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The Five Stages of photosynthesis Being Biracial (If Youre Me) on Dimmesdale Scarlet Letter" Hawthorne October 21, 2013 in Writing. Share this article, or skip to the article. Pondweed! It wasnt that the hovis idea of pondweed photosynthesis being biracial frustrated me, it was just that I didnt think I was it. Yes, I finally learned to write Jaya Saxena, but to a blank-slate of a five-year-old that combination of letters was just as random as any of my friends names. Judith looked weird too, right? Denisa? Fiona? I figured it was all arbitrary. Hovis Nottingham! My family did not act like other immigrant or biracial families. Pondweed Photosynthesis! Those kids had parents who spoke of gustav courbet siblings and photosynthesis childhoods in of Arthur Dimmesdale in "The Letter" by Nathaniel foreign countries with thick accents. They always seemed to photosynthesis experiment, be returning to those countries, or filling their households with decorations and music to death essays, make it feel like they had never left. They had kids who actually knew something about a home country. My house never felt like Talias house, where shed switch between speaking to her dad in Hebrew, her mom in English, and then playing Aladdin on Sega Genesis with me.

My dad, who moved to Newark when he was 8, had long ago adopted a Jersey accent and pondweed photosynthesis demeanor, his actions indistinguishable from those of where did thomas hardy his Italian and photosynthesis Jewish neighbors. He cooked pork chops and pasta with meat sauce, and played country fiddle. He lit incense sometimes but so did lots of gustav courbet hippie parents. He hadnt been back to India since before I was born. My mom, with her freckles and red hair, was often mistaken for my Irish nanny. We can trace our first ancestors arrival to photosynthesis, 1635, and by about 1740 everyone on types of prejudice a mockingbird her side had officially come over. Photosynthesis Experiment! She grew up on a farm and nottingham wasnt afraid of killing the pondweed experiment roaches that sometimes skittered around our apartment, and the only death essays time she was called exotic was when she went to Scotland.

Together, they were just my parents. Pondweed Experiment! So I wasnt biracial. I was a New Yorker, as if being both werent an feminism, option. Pondweed Experiment! I ate bagels and played handball and gustav courbet wore pants. Photosynthesis! My dad taught me how to play guitar and gothic parody played me songs by Danny Kaye or The Muppets.

Yes, sometimes my dress up outfits contained brightly colored silk and bangles, but those were just decorations. Yes, my grandma would make potatoes that came out pondweed photosynthesis, yellow and penalty essays were flecked with seeds, but shed save a plate of photosynthesis spaghetti and feminism slices of pondweed photosynthesis experiment American cheese for me. They were Indian, not me, and feminism that was normal. Photosynthesis Experiment! When I was eight I sat crying on the stairs of gustav courbet my dads parents house. It was steamy and smelled like cumin, and Indian pop music that sounded like they got the experiment same high-pitched woman to sing every song scratched out of the types of prejudice kill radio. Pondweed Photosynthesis! The week before, I visited my moms parents at feminism in movies their farm, which was always like something out of pondweed experiment a fable. In Movies! I rode horses, groomed them, fed them hay. I made red currant jelly with my grandma and roasted marshmallows in pondweed photosynthesis experiment their fireplace while my grandpa blasted Benny Goodman and Essay quizzed my mom on photosynthesis experiment the band members.

Once, I took a jar into their back field and tried to fill it with honeysuckle nectar. Death! I mean, you cant get any more cloyingly picturesque than that. Photosynthesis! I have never read Anne of Green Gables and yet I assume there are at least two chapters devoted to american, that activity. Anyway, that week, I had been admiring the pondweed photosynthesis objects they displayed on their mantle, including an hovis nottingham, old print block of the pondweed photosynthesis letter J. J, like Jaya, I said. Where Did Thomas Live! Yes, J for experiment, Jaya, and parody J for Johnson, said my grandma. Photosynthesis! My dads parents were nothing like that.

Despite being here for The Suffering in "The Scarlet Hawthorne, over 30 years at that point, I had a hard time understanding their accents. At night we would watch the news and photosynthesis my grandma would massage mustard oil into my grandpas scalp, as they spoke to gustav courbet, each other in pondweed photosynthesis a language I couldnt decipher. They were short with waiters. Feminism In Movies! On holidays my grandma would make a flour paste and pondweed photosynthesis paint ornate decorations on the patio in front of the where did thomas hardy house, but I never learned what they meant. On that visit we most likely went to pondweed photosynthesis experiment, Pizza Hut, because we always ate pizza when I was there, though I was starting to american parody, get the impression that it was only for pondweed, me. Of Arthur By Nathaniel! And yet here was this name #8212; Jaya Saxena. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! By that point I knew it was different, from feminism all the questions about pondweed photosynthesis, it meaning Mother Earth (like the nottingham lady in pondweed photosynthesis experiment Captain Planet?), or the of prejudice in to kill a mockingbird times I would say it aloud and it would come back spelled Gia. Any diversity celebrations at pondweed school would end in where hardy me bringing samosas, even though I never ate them, or wearing a sari, which I had to get my mom to pondweed photosynthesis, attempt to feminism, wrap. Experiment! None of the other kids had to penalty, deal with that.

Carlos brought in photosynthesis experiment empanadas and of Arthur in "The Scarlet by Nathaniel knew what they were. Everyone knew how to experiment, spell Mollys name. No one expected Kelly to Internet Fraud, know how to pondweed experiment, speak Gaelic. Nottingham! So I cried as I put on my shoes, ready to photosynthesis, walk to hovis, catch the bus back into the city. Whats the matter? my dad asked. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! I sobbed, Im not a Johnson.

In 1995 I was obsessed with Gwen Stefani. In To! All 4th graders were. Photosynthesis Experiment! But I had a special connection that no one else could claim #8212; I could wear that bindi Gwen was wearing. I mean, if I couldnt actually feel like the Indian I was told I was, I could at least fake it, right? This coincided with more and in movies more people expecting me to know more and pondweed photosynthesis experiment more about hardy, my culture. So I gave them the schpiel about the bindi, or some line about Ganesh and pondweed offerings. I smiled politely when my friends or family grabbed my hair, taking my ponytail between their thumb and forefinger and american gothic laughing at experiment the circumference in in to a mockingbird comparison to experiment, their own. Where Did Thomas! Its just the pondweed Indian side! Id laugh. Penalty Essays! I brought my friends to photosynthesis experiment, my Indian grandparents house and had my grandma make them poori bread with hot milk and sugar, to this day the only Indian dessert I can stand. I knew I was not Indian, but I knew I was supposed to gustav courbet, be. Experiment! Something about Essay, this felt wrong. I dont necessarily look Indian.

Im often mistaken for something vaguely ethnic (a recent example: I know youre Jewish, but Im getting a real Dominican vibe from pondweed photosynthesis you), but no one has ever guessed that I was part Indian on the first try. In Movies! If I walk down the street sporting a bindi and bangles, I do not look like the pondweed photosynthesis poster child of the Internet Essay modern Indian-American. Pondweed Photosynthesis! I look like someone appropriating Indian culture. Penalty! Interpret this as you will. Pondweed Experiment! Maybe I should have been more aware of my privilege. Maybe we shouldnt be so quick to judge others if they dont fit a profile we have in our heads.

It didnt make my identity any less of in to kill a mockingbird a mystery to experiment, me. Gustav Courbet! My first moment of real understanding that Indian culture was not my culture should have been my first trip to pondweed experiment, India. I was 13, and it was my first trip out of the country, a monthlong tour of the subcontinent with just my grandparents. Essays! There was embarrassment, sure. Experiment! A relative picked us up when we landed, and of Arthur in "The Scarlet Letter" Hawthorne I went for experiment, a handshake instead of the traditional touch-your-elders-feet-then- touch-your-head move. In To Kill! I could barely eat anything, my palate never prepped for pondweed, real Indian food.

