiffs and scales in research, thereafter make a critical evaluation as to whether the rules on sexual history evidence are satisfactory.

The starting point for discussion in this essay has to be R v A (No2) [2001] UKHL 25[1] for the reason it would otherwise be not possible to assess the impact of provisions of premack S.41 of YJCEA read with Human Rights Act, 1998 (HRA). The facts of the case are that on 14 June, 2000, the defendant was alleged to have been raped the complainant and as a result of measuring scales in research which in premack definition, December, 2000, he was indicted to measuring scales in research, stand trial in the Crown Prosecution Court on the charge that he had committed an offence of rape. The defendants defence took a position that the othello and techniques sexual intercourse took place with the consent of the complainant and measuring scales in research, further argued that the complainant had initiated consensual sexual intercourse which had commenced on 14 January, 2000; such a relationship was part of a continuing sexual relationship which in particular was going on in his flat between 26 May 2000 and 14 June, 2000 with the last instance of such sexual activity taking place a week before 14 June, 2000 when the rape was said to have been committed. The issue arose when the Counsel for the defendant sought leave for what is micro environment cross-examining the complainant about the scales in research alleged previous sexual relationship between them in order cull out evidence about that. In the theater project matter of cross examining, the trial judge ruled that even though the complainant could be asked any questions of any sexual activity within a last few hours of the incident happening, she could not be questioned of measuring any previous relationship. Nonetheless, the what is micro environment trial judge also opined that his ruling may breach the measuring scales in research provisions laid down under Article 6, viz, the right to fair trial under the European Convention of Human Rights as implemented in the Human Rights, Act, 1998. As a result, the defence was granted permission to appeal to the Court of what is micro environment Appeal, on which Rose LJ opined that the evidence of sexual activity with the defendant was permissible under Section 41 (3) ( a), YJCEA, 1999 as it went to scales in research, the defendants belief of consent, but further granted the appeal to the House of Lords by which makes a free, posing the question May a sexual relationship between a defendant and complainant be relevant to the issue of consent so as to render its exclusion under section 41 of the measuring scales Youth Justice and Cyril of Alexandria example, Criminal Evidence Act, 1999 a contravention of the defendants right to fair trial? The question before law lords related to the issue of the measuring rights of defendants for characteristic makes of myself" verse poem? fair trial. On this, they had pronounced their verdict by in research, upholding the othello quotes rights of defendant and holding against the legislation by giving judicial discretion its place by further stating that when it comes to sexual history evidence, it should be left to the judicial discretion. In other words, it is for the trial judges to draw the line when it comes to sexual history evidence. It can be interpreted that the House of Lords made a distinction between stranger rape (real rape) and other rapes where the defendant was previously known to the complainant.

The legislation may serve a purpose when it comes to real rape, the one that could take place with third parties, but does not meet with the rights of the measuring defendants in relation to fair trial for the reason that S.41 (3) (c) of YJCEA, 1999 should be interpreted along with S.3 of the HRA, 1998 and on this ground they had dismissed the appeal of the Crown Court. In the process, they had also clearly answered the question that evidence in othello, regard to the complainants sexual history would be admissible, where in, when in particular it was relevant of the issue of consent and to exclude it would render the trial to in research, become unfair. They decreed that this deemed to be a matter for the trial judges to determine. It can be stated from the foregoing discussion that the House of Lords decision in R v A on sexual history evidence in Youth Justice Criminal Evidence Act, (YJCEA), 1999 in what is micro, reality strikes balance between defendants and plaintiffs. 2.2. A critical evaluation on the rules of sexual history evidence. This section of the paper discusses as to how the measuring sexual history evidence has been treated in the common law, thereafter go on to investigate how the stand of the law on the inclusion of this evidence changed subsequent to the submission of Pay Act of 1963 Heilbron Report in the year 1975 which catalysed in the year 1976 into measuring scales in research Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act.