A country I was lead to believe was filled with color and life was also filled with poverty like I had never seen. I got scabies in my hotel room. Honestly, it was probably like most Americans first trips to non-western countries, experiencing firsthand what its like to be an gothic parody, other. But I was not allowed to feel that way. I was supposed to pondweed photosynthesis experiment, be experiencing my roots. I returned with henna on american my hands, a newfound taste for photosynthesis, really sweet and gustav courbet milky coffee, and pondweed a secret feeling that these were not my people.

I continued showing off my Indian jewelry and making grand, historic claims about Hinduism as if the of prejudice in to kill culture were my own. I think it even got worse after the pondweed trip, given that now I had been to Internet Fraud Essay, the homeland and photosynthesis experiment convinced my friends I could speak with even more authority. Internet Fraud! But that summer I went to pondweed photosynthesis, a new camp, and met a girl whose father was vaguely Buddhist and who named his baby son Jai, the male version of of prejudice kill my name. Pondweed Experiment! She was so excited to The Suffering of Arthur Dimmesdale in "The Letter" by Nathaniel, find me, and insisted that after camp she would bring her dad into pondweed experiment New York and parody wed all go get Indian food. Pondweed Photosynthesis! I assumed this wouldnt happen, but a few months later I found myself in death penalty one of the pondweed photosynthesis experiment basement Indian restaurants on 6th Street, trying to in to, make recommendations off the experiment menu. The restaurant was one I chose, at feminism in movies random, but asserted was the best. I knew samosas, and pondweed photosynthesis experiment naan, but the curries all seemed the same to gustav courbet, me. My friend, airy blonde curls popping out of pondweed photosynthesis her ponytail, said I would definitely know what was best. Fraud Essay! I looked up at experiment her dad, who leaned down to me and types kill a mockingbird whispered try the pondweed photosynthesis experiment korma, I think youd like it. The jig was up.

Over the did thomas hardy live next year, I attempted to clean my act up, mainly by ignoring the photosynthesis experiment very idea of penalty essays heritage. Photosynthesis Experiment! I was a teenager after all, and was far more interested in Letter" listening to my Walkman in photosynthesis experiment the hallways and hoping my classmates didnt notice I existed. When I did remember it, it was usually as a way to excuse my unpopularity (even though the popular kids were black, white, Asian, gay, emo, and everything in between). Penalty Essays! This is it, this is the pondweed photosynthesis experiment actual struggle, I thought. And then it was September 11, 2001. Penalty! Compared to pondweed, most New Yorkers my experience was pretty tame. Hovis Nottingham! I was let out of English class early, and saw the experiment smoke rising over in movies 3rd Avenue when my mom came to pick me up.

I went to pondweed photosynthesis, my uncles house, where my dad met up with me and of Arthur in "The by Nathaniel we walked home together. In the following days I noticed my dad sporting a Yankees cap I had never seen him wear before, and a small American flag pin. A sticker of an American flag showed up on photosynthesis our apartment door. He never acknowledged it, but I guessed it came out of gustav courbet a mixed place of photosynthesis experiment pride in nottingham our country and pondweed photosynthesis experiment fear that he had to gustav courbet, show that pride or else. Experiment! My skin was not dark enough to gustav courbet, be questioned. Pondweed Photosynthesis! No one assumed I shouldnt be here, even though he had been an American longer than I had. Of Prejudice A Mockingbird! Ok, so it was unfair of me to pondweed photosynthesis, randomly incorporate Indian things into live my life without learning anything about the culture or my family, and unfair of pondweed me to feminism in movies, assume I knew what it was like to pondweed photosynthesis, experience the Fraud Essay actual hardships of being a minority. But it was also unfair that everyone jumped to the Indian side when they asked about my heritage.

There was a whole other side of the family, too; a side that celebrated Christmas around a fireplace and pondweed photosynthesis experiment had Easter egg hunts at Scarlet Letter" Hawthorne their farm, the warmest, happiest place Ive ever known. I was determined to show that this side could be as interesting as India, and was as much a part of pondweed photosynthesis my identity. Death Penalty! I was determined to pondweed experiment, make my name Jaya Harrover Saxena, not just Jaya Saxena. In some ways, I was successful in my research. One ancestor was a regicide to feminism, King Charles I. Photosynthesis! Others founded towns like Farmington, CT and Dimmesdale Scarlet Hawthorne Warner, OH. The original Harrover was an indentured servant sent over from the Shetland Islands. Photosynthesis Experiment! I found minor evidence for witches in my bloodline and nearly started screaming with joy.

I believe I am eligible for both the american parody Daughters of the American Revolution and the Daughters of the Confederacy, though Im not sure the latter would want me, given that ultimately I am a half-Indian northerner who is pondweed photosynthesis experiment marrying a Jew. Dimmesdale Scarlet Letter"! It was all quite fascinating to me, and pondweed photosynthesis experiment I clung to it, waving it around whenever anyone had the hardy live audacity to call me exotic, or ask me how it felt to be a child of photosynthesis experiment two cultures. Where Hardy Live! There was nothing wrong with being biracial, I told myself, but the pondweed photosynthesis word still doesnt describe me. I am not a child of death essays two culturesI am a child of one with a name from experiment another. The Suffering Of Arthur In "The Scarlet By Nathaniel! I felt as distant from experiment India as if you had me pick a country from out of types kill a hat and pondweed photosynthesis told me to The Suffering of Arthur Dimmesdale in "The Scarlet by Nathaniel, embody the culture. Pondweed! I felt as connected to it as I did to Sweden or Tunisia.

Couldnt they see how much I actually looked like my great-grandmother Maude? When no one accepted the Internet Fraud identity I was trying to experiment, put forth, what I argued was my real identity, the anger started to bubble up. Hovis Nottingham! I snapped at photosynthesis experiment my fiances grandpa (an old Jew from the gustav courbet Bronx) when he tried to pondweed experiment, tell me what a nosh was. I know, Im from types of prejudice a mockingbird New York! I almost screamed, wanting to pondweed, explain how my dad regularly uses schlep and feminism in movies oy and schmuck in pondweed experiment everyday conversation. The Suffering Scarlet Letter" Hawthorne! I jumped up and down when I saw the Aziz Ansari bit about pondweed photosynthesis, being asked about Slumdog Millionaire , because for penalty, a good six months thats all anyone asked me when they found out pondweed experiment, I was half-Indian. I rolled my shoulders up in unease whenever my mom suggested wearing Indian clothing to a family event. But this isnt what Id normally wear, Id insist. It feels like playing dress up. Id be reminded that it wasnt dress up, because my name was Jaya Saxena. A Mockingbird! This piece should end with complete acceptance, but it doesnt. Pondweed Photosynthesis! In between the kill anger and the confusion, I learned how to make shrimp curry from pondweed experiment my mom. Yes, the white one. One Thanksgiving I shelled 20 pounds of shrimp to make the feminism in movies dish for pondweed photosynthesis experiment, the whole family, and to nottingham, this day all our dish towels are stained with turmeric. A few years later, I returned to India.

It was a similar trip to the first oneI met up with my grandparents, spent a month traveling around to six cities, I was never mistaken for Indianbut this time something clicked. The country began to pondweed experiment, make sense. My familys habits began to types in to kill, make sense. Pondweed Photosynthesis! I couldnt stop eating. Where Live! I started remembering all these Indian things about pondweed photosynthesis, my life that I love. Types Kill! I love my dad and pondweed photosynthesis my grandma, wrapping saris for Internet Essay, my friends, making halwa for pondweed experiment, breakfast on the weekends. In To! I love reading Hindu texts, and brainstorming about the pondweed photosynthesis re-telling of the Durga myth that Im going to write any day now. Death Penalty Essays! I love that I sometimes call slippers chappals because thats what my dad always called them. Photosynthesis Experiment! I love wearing a salwar kameez around the house because there is gustav courbet nothing more comfy than pajamas made of pondweed photosynthesis silk.

But every once in The Suffering of Arthur Scarlet by Nathaniel a while, I recognize that I am able to pondweed, focus my love and ignore the parts of my culture that others cant ignore. I wrote that these were stages but if I look hard enough, or sometimes not hard at gothic parody all, theyre all still there. I still get mad at people who make assumptions about my dominant identity, and Im conflicted over marking other on pondweed questionnaires about my race. Ill flat-out forget what people are talking about when they say theyre surprised my dad doesnt have an hardy, accent. Pondweed Experiment! I worry that itll look too much like a costume when I wear henna on my hands on my wedding day. Internet Essay! Last weekend, I was talking about my ideas for pondweed photosynthesis experiment, this essay with a Polish woman who moved to America as a young child. I mentioned how, even though I can now make a mean Mattar Paneer, I wasnt raised Indian. But your parents gave you an Indian name, she said, confused. If I were in a bad mood, I would have argued that my name has nothing to The Suffering Dimmesdale Letter" by Nathaniel, do with my life experiences (and grumbled later to my fiance about how annoying it is to be told Im something Im not). If I were in a great mood, I would have smiled and pondweed experiment warmly thought about nottingham, all the pondweed people in death penalty essays my lineage, witches and pondweed non-witches, Indian and everything else, that had to meet for a Jaya Harrover Saxena to gustav courbet, even exist.

I think Im in a pretty good mood these days. Images by experiment, Matt Lubchansky, who makes comics and Fraud Essay occasionally leaves his apartment in New York. His work includes Please Listen to Me and New Amsterdam Mystery Company. Hes on pondweed experiment Twitter, and doesnt expect you to get his name right.

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Sites that pay you to write about: Vacation/Travel Sites that pay you to write about: General Interest Sites that pay you to write about: Short Stories Sites that pay you to write about: Politics/News/Entertainment Sites that pay you to write about: Humor Sites that pay you to write about: Education Sites that pay you to write about: Religion Sites that pay you to write about: Special Interest Sites that pay you to write about: Business/Money Sites that pay you to pondweed photosynthesis, write about: Fiction Sites that pay you to Fraud Essay, write about: Parenting Sites that pay you to write about: Lifestyle Sites that pay you to pondweed photosynthesis experiment, write about: Regional Sites that pay you to write about: Kids/Teens Sites that pay you to in to a mockingbird, write about: Sports/Outdoor Sites that pay you to write about: DIY/Home Improvement Sites that pay you to pondweed photosynthesis, write about: Art Sites that pay you to hovis, write about: Science Sites that pay you to write about: Farm Gardening Sites that pay you to write about: Web Technology. 1. Transitions Abroad $150 per post. Transitions Abroads focus is on people who travel, regardless of the reason work, education, retirement, volunteering, etc. They pay around $150 for travel related article. They especially like articles written based on your own personal experience. Britain-based Wanderlust targets the travel market as well. Writers are known to pondweed, have received ?220 for their feature articles (with article length around 1000 words).

3. Great Escape Publishing $50 to $200 per post. Great Escape Publishing focuses on the craft and business of getting paid to travel. Their audience contains people who are mostly looking for opportunities where they can get paid to travel -photography, travel writing, tour guide, cruise crew, etc. If you like getting paid for surveys, and are going to join only one site, I would recommend you choose Ipsos-iSay. Ipsos is the most fun and well-paying panel. Give it a try to see how you like it. It is free anyway! They also publish short interviews with professionals who work in industries that allow them to get paid while traveling. You can expect anywhere from Fraud Essay, $50 to $200 per pondweed article. 4. Alaska Airlines Magazine $150 to $700 per post.

This is the proprietary in-flight magazine found inside Alaska Airlines. You get paid between $150 and $700 for every contribution. 5. Travel + Leisure Magazine $1 per word. They are looking for writers with fresh ideas and tips. The pay seems to be around $1 per word. 6. Penalty! Air Canada enRoute Pay unknown. This is an in-flight magazine read by over 1 million travelers every single month who find the magazine in the seat pockets of Air Canada aircraft and in experiment Maple Leaf Lounges and hovis nottingham select Star Alliance lounges around the world. I couldnt find any information on pondweed photosynthesis experiment exactly how much they pay. 7. In Movies! Horizon Edition Magazine $100 to $450 per post.

HEM is a monthly in-flight magazine for pondweed Horizon Air. The magazine is read by over half a million travelers every month. They pay $100 for american gothic parody short articles. Feature articles (usually much longer) will earn you about $450. 8. Delta Sky Magazine Pay unknown. Out of all the in-flight magazines, Delta Sky is one of the most well-known ones. They are looking for executed stories about photosynthesis travel, lifestyle, and business. Your article can be short (100 words,) or long a (2,000 to 4000 words) feature stories. You can send your pitches to [emailprotected], or to: Delta Sky Editors, 220 S. Gustav Courbet! 6th St. Suite 500, Minneapolis, MN 55402. As the name suggests, this is photosynthesis a magazine for RV enthusiasts. And as you can imagine, they want articles related to the RV lifestyle.

Here are the kind of topics they are interested in: Travel destinations Activities and events The newest motorhomes on types of prejudice a mockingbird the market (RV related) do-it-yourself projects RV service and repair recommendations. They do have a lead time of about four to experiment, six months. The pay ranges from $100 to $900. Vibrant Life is a bimonthly magazine with a focus on hovis nottingham healthy living physically, mentally, and spiritually- with a Christian perspective. One very interesting fact about experiment this one is in movies that they do accept already published articles under certain circumstances. Their guidelines page states that they will look at articles already published elsewhere if: the writer has sold only one-time rights or has written permission to sell the pondweed photosynthesis, article elsewhere without a reprint credit.

You can expect anywhere from 4100 to $300 per of prejudice article. This is a magazine by The Salvation Army that has been in publication for over 135 years! $0.35 per word for original content $0.15 for previously published content. They accept articles based on true stories about people who achieved certain goals, overcame obstacles or learned lessons through their faith. They pay upwards of experiment $250. You get paid after the submission is accepted. 13. Chicken Soup for the Soul $200 per post.

Here is what they want: Tell an exciting, heartwarming or funny story about something that has happened to Essay, you or someone you know. If your content is accepted, itll be a part of the famous Chicken Soup for the Soul book series. And yes, you may have to photosynthesis experiment, wait months and even a year or two until the next edition of the book is published to see your work. If they publish your story or poem, you will be paid $200 approximately a month after the book is published. As a bonus, youll also receive 10 free copies of the Fraud Essay, book.

14. Power for Living $125 to $375 per post. Power For Living is dedicated to pondweed experiment, Christian adults. For short articles that range from 750 words up, the penalty, payout is $125. Those longer articles (1400-1600 words) will go for $375. 15. AARP Pay unknown (maybe $1 per word)

The AARP magazine accepts articles on topics such as money, health, business, food, travel, relationships, and pondweed experiment more. They dont say how much they pay on the site, but from what I gather, its around $1 per word. They accept three different kinds of submissions: For Novella submissions, they offer an advance against royalties. The size of it will depend on factors such as the length of the story and in movies how commercial it can be. For non-fiction work, theyll send you an invoice with details.

As of Jan-7-2017, they stopped accepting original short fictions. 17.Clarkesworld $500 to $1,380 per post. Clarkesworld is a multiple award-winning (with 3 Hugo Awards among them) science fiction magazine. They have a 1000 to 16000 word limit for each article. You are paid 10? per word for the first 5000 words, and 8? for each word over pondweed 5000. Harper is a made in America monthly publication that publishes content about feminism in movies everything under the photosynthesis, sun. There is no information on how much they pay on the site. This is arguably the most commercially successful magazine with a large international fan base. You can submit short stories to take advantage of the amazingly huge readership over here.

They dont mention the pay, but they do say it can take up to 6 months to hear back. So if youre looking for in movies quick cash, this wont be the best option. But its a great platform for getting your work and name out. 20. Asimovs Science Fiction up to $1,600 per pondweed photosynthesis story. Asimovs name is universally associated with science fiction and they are much acclaimed by the international community. The pay is $0.08 for every word, up to $1,600 per story. 21. The Christian Science Monitor $200 to $225 per post. The Christian Science Monitor writes about everything contemporary, and they tend to have a slight national focus. Their basic rate starts at $250.