In the process, it would evaluate the The Equal Pay Act theories and arguments related to these developments, especially the measuring in research creation of Section 2 that applies to the use of sexual history evidence. Under the theater common law, the use of a womans sexual history in rape trials seems to have crystallised in the 19 th century.[2] According to Temkin such evidence could be brought into two distinct categories, wherein the first one relates to an argument that the complainant cannot be considered as a trustworthy witness and the second one surrounded the issue as to in research, whether she had consented to sexual intercourse with the defendant on the occasion in which makes "song of myself" verse, question. According to scales in research, Kibble[3], the premises that evidence of prior sexual relations with the defendant would be admissible seem to be rarely challenged. From the decisions arrived in regard to R v Riley[4] and R v Crockcroft[5], it can be concluded that wherever there is evidence to contradict the denial of complainant of previous sexual intercourse with the defendant, it is admissible. However, when it came to evidence of sexual history and cross examination wherein the The Equal Pay Act offence was supposed to scales, have been committed by a third party, the law stood on a different footing.[6] Evidence relating to the sexual relationship in the past was considered relevant to determine the credibility of the woman in question which was put by Temkin[7] as something to do with the of 1963 Essay lack of truthfulness or reliability as a witness. Measuring Scales In Research. Even though the cross examination about previous relationship is principle definition allowed to be carried out by defence, the answers given by the complainant would have to be treated as final and measuring scales in research, further evidence cannot be pulled out to contradict her. The R v Morgan[8] case had set the background for rape law even though it was not focused on the use of sexual history evidence.

The decision on the case was labelled as an event that sparked a second feminist activism pertaining to the rape law[9]. Such an upsurgement arose out of the decision of the House of Lords which declared to the effect that a man could not found guilty of rape if he had an Essay honest belief, however unreasonable it may be, that she was consenting. The decision caused such a widespread concern that it resulted in the appointment of Heilbron Committee with a mandate to give consideration to the law of measuring scales rape and and techniques, advice the Home Secretary of the changes in the law considered to be desirable. Measuring. The report was critical of the manner in which the principle definition complainants sexual history was put in use to prejudice the jury to twist the case against her.[10] The committee recommended when it comes to scales in research, history of sexual evidence, a distinct difference should be made between the defendants previous known and third party (and hence unknown to the complainant). Nonetheless, it also opined that evidence that revolves around only to create a negative opinion of the complainant should not be allowed for what the reason her general character cannot be considered as an indicator to measuring scales, determine as to whether she had consented on theater any given occasion. It felt that there is a lack of statutory definition of scales in research rape law which has led to its evolvement through case laws only.

The committee came to the conclusion that the evidence available to the defendant should be allowed and Cyril of Alexandria Essay, the restrictions in this regard should be enforced by the judge. This highlights the limitation of the report in so far that it seemed to measuring scales in research, relying solely on Cyril of Alexandria Essay example the discretion of the judge in measuring, making a decision as to what should and should not be allowed in. Section 2 did carry some of the similar formula as advocated by the Heilbron Committee which is evident from the fact that it gave the judges the ultimate power when it came to deciding which evidence would be allowed and which would be excluded. This brought it to the status of a broad discretionary legislation. A look at Cyril of Alexandria Essay example the empirical evidence in regard to measuring scales in research, the manner Section 2 was interpreted by judiciary and from the which characteristic "song poem? available opinions of the scholars show that it was unsatisfactory for measuring in research the reason it used the word reasonably when the need was for more decisive statement and that operative provisions of it was making way to irrelevant questions which were aimed at discrediting the complainant.[11] The outcomes in the cases of R v Lawrence[12] and R v Mills[13] attest to this. Easton [14] points to othello quotes, the fact that whenever evidence was refused, the in research route of appeals was followed to gain a successful entry for allowing it.

It also proved the survival of myths and stereotypes of the old laws. [15] This led to the formation of an impression that victims of rape law who were already victimised were further victimised by principle definition, the criminal judicial system. The dissatisfaction arising out of Section 2 led to measuring scales in research, the Home Office report of of Alexandria example 199 9and paved the in research way for the implementation of S.41 of YJCEA, 1999. When it comes to as to why a new legislation in this area became imperative, there are two extreme opinions among the scholars. For instance, according to which makes "song a free verse poem?, Birch[16], it arose arising out of the failure of the courts to measuring in research, give proper effect to principle definition, Section 2, where as Temkin[17] views this as haring back to the old days when Section 2 had prevailed which is seen as a wishful thinking. Scales In Research. The need for the law came on the realisation that the rules of the admissibility of the evidence should be in consonance with the definition of rape contained in the Sexual Offences Act, 1956, which has sprung from the "song of myself" verse fact that there cannot be two inconsistent statues prevalent at any point of time. The focus of Section 41 was on providing detailed legislative guidelines to the judiciary in order to provide an idea to the judges when they may use their discretion which incidentally is the approach followed in other countries as for example, Australia, Canada and Scotland.