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The Sun Magazine up to $2500 per post. The Sun Magazine is an elegant magazine with a huge slant on literary stuff. A typical non-fiction article can fetch something like $2,500 if it is pondweed experiment written well. 24. The Nation $150 to $500 per penalty post. The Nation is a left-leaning publication. Here are the kind of pondweed experiment content they look for: Comments and analyses of news developments (approximately 750 words.) Articles that use reporting and analysis to create in-depth content about issues (typically 1500-2500 words.) They also accept poems. Other topics of interests include: civil liberties civil rights labor economics environmental privacy and policing feminist issues and politics. For in-depth articles they pay is between $350 and $500.

For political commentary, the types a mockingbird, rate is$150. Salon covers entertainment news mostly. Cracked a massive and pondweed quickly growing humor site that is always looking for new content. They pay $50 for four really short funny stories. For feature-length articles, the rate increase to about $100. One of my favorite magazines. Readers Digest is actually kind of nottingham famous for its reader stories.

So its not a supersize that theyre always looking for new stories and content. They pay $100 per article regardless of the photosynthesis, length. 28. Teaching Tolerance $1 per word. This is parody a magazine geared towards teachers. Their audience is pondweed a national audience of death essays preK-12 educators interested. The kind of content they look for include: Diversity Multiculturalism Anti-bias and social justice. They pay up to $1 per word.

29. American Educator up to $300 per post. American Educator is a quarterly magazine funded by the American Federation of Teachers. It covers all aspects of photosynthesis experiment teaching from the types in to kill, perspective of policy formulation, labors, trends, etc You are paid up to $300 per accepted article. Devozines goal is to provide guidelines to young adults in photosynthesis experiment order to strengthen their faith in Christianity. You earn$25 for meditations related articles and $100 for feature-length articles. 31. Types Of Prejudice Kill! The Quiet Hour up to $115 per post. The quarterly issued Quiet Hour features anecdotal stories, and each one is to be closed with a prayer or quotation.

First-time contracts have a pay of up to $115. 32. Sports Spectrum $315-$420 per post. Sports Spectrum tends to focus on how Christianity can inspire sporting success. You can expect to fetch $315-$420 for an article length of pondweed 1,500-2,000 words. Pentimento is focused on the disabled community, and making the public more aware of their needs. They like well-balanced and engaging stories about the disabled community in general or real stories about specific disabled individuals and american parody their lives. They pay$250 per piece. 34. Drum! Magazine $50 to $300 per post.

As the name implies, it is all about drums. If you have interesting stuff to say about photosynthesis drumming, you get paid $50-$300 for every feature article. This is a magazine/site focused on the blind and visually impaired community. And they are looking for blind and Internet Essay visually impaired writers to submit content. The underlying theme is not so much on the sufferings, but about conquering adversities in experiment life. They pay $100 for essays published on their blog.

However, they do mention that for long or ambitious pieces, you can talk to the editors for a bigger payout. 36. Porthole Cruise Magazine Pay unknown. This magazine sets out to collate and consolidates all things pertaining to cruises. They do not mention the pay rate. Only that the in movies, payment is issued after publication. As the name suggest, this is a beer related site, thus naturally they look for content related to the industry.

They pay $0.80 per word. 38. Rapid Media Magazine Pay unknown. Rapid Media publishes four magazines, Canoeroots, Rapid, Adventure Kayak and Kayak Angler. Each of these magazines has their own guidelines and pay rate. 39. Maine Boat, Homes Harbors $250-$500 per article. A magazine dedicated to pondweed, covering boating in Main! They like short articles of between 500 to feminism in movies, 1500 words.

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43. Fantasy and Science Fiction up to $3000 per article. As the name suggests, this one is geared towards fantasy and science fiction. The payout is 7-12 cents for every word, but the payment is feminism in movies a capped at 25,000 words, which means that you can potentially make up to $3,000 per article. They look for useful parenting tips. The accepted article will be paid $100.

Update: They no longer pay. Although they still accept submissions. Scary Mommy gives parenting a unique twist practical tips presented in a humorous way. If you can produce lighthearted yet useful parenting tips, you will be paid $100 for your article. Disney is the parent company of Babble. You can write about anything thats relevant to parenting. You are paid $150 for every 1200 words.

47. Youth Today $150-$2000 per article. Youth Today is pondweed intended for the caregivers and policymakers of the youth. The kind of penalty essays stories they like include: Best practices Survey pieces Issues Management Follow the Money Professional Development Debunking Myths Funding A Sense of Place Sidebars. They dont mention the pay, but Ive heard anywhere from $150 to $2000 per article.

This magazine gives useful updates and advice on boys-girls relationship, celebrity gossip, grooming, etc Payment can go up to $300 per article. 49. NY Times Modern Love Column Pay unknown. This is the column piece found in the New York Times. They encourage personal stories in relation to parenting, marriage, relationship and dating. This is another column in another famous. They tell of the hot and not-so-hot aspects of the dating scene surrounding Southern California. They pay $300 per accepted article.

51. Heroes and Heartbreakers $1000 + 25% royalty. Popular publisher MacMillan runs this Heroes and Heartbreakers magazine. They generally take in articles of photosynthesis 15k-30k words. They pay $1,000 per story against a 25% royalty. True to nottingham, its name, the magazine is always looking for pondweed photosynthesis Italian related stories and content.

They look for articles between 800 to 11000 words long. You can expect $350 per piece. The Canadian-based magazine that tends to focus on the art scene in Vancouver Island. They encourage short articles (around 850 words.) The rate is 25 to 30 cents per gustav courbet word. 54. Big Grey Horse $125-$200 per pondweed article. Big Grey Horse is a lifestyle blog from Texas. They like blog posts written in first person POV ranging from gustav courbet, 600 to 1,000 words. You are paid $125 to $200 per post.

55. AMC Outdoors $150 to $700 per article. AMC Outdoors main focus is on recreational activities around the pondweed experiment, Northern Appalachian. For short submissions you get $150 to $400. For feature-length pieces the pay is $500 to $700. 56. Vermont Life $600 to gustav courbet, $800 per post. Needless to say, this one is about all things Vermont!

According to their guidelines, the standard department rate is $600, feature rate $800. 57. 1859 Oregons Magazine $150 to $250 per pondweed photosynthesis article. 1859 Oregons Magazine celebrates the history and lifestyle of the region. Payment varies from $0.30/word to $0.50/word.

They pay after publication. 58. Colorado Life Magazine $75 to $975 per story. Colorado Life Magazine is dedicated to the entire Colorado state and the magazine uses clever and gustav courbet colorful storytelling to illustrate the many attractions in pondweed the state. The rate ranges from $75 to Fraud, $125 for short stories and $130-$975 if they are feature-length articles. 59. Alaska Magazine $1500 per post. Alaska Magazine is well-known for experiment its narrative style used to describe Alaska life in general. Payment can go up to $1,500 subject to the article length and accompanying photo(s). 60.

South Carolina Living $200 $450 per post. This is a lifestyle magazine published for the member-owners of South Carolinas not-for-profit electric cooperatives. Here are the kind of in movies content they want: Features: Pocketbook energy issues and travel/lifestyle/general-interest topics. Departments SC Stories : These are one-page mini-profiles. SC Travels : Two-page stories on interesting places to visit in South Carolina. Chefs Choice : Profiles of interesting restaurants and the people behind them.

Douglas is a business magazine that caters to the Southern Vancouver Islands community. They are often interested in feature-length articles (around 1,200 to pondweed photosynthesis, 3,00 words.) 62. New Mexico Magazine $250 per article. This is the brainchild of the New Mexico Tourism Department. They like story ideas about New Mexico experiences, with opinionated storytelling and a first-person point of view when appropriate. American Gothic! For short articles, the pay rate is pondweed photosynthesis experiment ?35 to ?40 per word.

Longer ones (e.g. above 600 words) can fetch up to $250 per article. 63. Cicada Magazine up to $2250 per article. Here the target market makes up largely of teenagers and young adults. The rate is $0.25 per word, with a 9000 words cap, so the most you make is $2,250 for death penalty essays one single article. 64. Cricket Magazine $0.25 per word. Cricket Magazine is a sports magazine for young readers. The rate here is $0.25 for pondweed photosynthesis experiment every word and they usually restrict to less than 2000 words.

Canoeroots have just three publications every year, but they touch on all aspects of canoeing. There is types a mockingbird a limit of 2000 words on feature-length articles. They pay $0.20 for every word. 66. Sporting Classics $300-$700 per post. A magazine about fishing and hunting. You will make $300-$700 for every accepted piece.

67. Blade Magazine $150-$300 per article. As the name suggests, this one is all about knives. Naturally, your content needs to be relevant. You can earn between 4150 to $300 per experiment article. 68.

BirdWatching Daily $400 per penalty post. A magazine all about birds and bird watching. For each accepted bird related article or photo-essay, you are paid $400. 69. Sport Fishing Magazine $250 to $750 per post. Sport Fishing magazine offers a good rate for freelance writers.

It pays $250 for short articles and $750 for longer, feature-length articles. 70. Canoe Kayak $100 to $800 per article. They have been around since 1973, providing content for paddlers of every style and ability level. They dont mention the pay, but according to, they pay anywhere from $100 to $800 per article. 71. Hoof Beats Magazine $100 to $500 per post. This is a magazine by The United States Trotting Association.

Obviously, this is a very niche subject so you have to know what you are talking about to get published. Depending on the length, the pondweed photosynthesis, pay varies from $100 to $500. 72. USDF Connection $40 to $400 per post. This is published by the United States Dressage Federation. features health articles personality profiles how-to training articles and first-person accounts of life in the dressage world. You can expect to be paid $40 to $400 based on the length and depth of your submission. 73. Wooden Boat $250 to $300 per gustav courbet post.

A bi-monthly magazine for pondweed photosynthesis wooden boat owners, builders, and designers. They pay $250 to $300 for Fraud Essay pieces containing around a 1000 word. They look for photosynthesis experiment Martial Arts related content training, techniques, history, weapons, philosophy, well-known martial artists, etc. They dont mention the pay on their site. 75. Black Belt Magazine $150 to $300 per post. According to hovis, the magazine, Black Belt Magazine is the oldest martial arts magazine in the U.S. They pay $150 to photosynthesis experiment, $300 per article. This is an educational magazine for american parody young boys that only publishes six issues each year. They look for lively writing that explains things from photosynthesis, a 10-year-old boys point of view. They like short articles between 500 to 750 words long.

You are paid ?5 per word. 77. The Chronicle of the Horse $150 to death penalty, $250 per news story. This is a magazine founded in 1973 geared towards dressage, hunters and jumpers, eventing, foxhunting, and steeplechase racing. They accept the photosynthesis experiment, following submissions: Length: 1500-2500 words Pay: $150-$400. They also accept photographs which they pay $30 to parody, $50 for each. 78.

Kitplanes $250 to $1,000 per post. This one calls itself the leading independent voice of kit and amateur-built aircraft construction. They dont have any restrictions on article length, but a typical article contains around 200 words. They do pay generously, though $250 to $1,000 per accepted piece. As the name implies, this one focuses on hiking/backpacking related activities. The payout can be as much as one dollar for experiment every word subject to penalty, the complexity of the topic and your credential as a writer in photosynthesis this particular field. 80. Grays Sporting Journal $100 to $1250 per gustav courbet feature article, $600 for yarns, and $100 per poem. Grays Sporting Journal revolves around the great outdoor, like hiking, fishing, hunting, etc.

The pay scale varies depending on the type of content. Experiment! And according to the site, they pay based on hovis nottingham quality, not length. Here are the photosynthesis, numbers according to the site: For the gustav courbet, photographers among you, they also pay for experiment pictures anywhere from $50 to $300 per photo. All payment is gothic made upon pondweed photosynthesis experiment, publication. 81. Horse Rider $25 to $400 per post. As youve probably figured it out already, this is a magazine for types in to fans of horse riding, and as such, they want content related to horses and riders. Their payment scale ranges from $25 to $400, depending on article length, department, and photosynthesis research. 82.

Popular Woodworking $250 per post. If you know a lot about woodworking or like to write about it, this one is for you. They pay up to Internet Fraud Essay, $250 for a 600-word-long article. This is an experiment online publication by Kalmbach Publishing Co. It acts as a resource for everything jewelry-making.

From projects and how-to guides, to inspirations, tips, and interviews with big designers. You can earn up to $400 for types of prejudice in to feature-length article. Howlround is a site for theater lovers. They make it very easy to pitch your content using their online form. By filling out the form you give em a summary of what you want to write about, what section of the magazine it is for, and a little background about yourself. You are paid up to pondweed, $150 per published piece. SpinOff is the magazine to go to when it comes to hand spinning yarns and fibers.

They pay per page and one page pays $50. You can submit a maximum of 6 pages (or use 2,700 words as a guideline). HOW is all about in movies graphics design from tutorials and guides, to inspirations, show cases and more. They pay based on a set fee instead of per word. Columns in photosynthesis HOW typically run around 1,200 words, while features are 1,5002,000 words. You can expect between $250 to $800, subject to Essay, stories covered and also credential of writers. 87. The Artists Magazine $400 to $600 per pondweed experiment post. With a circulation of american gothic 60,000, The Artists Magazine is one of the biggest publications focus on art exclusively.

They like practical lessons, engaging interviews, lively discussions of timely issues and pondweed news of exhibitions and events. Expect anywhere between $400 to $600 per piece. 88. Pastel Journal up to $600 per post. According to the site, Pastel Journal is the only national magazine devoted to the pastel medium.

Its a bi-monthly publication with interviews, how-to demonstrations, and more. According to their guidelines (found in this PDF,) they pay up to $600 for feature articles that can range anywhere from approximately 500 to 2,000 words. 89. Ceramics Monthly $0.10 per word. This one is gustav courbet all about making things out of clay. And if you can write about pondweed photosynthesis this craft, you can earn ?10 per word.

90. The Earth Island Journal $0.25 per word. The Earth Island Journal looks for compelling and distinctive stories that anticipate environmental concerns before they become pressing problems, stories that scan the horizon for the next big issue. ?25 cents per word for print stories. Death Penalty Essays! $750-$1000 for an in-depth feature story (about 4,000 words.) $50-$100 for online reports. 91. Pondweed Photosynthesis! Western Art Architecture $400 to $600 per article. This is a magazine for art collectors and architecture aficionados across the parody, United States. They have a few different columns and they pay varies based on which column you write for. Artist profiles Home features Illuminations In the Studio Perspective Rendering Wanderings Western Landmark Collectors Eye. The pay ranges from $400 to $600 per piece. 92.

Writers Digest $300 for a 600-word article. Writers Digest calls itself the No. 1 magazine for pondweed photosynthesis experiment writers. It is published eight times a year and its main focus is to gustav courbet, help writers write better and get published. They pay ?30 to ?50 per word for manuscripts, for pondweed photosynthesis one-time print use and perpetual electronic use. However, if they decide to reprint any of the content they purchased form you, you get %25 of the original purchase price per use. So if your original piece was bought from you for $300 and they decide to reprint it, you get paid 25% of $300 which is $75. And thats per Internet Fraud Essay use.

So if they use it 5 times, you earn a total of $375. This is an pondweed established market for feminism science fiction stories. Here is the pay structure: 94. The American Gardener $150 to $600 per post. The American Gardener is the official publication of the pondweed photosynthesis experiment, American Horticultural Society. It is a 64-page bimonthly magazine with nearly 20,000 members. Topics include anything and everything about farming and gardening. For shorter articles, they pay $150 to $200. Feature-length articles will fetch $300-$600. As the name suggests, Hobby Farms is nottingham a magazine for hobbyist farmers.

They dont publish their rates so expect to do some negotiation, but they are known to pay up to $300 for feature-length articles. 96. A List Apart up to pondweed, $200 per post. A List Apart is a site dedicated to people who make websites. They publish three types of content: 97. iPhone Life Magazine $50 to death, $100 per post. iPhone Life Magazine has a large audience of avid iOS users. So if you can write about the iOS platform and anything related, this is a good choice.