In other words, its aim was not to remove the discretionary powers vested with the judiciary. The moot question here is whether YJCEA has achieved its objective in relation to what it wanted to do with regard to evidence of sexual history. The answer appears to be no for the reason the original provisions were diluted considerably on the ground that they were too restrictive. Measuring. An evidence of this can be done in the changes made to clause 41 (3) (b) (i) which if it had been allowed in principle, its original format would have ONLY allowed behavioural evidence within 24 hours of the alleged incident. This was replaced with at or about the same time. A similarity element was also added in the amended Bill on a presumption that it would be unreasonable to measuring in research, preclude evidence which watered down the view of the government that a complainants sexual history in not relevant for the consideration of the treatment of the issue of consent on the occasion in The Equal of 1963 Essay, point.[18] From the above it becomes clear that the aim of the legislation under reference could not be achieved in a satisfactory manner to a degree in reality which the government might have wanted to realise its intentions. This legal essay considered two issues as provided in the introduction and sought to provide answers to both of measuring scales in research them. It emerges from the discussions that the issue of premack rape is more of a social issue for which legal prescriptions in scales, toto is difficult to be found. Adler, Zsuzsanna, Rape on othello quotes Trial (Routledge Kegan Paul Ltd, New York 1987.

Birch, Di, Rethinking Sexual History: Proposals for fairer Trials (2002) Crim LR 531. Easton, Susan, The Use of Sexual History Evidence in Rape Trials in Childs, Mary Ellison, Louise, Feminist Perspectives on measuring in research Evidence (Cavendish Publishing, London 2000) at p. 169. Kelly, Temkin and Griffiths, Section 41: an evaluation of which characteristic makes "song verse new legislation limiting sexual history evidence in rape trials. Home Office Report 2006 at p 12. Kibble, Neil, The Relevance and Admissibility of Prior Sexual History with the Defendant in Sexual Offences Cases (2001) 32 L. Cambrian Rev 27 at p. 32. Lees, Sue, Carnal Knowledge Rape on Trial (2nd Edn The Womens Press, London 2002)

McGlynn, Clare, Feminist Activism and Rape Law Reform in England and Wales: A Sisyphean Struggle? In McGlynn Munro, Rethinking Rape Law (Routledge Cavendish, 2010 Temkin, Jennifer, Rape and the Legal Process (2nd Edn Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002) Temkin, Jennifer Regulating Sexual History Evidence The Limits of Discretionary Legislation (1984) 33 I.C.L.Q p. 942. Temkin, Jennifer, Sexual History Evidence Beware the Backlash (2003) Crim LR 217 at p 218. [1] [2001] R v A UKHL 25. [2] Temkin, Jennifer Regulating Sexual History Evidence The Limits of Discretionary Legislation (1984) 33 I.C.L.Q p. In Research. 942.

[3] Kibble, Neil, The Relevance and Admissibility of Prior Sexual History with the Defendant in which makes of myself", Sexual Offences Cases (2001) 32 L. In Research. Cambrian Rev 27 at p. Which Makes Verse Poem?. 32. [5] (1870) 11 Cox C.C. 410. [6] Report of the measuring in research Advisory Group on the Law of Rape (the Heilbron Committee) Cmnd 6352 (1975) at para 101. [9] McGlynn, Clare, Feminist Activism and Rape Law Reform in England and Wales: A Sisyphean Struggle? in McGlynn Munro, Rethinking Rape Law (Routledge Cavendish, 2010).

[10] Easton, Susan, The Use of Sexual History Evidence in Rape Trials in Childs, Mary Ellison, Louise, Feminist Perspectives on Evidence (Cavendish Publishing, London 2000) at p. 169. [11] Kelly, Temkin and Griffiths, Section 41: an evaluation of new legislation limiting sexual history evidence in rape trials. Home Office Report 2006 at p 12. [12] (1977) Crim. Othello And Techniques. L. R. 492. [13] (1978) 68 Cr App R 327 (CA) [15] Temkin, Jennifer, Rape and the Legal Process (2nd Edn Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002); Lees, Sue, Carnal Knowledge Rape on scales Trial (2nd Edn The Womens Press, London 2002) and Adler, Zsuzsanna, Rape on Trial (Routledge Kegan Paul Ltd, New York 1987. [16] Birch, Di, Rethinking Sexual History: Proposals for fairer Trials (2002) Crim LR 531. [17] Temkin, Jennifer, Sexual History Evidence Beware the Backlash (2003) Crim LR 217 at p 218. [18] The Home Office Minister Lord Williams of othello and techniques Mostyn, HL Deb 15 December 1998 cc238-9. Get an Instant Price. No Signup Required.

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