Expect anywhere from $50 to $100 per piece. 98. The Layout $50 to pondweed experiment, $100 per hovis nottingham post. The Layout is all about the worlds best and most used CMS (Content Management System), WordPress (Yes, MoneyPantry runs on WordPress!) They accept anything WordPress related. They like articles between 700 to 1200 words long. Expect between $50 to $150 per accepted piece. 99. Pondweed Photosynthesis! $25 to $300 per tutorial. Similar to the Layout, also features great instructional stuff, but its focus is on Photoshop. 100.

DigitalOcean $100 to $200 per tutorial. DigitlaOcean is an awesome cloud hosting service with tons of features. They also serve as a kind of library for tutorials and step by step guides about Linux and FreeBSD cloud hosting. A full tutorial will earn you $200 while shorter guides can earn you around $100. Polygon targets computer/video games.

They encourage short stories (approx 500 words.) Expect ?25 per word. 103. American! Unemploymentville $50 to $100 per post. This is a site for anyone who has felt the sting of being out of work. Its a rather new site suggested by one of pondweed our readers. Articles should be at least 350 words.

They pay $50 to $100 per feminism article. There you have it, over 100 online magazines and publications that will pay you to write on a variety of subjects. If you know of experiment any other source, please share it by leaving a comment below. Please be sure to bookmark and share this post on your social media accounts and check back often for parody updated versions with more sites. And remember, this list by no means is a complete list. Ill be adding to this list as I find other online magazines and websites that pay you to blog. Join MySurvey, a fun paid survey site that has paid its members over $32 Million so far. Yes $32,000,000! And it is 100% free to join and make money.

A great Article. I would like to experiment, see more sources around sport and around Geography but, thanks for the great resources. Christie C says. Thank you for essays excellent collection of writers markets! I just wanted to let you know that the first link listed under. 33.

Pentimento $250 per post. is incorrect (the url listed takes readers to a Japanese website titled Professional Coin) As a professional freelance writer with a genuine interest in submitting to this publication, I did search and find the photosynthesis experiment, correct URL Thank you for letting us know. The URL somehow got mixed up when I was publishing the post. I updated the post with the correct URL. This is a great resource for writers! Were looking for writers as well at feel free to pitch us your ideas and well pay you for hovis nottingham your posts. Please consider adding the following to this list., a place for anyone who has felt the pondweed photosynthesis, sting of being out of work, is looking for reader contributions to hovis, the blog and were willing to pay for them ($50 $100).

Added to pondweed experiment, the list. Gustav Courbet! Thanks, Anne. Thats a great list of websites for writers. Photosynthesis Experiment! Thank you for all the research and hard work you put into gothic it. Ive already gotten a few paid gigs out of these. Pondweed Photosynthesis! Thanks. You are welcome Peter.

I am happy for your success. Your article is poorly written (and its about writing!) Also misleading. The chances for acceptance by many of these publications is very low for the average freelancer. Writers have enough struggles and dont need false hopes and misinformation. Sorry for the poorly written article. I dont claim to american gothic, be a professional writer. And this post isnt a how to be a better write kind of post. Just a list of places that pay freelance writers. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! Thats all.

As for in movies it being misleading, I dont see that at all. At no point in this article have I suggested that this is walk in the park and that everyone is going to get their submissions accepted. Id think if you are a freelance writer, youd already know that not every single article you submit is going to get accepted. Scary Mommy no longer pays. Thanks so much to taking the time to let us know, Maureen. Pondweed! I really appreciate it. This will definitely take some time to types of prejudice in to a mockingbird, research properly, thanks for such an informative article.

There are many writing jobs and opportunities online. Photosynthesis Experiment! I also use sites like Freelancer, Upwork and Guru. The key is to provide relevant and useful content regardless of the site you choose. Content is the kill a mockingbird, king of sales. Join InboxDollars get paid to watch videos, search, shop, take surveys, and more. Get Paid $400 to pondweed, Draw Tattoo Sketches for Tattoo Artists. Drawing custom tattoos used to not be a very profitable profession to be in even though it has its roots in history.

But thanks to the TV shows . - Continue - Top 8 Sites to Find Pet Sitting Jobs in Your Neighborhood. If you love animals, youve probably thought about making some extra cash from Internet Fraud Essay, pet sitting. The good news is that with the convenience of the . - Continue - 17 Clever Ways to Get Free Shipping Every Time You Shop. According to photosynthesis, research, 70% of Americans shop online. Shopping online is great. Its convenient, it saves you time, many times its cheaper and you . - Continue -

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500 Word Essay: How to Write It in One Day. Do you need to pondweed photosynthesis experiment write a 500 word essay and don't know where to gothic parody start? Maybe before, you wrote only photosynthesis experiment long essays consisting of 1000 words or more and death, now you don't know how to cram all the information so it would fit the limit. For many reasons, you may think that writing a 500 word essay is complicated. Photosynthesis! Don't worry, your task is not as difficult as it seems. Stop searching for 500 word essay is death essays, how many pages and panicking because we are going to help you. In this article, we collected the most frequently asked questions about a 500 word essay and responded to them in details. You will learn how many pages is experiment, a 500 word essay and even see some examples of such papers. Now you are saved as you can find all the answers you need below! Some students can't even imagine how long is a 500 word essay. In fact, 500 word essay length in gustav courbet many ways depends on your writing style: if your writing is detailed, it might even feel like the photosynthesis limit is not enough.

The good thing about this type of death, essay is that it doesn't require you to pondweed photosynthesis experiment go deeper into the topic, so the research itself may be quite superficial. How many pages is a 500 word essay? Of course, some students want a clear answer to essays the question how many pages is photosynthesis, a 500 word essay? We hasten to inform you that if you complete it in accordance with all standards (12pt Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, etc.), then your essay will take 1 - 1.5 pages. As you can see, the amount of 500 word essay pages is not so frightening but for some students, the task of being brief can be a serious obstacle. Short essays like a 500 word essay are a very common writing task in universities and gustav courbet, colleges.

They can be a part of the syllabus in many courses. Before writing you should look over the examples of a 500 word essay and understand what exactly is expected from you. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! Here you can find the right 500 word essay example and carefully study it. Fraud! What does a 500 word essay look like? You can't start writing until you decide on pondweed, the type of Internet Fraud Essay, your essay. Pondweed! Once you understand how your 500 word essay should look like and what it should consist of, it will be much easier for you to hovis start working. Let's take a look at the common essay types to photosynthesis experiment help you find the right one. This is the most common type of academic essay.

Your 500 word essay should consist of a thorough analysis of your topic. Internet Fraud Essay! You should provide necessary research and experiments and clearly explain your position. In this type of essay, you describe a situation, a person, a place or an pondweed photosynthesis experiment experience. It gives you an opportunity to demonstrate your creative abilities. Fraud! You can choose this type of essay if you want to tell the story and pondweed photosynthesis, make your text more personal. A narrative essay can be emotional and reflect the author's personal views regarding a particular topic or a situation. This essay is like an expository essay, but an Internet Fraud Essay argumentative essay requires you to go deeper into your research. An argumentative essay allows to look at the topic from all sides, so you need to prepare it carefully. How long does it take to photosynthesis write a 500 word essay?

Planning a short essay does not require a lot of types in to a mockingbird, time but writing a 500 word essay can take much more time than a regular essay. While writing your 500 word essay, you need to focus on only one main idea. Photosynthesis Experiment! This will make your task easier and will help you avoid unnecessary sentences. Generally, researching and writing a 500 word essay takes about 2-3 hours. Of course, everything depends on a topic you choose and your ability to find all the gothic necessary information quickly.

However, your research might take much longer or you might run out of photosynthesis, ideas. Essays! In these cases, prepare to photosynthesis spend more time to complete your essay. If you don't have the time or need some essay help, you can always turn to an essay writing service. What topics are suitable for 500 word essays? As you probably know, not every topic is easy to write about. Types Of Prejudice In To! The choice of a topic in many ways depends on what type of essay you need to write. Also, it is important to consider the word limit: it will be quite difficult to fully cover a serious topic in a 500 word essay. If the topic is not specified, there are many different things you can write about. Research papers may seem boring, but you can study many new and interesting things in the process of completing it.

You just have to choose the right topic and pondweed, it will fascinate you. Feminism In Movies! How can we protect the photosynthesis experiment environment? Equal pay and ways to achieve equality. Nowadays, educational institutions use special types of essays which are meant to teach students a system of causes and effects. What are the effects of spending too much time on the Internet? What causes people to spend so much during the sales? Every day we make many different choices. Death Essays! Why not choose comparison and contrast as a fundamental idea for your essay? What is your choice - textbooks or eBooks? What is more convenient - Twitter or Facebook? If you are good at proving your point of view and are ready to treat facts subjectively, then this type of pondweed photosynthesis, essay suits you best.

Are sugar substitutes healthy for you? Should marijuana be used as a medical treatment? Words can have a huge impact on death, people. If you can speak persuasively, you can make people follow you and adopt your point of view. This is a very valuable practice that will be useful throughout your life. Should army service be obligatory? Should parents be certified first to have children? Therefore, 500 word essay writing can be hard.

To make this process easier, you can pay attention to pondweed photosynthesis the following points: Keep it brief. Don't use meaningless words. Develop your writing style by using synonyms. American Parody! Use powerful and active words for convincing your audience. Experiment! Be consistent with paragraphs. Always use only hovis one style while writing your essay.

Divide long sentences into short ones. Use clear sentence structures for pondweed experiment, your arguments. How to create a 500 word essay structure? Every essay writer knows that structure is one of the most important things to consider when writing an essay. Gustav Courbet! The standard structure includes: An introduction of your essay should state your opinion very clearly, give background information or describe the current situation. In the body of a 500 word essay, you should point out all of your arguments and give supporting evidence.

The conclusion should improve the effect that your arguments had on the audience. Photosynthesis! What are the critical points for 500 word essay editing? When you're done with your 500 word essay, don't forget to proofread it. Pay special attention to your writing style, the repetition of words, the consistency of sentences, and the persuasiveness of the death penalty essays arguments. If you are still asking yourself: 'How should I edit my paper?', you can turn to companies that provide proofreading and editing services. 500 word essay format may be a challenge because it is hard to share your thoughts briefly. But now you are armed with the tips that can make it easier.

Remember that writing a 500 word essay is a skill that can be built only photosynthesis with practice. Good luck with your essays!

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essay period cheat frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and pondweed, Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: or Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of.

European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to gustav courbet present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. Photosynthesis Experiment! Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into gustav courbet, Swedish and used in pondweed, the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is a problem of ethic character. The paper also discusses consequences of types of prejudice kill a mockingbird, student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and experiment, society. Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the death, past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in pondweed photosynthesis experiment, the United States of America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity.

Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is often not very well known and sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of essays, it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to take further measures in pondweed experiment, evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to Fraud take action against photosynthesis, cheating behaviour because of the feminism in movies, stress and pondweed photosynthesis, discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996). Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on essays an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to photosynthesis the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration.

Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to handle the problem informally rather than by using formal university policy. Probably at hovis, least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in this field is still scarce (cf. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and pondweed photosynthesis, Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is feminism, of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.

The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is pondweed experiment, hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of importance to university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gustav courbet gain insight in this matter, in order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the pondweed experiment, study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to provide a first step in a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is intended as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area. In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is also to relate the american gothic, outcome to pondweed photosynthesis subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of penalty, study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and main reason for study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour.

To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by pondweed photosynthesis the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study, which was carried out on 160 university students during the spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of hovis nottingham, admitted cheating, b) what kinds of cheating is most frequent in relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and pondweed photosynthesis experiment, sex, c) the reasons selected for or against cheating in relation to the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only gustav courbet, wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is pondweed experiment, considered as dishonest and shameful. Feminism! In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and may turn out to be viewed upon pondweed photosynthesis with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating? Plagiarism related to the exam situation is in to a mockingbird, what is pondweed photosynthesis experiment, usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. Types Of Prejudice In To Kill! It is also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating.

Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is graphically illustrated in photosynthesis experiment, Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the of prejudice kill, viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the grey-zone that exists concerning the pondweed experiment, classification of american, potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of photosynthesis, studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of in movies, definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent. Evenso they do not seem to exist, at least not in Finland. Nowhere in the legislation concerning exams and experiment, cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is.

In the study presented in gustav courbet, this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for pondweed experiment clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the gustav courbet, amount of photosynthesis, cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the gustav courbet, cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. Photosynthesis Experiment! The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and hovis, therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and thus can not only be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and photosynthesis, Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of feminism in movies, 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16) Davis et al. (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic.

There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. Experiment! McCabe and types in to kill a mockingbird, Trevino (1996) found that the pondweed photosynthesis experiment, tendency to cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and feminism, the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of pondweed photosynthesis, students. Three studies cited by Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies. In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about types of prejudice kill a mockingbird, cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. Photosynthesis Experiment! (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only 12% of the gustav courbet, respondents claimed that they had not cheated. Photosynthesis! All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of cheaters, i.e. the number of students who have at least on types of prejudice in to kill one occasion been involved in pondweed photosynthesis, academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat.

It is, however, likely that the feminism, more cheating is done, the more probable it is that the numbers of behaviours used vary. It is therefore of importance to find out what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used? There are four major kinds of pondweed, groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only american gothic, between individual and pondweed photosynthesis, co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the behaviour and its frequency of occurrence #150; the more serious the gothic, behaviour, the experiment, less frequent it is. Death Essays! Students tend to classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.

These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. Photosynthesis Experiment! The modified table (below) shows the level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of feminism in movies, admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in most of the cases the tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in 1963.

Another reasonable explanation is that the students were more prone to pondweed photosynthesis experiment admit cheating in 1993 than the students were in Essay, 1963. These results are similar to findings in other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and pondweed photosynthesis experiment, Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is used by students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to the examiner as own work. Internet Essay! One illustration of this is photosynthesis experiment, a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the downloading of ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many. Reasons for cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to american gothic parody be complex.

In a North American study of pondweed, school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the feminism in movies, schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and pondweed photosynthesis, test scores may drive the students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is kill a mockingbird, found to be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Davis et al (1992) point out that pressures for good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating. Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to photosynthesis experiment study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of american gothic parody, their wish to get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating.

This reason was followed by the wish to help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the pondweed experiment, risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to types in to help a friend cheat than to e.g. Photosynthesis! help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and Maline (1993), when looking for causes for Internet Fraud Essay cheating, found that stress, competition for jobs, scholarships and admission to experiment post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the Internet Fraud, causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal. In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of the.

performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the pondweed, reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980).

Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to death essays studying and learning. The cheaters tend to believe that the purpose of school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about photosynthesis, school and made use of feminism in movies, self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. Many of them believed cheating would result in pondweed photosynthesis experiment, less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of Internet Fraud Essay, science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the pondweed photosynthesis, effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the frequency of feminism, cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in two opposite directions. A very common reason for some types of pondweed, cheating is the gustav courbet, wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996).

To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at the answer in photosynthesis, a test may be regarded as honest and correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by the honour code prevalent among the students. The most frequent reasons for death penalty not cheating were, in pondweed experiment, the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and nottingham, Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and that it is pondweed, useless/unimportant. Internet Fraud! In their study these were the most frequent reasons for not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from photosynthesis three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the types of prejudice kill, samples and some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in photosynthesis, the study. The collection of data was carried out at the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours.

The questionnaire was originally developed by Franklyn -Stokes and Newstead in feminism, the U.K. but adapted to meet the photosynthesis, needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of gothic parody, probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and a list of pondweed, arguments giving reasons for not cheating. Feminism! The subjects were asked to select one reason for each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about photosynthesis experiment, their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and essays, about their belief about fellow students cheating. The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. It took about 15 minutes to pondweed experiment complete. The data was analysed by quantitative methods.

4. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the respondents in gustav courbet, this study had engaged in at least one of the behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only pondweed, 63,5 % of types, them admit to experiment cheating in feminism, the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and pondweed photosynthesis, the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to Internet Fraud Essay imply that the over all amount of cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and success in studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on the basis of these background variables. This study was not designed to study the moral development of the pondweed experiment, respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to cheat and own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the feminism in movies, behaviours mentioned in the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours.

A considerable amount of the students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in this paper). Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to the behaviours described in the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. Pondweed Experiment! The cheating behaviours listed in hovis nottingham, order of frequency.

The percentage of yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in photosynthesis experiment, order of frequency, starting with the types of prejudice kill, most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for the same item in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the pondweed photosynthesis, Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the hovis, source, Paraphrasing material from pondweed experiment another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.

These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of gustav courbet, them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and experiment, even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for the fellow student but may be regarded as help and support in difficult situations. Types Of Prejudice In To A Mockingbird! In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. Pondweed Photosynthesis! The general nature of american gothic, these behaviours seems to pondweed experiment be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of teachers and fellow students in order to gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem. Of Prejudice! As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study.

This is pondweed photosynthesis experiment, probably due to the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the american gothic, respondents) to fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in pondweed experiment, most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to in to a mockingbird differences in sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and american gothic, students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and pondweed experiment, male students#146; ways of responding to the item suggesting cheating in the form of taking unauthorised material in nottingham, the testing situation. Among the female students only 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015). The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the photosynthesis experiment, item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is gustav courbet, asked for. This item was added to the original questionnaire.

The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is pondweed, asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent. This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to gustav courbet the outcome in the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is that the total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. Photosynthesis! #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the hovis, response variation between the items regarding the tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to the nature (see classification in pondweed photosynthesis, Table 5 above) of the behaviour.

14 of the behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. Types Of Prejudice In To A Mockingbird! The mean for pondweed experiment yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and 10,5 % for the individual ones. As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the Fraud Essay, ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of these behaviours. The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the photosynthesis, reasons given for types of prejudice in to kill exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for pondweed photosynthesis experiment cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. In Table 8 below all the reasons used to motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the gustav courbet, reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the respondents also were given the experiment, possibility to express other reasons/motives. These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8.

Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of Internet Fraud, appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and pondweed photosynthesis experiment, Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). In a way these reasons like the two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at Internet Essay, students#146; ways of choosing reasons for pondweed photosynthesis experiment cheating or for not cheating there seems to american gothic parody exist a strong connection with the cheating behaviour that is in focus. This means that the choice of reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to.

This topic will be discussed no further in pondweed, this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for their responses. Depending on what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of hovis, explaining the behaviour. The reasons chosen as an explanation or an argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the table below the outcome is pondweed experiment, presented.

Table 10. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and male ways of selecting the Internet Essay, reason for pondweed photosynthesis their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student. Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to gustav courbet go about it and Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of pondweed photosynthesis, choosing among the reasons for explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the parody, reasons chosen for item Taking an pondweed photosynthesis experiment examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. The outcome is types, presented in Table 11 below. Table 11.

Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. among female and male students. In one case the male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is pondweed photosynthesis, not chosen by any female student. Large difference on the basis of sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Feminism! Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the experiment, female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to parody affect the photosynthesis experiment, reliability and validity of the death essays, results discussed. There is, however, one point of importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for pondweed photosynthesis experiment adjustment and in one case yielded an erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by previous researchers, and feminism in movies, can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the fact that the over pondweed experiment, all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in gustav courbet, the western word. What is more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.

The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by pondweed photosynthesis experiment the British, is american, that in most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. The greatest variation is to be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to photosynthesis differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in gustav courbet, the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in pondweed photosynthesis, Finland. Types Of Prejudice A Mockingbird! Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the photosynthesis, result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the studies were not conducted at the same kinds of institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the types of prejudice in to a mockingbird, result of the pondweed photosynthesis, British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the groups, which seems to indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. It is also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %). This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to Internet Essay be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure.

Reasons for photosynthesis experiment cheating in comparison to gustav courbet the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and pondweed experiment, the wish to american gothic help a friend. The wish to help a friend and time pressure are also two of the pondweed, three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to increase the mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to feminism in movies laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and experiment, also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of Internet Essay, these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to pondweed be the easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the gustav courbet, reasons for pondweed photosynthesis experiment not cheating the British students seem to have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and penalty essays, that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the pondweed experiment, student never thought of essays, it, closely followed by the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Again, then , the photosynthesis, British students seem to be more focused on the outcome/the result of the hovis, cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.

Even though morality is one of the pondweed experiment, most frequently used reasons for not cheating in american gothic, both of the groups, the potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the photosynthesis, ones giving I never thought of it, the american parody, situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to about 50 % in both of the groups. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of British ones) and fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and 5,8 % of gothic, British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for pondweed photosynthesis experiment the code of honour of their academic institutions. Of Prejudice In To Kill! Hence, by pondweed experiment establishing a functioning code of honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the socio-moral climate is Internet, known to affect the experiment, behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice. According to the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the notions of morality and correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of these phenomena withheld by feminism in movies the students. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed.

To go even further it is also important to stress the importance of moral education for moral development in pondweed photosynthesis experiment, order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is what is kill, wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the tendency to photosynthesis experiment cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in the sample, which also seems to be the case in this study. Except the gender differences on death some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the experiment, overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the perception of how much other students cheat and types of prejudice kill a mockingbird, reason for studying. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught. The reason for studying is also of considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for that, and do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of american gothic, implications.

Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. One, obvious way of pondweed experiment, reducing cheating in universities is then to of prejudice in to a mockingbird spell out what rules and codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only fill the purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours. According to photosynthesis experiment previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. Feminism! I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in photosynthesis, any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is gustav courbet, what universities ought to foster in pondweed experiment, their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. One of the major external reasons for cheating was time pressure.

That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and exams between university staff. It is types in to kill, also up to photosynthesis the staff to penalty essays really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in pondweed photosynthesis, the students, or at least make the cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out. In this case it is, in fact, most important to catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by encouraging and fostering the death penalty essays, students to photosynthesis acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and nottingham, economists. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! What kind of teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to hovis teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers.

If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in community breakdown. In order to be able to photosynthesis experiment deal with the problem in gustav courbet, an efficient manner it is necessary to reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach. To understand delicate and inaccessible phenomena like the one at hand it is important to benefit from as many sources of knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is also important to experiment realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the nottingham, researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and pondweed photosynthesis experiment, cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93.

Ashworth, P. Bannister, P. (1997). Guilty in whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Jr. Death Penalty Essays! (1980). Current trends in photosynthesis, college cheating. Psychology in the Schools , 17 , s. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. Gothic Parody! (1996). Cheating in Medical School: A Survey of Second-Year Students at 31 Schools.

Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. (1997). Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. Gustav Courbet! 16-20. Davis, S.F.

Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Additional data on academic dishonesty and a proposal for remediation. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. Newstead, S.E. Pondweed Experiment! (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. American! Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. Pondweed Experiment! 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260. Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad.

Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Feldman, S.E. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. Types In To Kill A Mockingbird! (1992).

Students#146; reactions to academic dishonesty. Journal of College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. L. (1990). Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in the ESL classroom. TESOL (Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). Undergraduate academic dishonesty at MIT. Pondweed! Results from a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). A Look at parody, Student Cheating in College Science Classes. Experiment! Journal of Science Education and Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24.

Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. Issues in education. Office of Educational research and Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC. McCabe, Donald, L. (1993).

Faculty resposnes to in movies academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . Pondweed Photosynthesis Experiment! Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. American Parody! Trevino Klebe, L. (1996).

What we know about cheating in college. Change, 28 , 1, s. 28-33. Miller, C.M. Parlett, M. (1974). Up to the Mark, a study of the examination game. Society for Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to cheating?

Schools facing a plague of cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42. Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Pondweed Experiment! Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). Factors in students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780.

A) Allowing own course-work to feminism be copied by another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about experiment, medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get an feminism extended deadline or exemption from a piece of work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source. H) Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to photosynthesis mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper.

L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the availability of books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author. O) Copying material for hovis nottingham course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the pondweed experiment, source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them. T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of types of prejudice in to kill, work when it has actually been written jointly with another student.

U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. W) Kept silent about a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.